Polity & Governance
- What is the Krishna water dispute and who all are involved?
Issues related to Health & Education
- 76.3% of Indian households consume adequately iodised salt: Survey
- Why a disease of pigs has China in despair?
Environment, Ecology & Disaster Management
- 3 animal species in India extinct due to desertification
- India may ban single-use plastic products from October 2
Bilateral & International Relations
- 1st conference of Military Medicine for SCO Member States to be held in New Delhi
- 7th Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) ministerial meeting
- India calls for reforms in peacekeeping
- The India-Nepal petroleum pipeline inaugurated
Key Facts for Prelims
- Project ‘Bal Basera’ deployed at AIIMS Rishikesh
- First helicopter summit held in Dehradun
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Polity & Governance
What is the Krishna water dispute and who all are involved?
The Krishna river dispute took a new turn when Maharashtra and Karnataka Chief Ministers agreed to jointly oppose Andhra Pradesh’s application seeking a relook at the Krishna Water Disputes Tribunal’s 2010 order on water distribution between the riparian states.
What is Krishna water dispute?
- The Krishna is an east-flowing river that originates at Mahabaleshwar in Maharashtra and merges with the Bay of Bengal, flowing through Maharashtra, Karnataka, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh.
- A dispute over the sharing of Krishna waters has been ongoing for many decades, beginning with the 1892 agreement between the Mysore Princely State and the Madras Presidency and the 1933 between the Hyderabad and the Madras, and later continuing between successors Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
- In 1969, the Krishna Water Disputes Tribunal (KWDT) was set up under the Inter-State River Water Dispute Act, 1956. KWDT divided the Krishna water at 75 per cent dependability into three parts: among Maharashtra (560 TMC), Karnataka (700 TMC) and Andhra Pradesh (800 TMC).
- Afterward, as new grievances arose between the states, the second KWDT was instituted in 2004. It made allocations of the Krishna water at 65 per cent dependability and surplus with Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh.
- After Krishna Water Disputes Tribunal’s 2010 order, Andhra Pradesh challenged it in Supreme Court in 2011.
- After the creation of Telangana from Andhra Pradesh in 2014, Andhra Pradesh has since asked that Telangana be included as a separate party at the KWDT and that the allocation of Krishna waters be reworked among four states, instead of three. It is relying on Section 89 of The Andhra Pradesh State Reorganisation Act, 2014.
- Maharashtra and Karnataka are now resisting this move by arguing that Telangana was created following bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh. Therefore, allocation of water should be from Andhra Pradesh’s share which was approved by the tribunal.
About River Krishna
- Krishna river is third longest river in India after ganges and Godavari rivers.
- It starts in Maharashtra and joins in Bay of Bengal at Hamasaladeevi, Andhra Pradesh.
- The principal tributaries joining Krishna are the Ghataprabha, the Malaprabha, the Bhima, the Tungabhadra and the Musi. Largest tributary is Tungabhadra River.
- The delta of the river is one of the productive regions in India. The area also housed the prehistoric Ikshvaku and Satavahana sun reign of kings.
- Wai is the oldest city on the riverbanks of Krishna in the Satara District of Maharashtra.
To know more about Inter-State River Water disputes (Amendment) Bill, 2019, Refer to IASToppers’ Current affair analysis: https://www.iastoppers.com/2nd-august-2019-current-affairs-analysis-iastoppers/[Ref: Indian Express]
Issues related to Health & Education
76.3% of Indian households consume adequately iodised salt: Survey
Three out of every four Indian households consume adequately iodised salt, necessary for optimal mental and physical development, reflecting the progress made by the country in this regard, India Iodine Survey 2018-19 survey showed.
Highlights of India Iodine Survey 2018-19
- Jammu and Kashmir, Manipur, Mizoram and Nagaland have more than 99 per cent of households having access to adequately iodised salt.
- 76 per cent of Indian households consume adequately iodised salt (salt with more than or equal to 15 ppm of iodine).
- 13 out of 36 Indian states have already achieved Universal Salt Iodisation (USI) with more than 90 per cent of households having access to adequately iodised salt.
- Children born in iodine-deficient areas may less IQ points than those born in iodine-sufficient areas.
- Awareness about iodised salt was more in urban areas (62%) was higher than in rural areas (50%).
About India Iodine Survey 2018-19
- The India Iodine Survey 2018-19 was conducted by Nutrition International, a global nutrition organisation, in collaboration with AIIMS, New Delhi and Association for Indian Coalition for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD) and Kantar.
What is WHO Salt Guideline?
- According to WHO guidelines, a daily iodine intake of 150 microgram is required to prevent iodine deficiency disorders and this can be achieved by using adequately iodised salt, i.e. salt containing a minimum of 15 parts per million (ppm) of iodine.
Health benefits of Iodine
- Iodine is a vital micronutrient needed regularly in small quantities.
- Deficiency of iodine can result in a range of disabilities and disorders such as goitre, hypothyroidism, cretinism, abortion, still-birth, mental retardation and psychomotor defects.
- In 1962, Government of India launched National Goiter Control Program and in 1992, it is renamed as National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Program.
Why a disease of pigs has China in despair?
An outbreak of African Swine Fever has been sweeping through swine populations in China, leading to massive mass cullings and a subsequent increase in the price of the China’s meat industry.
Impact of African Swine Fever on pork industry
- The pork industry has taken a hit whenever outbreaks of ASF have been reported.
- In China where pork is the mainstay of the diet and symbolic of a Chinese family’s well-being, the outbreak has affected small farmers who do not have the resources to protect their pigs from the disease.
About African Swine Fever (ASF)
- ASF is a highly contagious and fatal animal disease that infects domestic and wild pigs, typically resulting in an acute form of hemorrhagic fever (group of illnesses caused by four families of viruses. Ebola, Marburg, Lassa fever and yellow fever viruses).
- First detected in Africa in the 1920s, ASF is not a threat to human beings since it only spreads from animals to other animals.
- Although signs of ASF and classical swine fever (CSF) may be similar, the ASF virus is unrelated to the CSF virus.
- With high virulence forms of the virus, ASF is characterized by high fever, loss of appetite, haemorrhages in the skin and internal organs, and death in 2-10 days on average. Mortality rates may be as high as 100%.
- Since the fever has no cure, the only way to stop it spreading is by culling the animals.
- ASF is a disease listed in the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code and must be reported to the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code.
About World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code
- The OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code (the Terrestrial Code) provides standards for the improvement of animal health and veterinary public health worldwide, including standards for safe international trade in terrestrial animals (mammals, reptiles, birds and bees) and their products.
- The World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) recognises the OIE as the international standard setting organisation for animal health and zoonotic diseases.
- The Terrestrial Code is published annually in paper form in the official OIE languages (English, French and Spanish), and in Russian.
Environment, Ecology & Disaster Management
3 animal species in India extinct due to desertification
At least three to four species of animals, such as the Indian Cheetah, pink-headed duck, and the Great Indian Bustard, have become extinct due to desertification in India, researchers warned at the 14th meeting of the Conference of Parties to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD COP 14).
About the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)
- Established in 1994, the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) is the sole legally binding international agreementlinking environment and development to sustainable land management.
- There are 197 parties to this convection including India.
- The Convention addresses specifically the arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas, known as the drylands, where some of the most vulnerable ecosystems and peoples can be found.
- The new UNCCD 2018-2030 Strategic Framework is the most comprehensive global commitment to achieve Land Degradation Neutrality(LDN).
- The Global Environment Facility (GEF) is the financial mechanism of the UNCCD.
- The convention awards the ‘Land for Life Award’every year for the innovation in efforts towards a land management, in line with achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
What is Desertification?
- Desertification is the degradation of land in arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid areas.
- It is not the natural expansion of existing deserts.
- It is a gradual process of soil productivity loss and the thinning out of the vegetative cover because of human activities and climatic variations such as prolonged droughts and floods.
- It can be caused by over cultivation, overgrazing, deforestation, and poor irrigation practices. Such overexploitation is generally caused by economic and social pressure, ignorance, war, and drought.
Desertification and the Sustainable Development Goals
- The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development declares that “we are determined to protect the planet from degradation, including through sustainable consumption and production, sustainably managing its natural resources and taking urgent action on climate change, so that it can support the needs of the present and future generations”.
- Specifically, Goal 15 of SGD states to halt and reverse land degradation.
Indian Desertification scenario
- India has witnessed increase in the level of desertification in 26 of 29 states between 2003-05 and 2011-13.
- More than 80 per centof the country’s degraded land lies in just nine states: Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Jharkhand, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh and Telangana.
- As per State of India’s Environment (SoE) 2019 report, Top three districts with highest area under desertification are Jaisalmer in Rajasthan, Lahaul and Spiti in Himachal Pradesh and Kargil in Jammu and Kashmir.
Main reasons that cause desertification in India are
- Water erosion (10.9 per cent)
- Vegetation degradation (8.9 per cent)
- Wind erosion (5.5 per cent)
- Salinity (1.1 per cent)
- Human-made/settlements (0.7 per cent)
- Others (2.0 per cent)
India may ban single-use plastic products from October 2
Prime Minister of India, who is leading efforts to scrap such plastics by 2022, is set to launch the campaign with a ban on as many as six items on October 2, including plastic bags, cups, plates, small bottles, straws and certain types of sachets.
- The ban on the first six items of single-use plastics will reduce India’s annual consumption of about 14 million tonnes of plastics by 5-10%.
Future Ban on Plastic around the world
- The European Union plans to ban single-use plastic items such as straws, forks, knives and cotton buds by 2021.
- China’s commercial hub of Shanghai is gradually reining in use of single-use plastics in catering, and its island province of Hainan has already vowed to completely eliminate single-use plastic by 2025.
Definition of single use plastics:
- There is no central and comprehensive definition for single-use plastic, crucial for any ban to be successful. Governments currently use various definitions.
- Some states like Telangana, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh banned plastic bottles and Tetra packs, single-use straws, plastic/styrofoam tea cups/containers, etc. But many like Bihar banned only polythene bags.
India’s Efforts towards ban on single-use plastics:
- In 2018, India, which was the host for the World Environment Day celebrated annually, attracted the world attention with the theme of ‘Beat Plastic Pollution’, under which it pledged to eliminate single-use plastic by 2022.
- So far, 22 States and Union Territories have announced a ban on single-use plastics such as carry bags, cups, plates, cutlery, straws and thermocol products.
- Waste plastic from packaging of everything from food, cosmetics and groceries to goods delivered by online platforms have not been yet addressed.
- The Plastic Waste Management Rules, 2016 provides that producers, importers and brand owners must adopt a collect-back system for the plastic they introduce into the environment. However, not much has been done to take the process forward.
- Delaying the counter- measure created the unexpected situation of small producers of plastics facing the ban, while more organised entities covered by the ‘Extended Producer Responsibility’ clause continue with business as usual.
- Such enforcement failure is not an argument in favour of relaxing the prohibition on flimsy plastics that are typically used for few minutes, but to recover thousands of tonnes of waste that end up in dumping sites.
- There is little doubt that plastics play a major role in several industries such as in the automotive, pharmaceutical etc. But it is the consumer goods sector that uses large volumes of packaging, posing a higher order challenge.
- Governments must start charging the producers for their waste and collect it diligently which will lead to recovery and recycling. However, the government is unwilling to upgrade their waste management systems, which is necessary to even measure the true scale of packaging waste.
- Local bodies should consult manufacturers or importers to assess the problem.
- Cities and towns need competent municipal systems to provide fair system to both small and large industries.
- Extended producer responsibility (EPR) is a strategy to add all of the environmental costs associated with a product throughout the product life cycle to the market price of that product.
- The government had initially notified the Recycled Plastic Manufacture and Usage Rules in 1999, which was mainly on manufacturing and usage of Plastic carry bags.
- It is specified that the minimum thickness of plastic bags should be of 20 microns.
- The Plastic Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2011 laid down certain conditions for manufacturing, stocking, sale and use of plastic carry bags and sachets, which
- specified that the minimum thickness of plastic bags should be of 40 microns to facilitate its collection and recycle.
- However, the implementation of these rules was not so effective because the ambit of these rules was limited to notified municipal areas whereas today, the plastic has reached to rural areas also.
- There were no provisions on responsibility of waste generators. The rules did not address the promotion of conversion of waste to useful resources.
- Though, it provided for Extended Producers Responsibility for the establishment of waste management system, pricing of carry bags etc. those were not exercised by the local authorities as it was simply left at the discretion of municipal authorities.
- To implement these rules more effectively, the Plastic Waste Management Rules, 2016 were formulated.
Bilateral & International Relations
1st conference of Military Medicine for SCO Member States to be held in New Delhi
The first conference of Military Medicine for Shanghai Co-operation Organisation (SCO) Member States will be held here on 12 – 13 September, 2019.
About the conference of Military Medicine for Shanghai Co-operation Organisation (SCO)
- The conference will be the first Military co-operation event hosted by India, under the SCO Defence Co-operation Plan 2019-2020, after it became a SCO Member State in 2017.
- The conference will be conducted by the Indian Armed Forces under the aegis of Headquarters Integrated Defence Staff (HQ IDS).
- It aims to share best practices in the field of military medicine, build capacities and overcome common challenges.
- During the conference, the Indian Armed Forces will also demonstrate the Rapid Action Medical Team.
About Rapid Action Medical Team (RAMT)
- The RAMT aids the central or state administration in the event of any occurrence of disaster.
- The Indian Air Force (IAF) had raised three RAMT units at Bangalore, Jorhat and Hindan in 1999, to provide immediate medical and surgical aid in the event of a disaster.
About Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)
- Seen as a counter to the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), SCO is a Eurasian political, economic and military organisation which was founded in 2001 in Shanghai by the leaders of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.
- These countries, except for Uzbekistan, had been members of the Shanghai Five, founded in 1996; after the inclusion of Uzbekistan in 2001, the members renamed the organisation.
- Its headquarters is located in Beijing, China.
- India, which has had an observer status for the past 10 years, was accepted along with Pakistan as full members of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) in 2017.
- It has now eight members: China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, India and Pakistan.
- SCO has Afghanistan, Iran, Mongolia and Belarus as observers.
- The SCO has established relations with the United Nations, where it is an observer in the General Assembly, the European Union, Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
7th Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) ministerial meeting
External affairs minister recently said it has reservations on joining the proposed Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, due to concerns, including the enormous trade deficit with China and unfair market access to Indian products.
About Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)
- The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) agreement (FTA) is proposed between the ten member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) (Brunei, Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam) and the six states with which ASEAN has existing FTAs (Australia, China, India, Japan, South Korea and New Zealand).
- RCEP negotiations were formally launched in November 2012 at the ASEAN Summit in Cambodia.
- The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) is among the proposed three mega FTAs in the world so far. The other two is:
- The TPP (Trans Pacific Partnership, led by the US) and
- The TTIP (Trans-Atlantic Trade and Investment Partnership between the US and the EU).
- RCEP is viewed as an alternative to the TPP trade agreement, which includes the United States but excludes China.
Significance for India
- If India is out of the RCEP, it would make its exports price uncompetitive. This will have led to the export-losses contributing to foreign exchange shortages and the subsequent extent of depreciation of the rupee can.
- RCEP is a comprehensive agreement which helps tap the economic outcomes that get generated due to the interlinkages among various segments of trade.
- These inter-linkages are particularly important when India endeavors to integrate with a region, which has been the most successful region of the world in terms of thriving regional value chains(RVCs). These RVCs necessitate freer movement of professionals across countries in the region.
India’s concerns associated with RCEP
- India is not comfortable with the ambitious dismantling of import tariffs being pushed for by the ASEAN, especially as it would also mean allowing duty-free access to Chinese goods.
- The Indian industry does not want the country to commit to high levels of liberalisation as it fears that it could get out-priced in the domestic market.
- India has also stressed on the need for other RCEP members to deliver in the area of services to arrive at an agreement. So far proposals in the area of services, including on work-visas for movement of professionals, have been disappointing with no member ready to make meaningful contributions.
- Emphasis of RCEP is on trade in goods and the same enthusiasm is not shared for trade in services. The reluctance in giving market access for trade in services is a big challenge for India.
- While there is immense pressure on India in the RCEP negotiations to commit to opening up (90%) of its traded goods, what is troubling the government is the fact that other RCEP countries have so far been lukewarm to India’s demands for greater market access in services, particularly on easing norms on the movement of professionals and skilled workers across borders for short-term work.
- India, which is defensive regarding opening up its goods sector, is currently virtually isolated in the RCEP talks. Also, existing huge goods trade deficit has led to questions on whether the pact is only helping ASEAN nations and not benefiting India.
- Significantly, while the India-ASEAN Trade in Goods Agreement was inked and enforced from January 1, 2010, India’s goods trade deficit with ASEAN widened from $4.98 billion in 2010-11 to $14.75 billion in 2015-16, and then narrowed to $9.56 billion in 2016-17. The huge goods trade deficit has led to questions on whether the pact is only helping ASEAN nations and not benefiting India.
India calls for reforms in peacekeeping
India has told the UN Security Council that peacekeeping currently is in a “no-man’s land” and called for next generation of reforms in peacekeeping based on incentivisation, innovation and institutionalisation.
Why there is a need of reforms in UN peacekeeping operations?
- There is not effective improvement of the cooperation between Troop Contributing Countries (TCCs), the Security Council and the Secretariat.
- Women UN peacekeepers constituted only 6 per cent.
- There is need for expansion of online initiatives to develop capacities of future commanders so that they lead by example and raise awareness of UN standards of conduct.
About UN Peacekeeping:
United Nations Peacekeeping was created in 1948.
- Its first mission involved the establishment of the UN Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO), which served to observe and maintain ceasefire during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.
- UN Peacekeeping maintains three basic principles:
- Consent of the parties,
- Impartiality and non-use of Force except in self-defence and
- Defence of the mandate.
- The UN Peacekeepers are led by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DKPO).
- There are currently 17 UN peace operations deployed on four continents.
- UN Peacekeepers are from diverse backgrounds, from areas all around the world. They include police, military and civilian personnel. They are often referred to as Blue Berets or Blue Helmets because of their light blue berets or helmets.
- The UN Peacekeeping Force won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1988.
- The United Nations Charter gives the United Nations Security Council the power and responsibility to take collective action to maintain international peace and security. For this reason, the international community usually looks to the Security Council to authorize peacekeeping operations.
Functions of UN peacekeeping operations
[Ref: The Hindu, Indian Today]
The India-Nepal petroleum pipeline inaugurated
India and Nepal inaugurated the Motihari-Amalekhgunj petroleum pipeline.
About Motihari-Amalekhgunj petroleum pipeline
- The Motihari-Amalekhgunj petroleum pipeline (69 km) pipeline will transport fuel from Barauni refinery in Bihar to Amalekhgunj in southeastern Nepal.
Significance of Pipeline
- It will drastically reduce the cost of transporting fuel to Nepal from India. It will bring down fuel price by at least one rupee per litre.
- It will help in tackling the oil storage problem in Nepal and doing away with transportation of petroleum products through tankers.
- It will ensure smooth, cost-effective and environment-friendly supply of petroleum products to Nepal.
- As of now, India transfers petroleum products to Nepal through tankers as part of ‘Fuel supply agreement’ which has been in place since 1974.
- In 2014, India and Nepal inked an agreement to execute the project in August 2015. However, the construction got delayed due to an earthquake in Nepal as well as political tensions.
- In 2017, state-owned Indian Oil Corporation (IOC) signed a petroleum trade agreement to supply fuel to Nepal with a promise to double the volume by 2020.
Key Facts for Prelims
First helicopter summit held in Dehradun
- The Ministry of Civil Aviation organised India’s first-ever helicopter summit in Dehradun.
- It was organized by Civil Aviation Ministry, Uttarakhand government and Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industries (FICCI).
- Its theme: expanding connectivity through helicopters.
Objectives of the summits:
- To discuss the scope to enhance air connectivity in remote areas and hilly terrain by helicopter.
- To encourage Helicopter-based emergency medical services (HEMS) in India.
- To give a boost to tourism in the Himalayan states by providing uninterrupted helicopter services to the tourist hotspots.
Project ‘Bal Basera’ deployed at AIIMS Rishikesh
With the support of Central Public Works Department (CPWD), a Crèche, named Bal Basera, a project for the welfare of Children of Construction Workers at AIIMS Rishikesh was deplued.
- Bal Basera will be run by the CPWD Officers Wives Association (CPWD OWA), which is actively involved in the social welfare activities of weaker sections of society.
About Central Public Works Department (CPWD)
- The Central Public Works Department, under the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, is a Central Government authority in charge of public sector works.
- It deals with buildings, roads, bridges, flyovers, complicated structures like stadiums, auditoriums, border fencing, border roads (hill roads), etc.
- CPWD consists of three wings in execution field 1) B&R (Buildings and Roads), 2) E&M (Electrical and Mechanical) and 3) Horticulture.
- CPWD came into existence in 1854 when Lord Dalhousie established a central agency for execution of public works and set up Ajmer Provincial Division.
- It is headed by Director General (DG) who is also the Principal Technical Advisor to the Government of India.