Prelims 2020

10th September 2020 Daily Current Flash Cards

Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC); Equalisation Levy; Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor; Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS); Coronaviruses; Galathea national park;
By IASToppers
September 10, 2020

 

 

 

Give the location of the Galathea national park.

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Solution:

  • Galathea National Park is located in the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Enrich Your Learning:

Galathea national park:

  • It is located on the island of Great Nicobar in the Nicobar Islands, which lie in the eastern Indian Ocean.
  • Galathea forms part of what has been designated as the Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve, which also includes the larger Campbell Bay National Park.
  • The vegetation consists largely of tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests.
  • Notable animal species found in the park include the giant robber crab, megapode and Nicobar pigeon.

 

 

 

Coronaviruses (CoV) are the largest group of viruses that belong to the________ order. a) Nidovirales b) Ortervirales

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Solution:

  • Coronaviruses (CoV) are the largest group of viruses that belong to the

Enrich Your Learning:

What are coronaviruses?

  • Coronaviruses are a large family of single-stranded RNA virusesthat cause diseases in animals and humans.
  • Human coronaviruses were first characterised in the mid-1960s and they are mostly considered to be responsible for causing upper respiratory tract infections in children.
  • In 1965, when scientists identify a human coronavirus, they termed the strain B814and later in 1968 the term “coronavirus” was accepted. These viruses are named so because of spikes found on their surface that give them the appearance of a crown.

Classifications:

  • Broadly, coronaviruses (CoV) are the largest group of viruses that belong to the Nidovirales order, which includes Coronaviridae among three others.
  • Coronavirinae are one of the two subfamilies of Coronaviridea, with the other being Torovirinae.
  • Coronavirinae can be further subdivided into alpha, beta, gamma and delta coronaviruses.
  • While there are hundreds of coronaviruses, there are seven that we know can infect humans. Out of the seven, two are alpha coronaviruses (229E and NL63)and four are beta coronaviruses (OC43, HKU1, MERS and SARS-CoV).
  • The classification of the viruses is based on their phylogeny(how these virus strains evolved from their common ancestors).

 

 

 

Ecuador and Republic of Congo are the members of Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). True OR False.

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Solution: True

Enrich Your Learning:

Why in news?

A new term, OPEC+, was recently emerged in the crude oil price analysis. The OPEC and its new crude-producing allies make up OPEC+, with the “+” consisting of ten additional oil-producing nations, the largest three being Russia, Mexico and Kazakhstan.

Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC):

  • The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is a group of oil-producing nations that was first established in Baghdad, Iraq, in 1961.
  • It is headquartered at Vienna.
  • OPEC was a major player in the shift towards state control over natural resources. It has a massive impact on oil production and pricearound the world.
  • OPEC membershipis open to any country that is a substantial exporter of oil and which shares the ideals of the organization.
  • Before OPEC was formed, the oil market was dominated by a group of multinational companies. The formation of OPEC helped ensure that private companies could not unilaterally cut prices throughout the world.
  • OPEC Fund for International Development (OFID), established as a multilateral development finance institution is aimed at promoting cooperation between Member States of OPEC and other developing countries.

Objective:

  • Coordinate and unify the petroleum policies of its Member Countries and
  • Ensure the stabilization of oil markets in order to secure an efficient and regular supply of petroleum to consumers and a steady income to producers

Members:

  • Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuelaare the founding Members of the Organization.
  • Today, OPEC is comprised of 14 members. They are:
  • Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates(six in the Middle East)
  • Algeria, Angola, Gabon, Libya, Nigeria, Congo(six in Africa)
  • Ecuadorand Venezuela (two in South America)

 

 

 

Which instrument was launched on board the NASA’s Terra (EOS AM) Satellite: a) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor OR b) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor?

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Answer:

  • MODIS is a payload imaging sensor that was launched into Earth orbit by NASA in 1999 on board the Terra (EOS AM) Satellite, and in 2002 on board the Aqua (EOS PM) satellite.

Enrich Your Learning:

Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor

  • MODIS is a payload imaging sensor that was launched into Earth orbit by NASA in 1999 on board the Terra (EOS AM) Satellite, and in 2002 on board the Aqua (EOS PM) satellite.
  • Terra MODIS and Aqua MODIS are viewing the entire Earth’s surface every 1 to 2 days.
  • MODIS is playing a vital role in the development of global, interactive Earth system models able to predict global change accurately enough to assist policy makers in making sound decisions.

Significance of MODIS:

  • Measures the properties of clouds such as the distribution and size of cloud droplets.
  • Measures the properties of aerosolstiny liquid or solid particles in the atmosphere.
  • It is particularly sensitive to fires; they can distinguish flaming from smouldering burns and provide better estimates of the amounts of aerosols and gases fires release into the atmosphere.
  • MODIS helps scientists determine the amount of water vapor in a column of the atmosphere which are crucial in understanding Earth’s climate system.
  • It sees changes in the Pacific phytoplankton populations that may signal the onset of the El Niño/La Niña well ahead of their arrival.

Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)

  • The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite sensor is a component of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite.
  • The Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS), a NOAA/NASA program, and the Defense Weather Satellite System, a S. Air Force program, were tasked with the next generation requirements for environmental research, weather forecasting and climate monitoring measurement capabilities.
  • VIIRS, a scanning radiometer, collects visible and infrared imagery and radiometric measurements of the land, atmosphere, cryosphere, and oceans.
  • VIIRS data is used to measure cloud and aerosol properties, ocean color, sea and land surface temperature, ice motion and temperature, fires, and Earth’s albedo.
  • Climatologists use VIIRS data to improve our understanding of global climate change.

 

 

 

What is Equalisation Levy?

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Solution:

  • Equalisation Levy is a direct tax, which is withheld at the time of payment by the service recipient.

Enrich Your Learning:

Equalisation Levy:

  • Equalisation Levy was introduced in India in 2016, with the intention of taxing the digital transactions i.e. the income accruing to foreign e-commerce companies from India.
  • It is aimed at taxing business to business transactions.

Applicability of Equalisation Levy:

  • Equalisation Levy is a direct tax, which is withheld at the time of payment by the service recipient. The two conditions to be met to be liable to equalisation levy:
  • The payment should be made to a non-resident service provider;
  • The annual payment made to one service provider exceeds Rs. 1,00,000 in one financial year.

Services Covered Under Equalisation Levy:

  • Currently, not all services are covered under the ambit of equalisation Levy. The following services covered:
  • Online advertisement;
  • Any provision for digital advertising space or facilities/ service for the purpose of online advertisement;
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Daily Current Quiz 2020 Prelims 2020
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