- Why in news?
- Most affected states
- Steps taken
- Steps should be taken
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GS (M) Paper-3: “Disaster and disaster management.”
Why in news?
- Every year Assam becomes the victim of flood due to large volume of water in Brahmaputra river.
- This year, the official figure of death is risen and reach to 77 and about 12 lakh people have been displaced.
- As per the recent report of the Assam state disaster management authority, 20 districts over 2,053 villages and about 1 lakh hectares of agricultural land have been flooded.
- Because of the high precipitation in the Himalayas and sudden fall results in a large volume of water gushing down river channels from the Eastern Himalayas into the flood plains.
- With increase deforestation in the Eastern Himalayas, the surface run-off has increased at the cost of infiltration leading to tons of sediment being deposited on the riverbed as the river reaches the plain.
- This again increases the chances of flood as the carrying capacity of river decreases.
Most affected states
- Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Assam and West Bengal are the most affected states of flood.
- These four states cover 17% of India’s geographical area but excessively cover for 43% to 52% of all flood prone areas of the country.
- Government constructed embankments to create a safe area for the habitants of affected areas.
- Government focuses on structural interventions like dams, dredging of rivers and porcupine structures to combat erosion.
- This often been found to be of standard quality and tend to get washed away.
Steps should be taken
- The requirement is of flood governance rather than flood protection.
- Flood protection starts and ends with structural interventions and provision of relief while flood governance will ask for the innovative combination of initiatives undertaken at various levels.
- An integrated set of interventions should be formed which will work on three pillars:
- Reducing vulnerability
- Enhancing access to developmental services that flood prone populations are deprived of.
- Creating conditions that enable the optimal use of people’s resources.