Dolphin-census-2019-3
Current Affair Analysis

15th February 2019 Current Affairs Analysis -IASToppers

Dolphin; International Standard for Music Devices; What is Oxytocin? Waste to Energy (WTE); World Sustainable Development Summit 2019; The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI); Methodology for Fixing National Minimum Wage; Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (Urban) Programme; Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Maan-dhan Yojana (PM-SYM); February 11: Unani Day; Hakim Ajmal Khan; PETROTECH -2019; BAFTA Film Awards 2019; What is Selenium? 13th February: World Radio Day; International Telecommunication Union (ITU); etc.
By IT's Current Affairs Analysis Team
February 25, 2019

Contents

Government Schemes & Policies

  • Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Maan-dhan Yojana (PM-SYM)
  • Mobile App to Allow Beneficiaries to Capture & Upload Photographs of Completed Houses
  • Expert Committee Submits its Report on Determining Methodology for Fixing National Minimum Wage

Issues related to Health & Education

  • February 11: Unani Day
  • Oxytocin ban: Karnataka pharma PSU incapable of handling responsibility, says IMA
  • WHO issues new international standard for music devices

Environment, Ecology & Disaster Management

  • Dolphin numbers have shrunk in Odisha, reveals Census
  • World Sustainable Development Summit 2019
  • Wasted effort: half of India’s waste-to-energy plants defunct

Science & Technology

  • Selenium nanoparticles may act like antibacterial agents

Key Facts for Prelims

  • PETROTECH -2019
  • BAFTA Film Awards 2019
  • 13th February: World Radio Day

 For IASToppers Current Affairs Analysis Archive, Click Here

Government Schemes & Policies

Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Maan-dhan Yojana (PM-SYM)

The Union Ministry of Labour and Employment on February 15, 2019 launched the Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Maan-dhan Yojana (PM-SYM), a mega pension scheme for unorganised sector. The scheme was announced in the Interim Budget 2019.

Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Maan-Dhan Yojana 2 2019

 

About the Scheme:

Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Maan-Dhan Yojana 1 2019

  • In PMSYM, the individual has to contribute a fixed monthly amount till age 60, while an equal amount is put into the account by the government.
  • The subscriber can contribute to the PM-SYM through ‘auto-debit’ facility from his or her savings bank account or from his or her Jan- Dhan account.
  • Under the PM-SYM, the prescribed age-specific contribution by the beneficiary and the matching contribution by the Central Government will be made on a ‘50:50 basis’.
  • The amount of monthly contribution is based on age and has to be paid till age 60 and an equal amount every month will be contributed to the individual’s PMSYM account.
  • From age 60, a fixed monthly pension of Rs 3,000 irrespective of the age starts getting paid till lifetime of the individual.
  • If the death occurs during the period of pension, the spouse starts getting family pension equal to half of what was being paid to the individual.

Eligibility Criteria:

  • PMSYM is open only for those workers who are in the unorganized sector and are between the age of 18 and 40 years.
  • This Scheme shall be open only to the unorganised worker whose monthly income is not exceeding Rs 15,000 having a savings bank account and Aadhaar number.
  • Those workers should not be covered under New Pension Scheme (NPS), Employees’ State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) scheme or Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO).
  • He or she should not be an income tax payer.
  • With IMPS and other digital mode of payments in vogue, one may even consider contributing on behalf of the individual working for you.

Key Facts:

  • PMSYM has resemblance of the EPF scheme for the workers in the organised sector wherein 12 per cent of basic salary goes into Employees Provident Fund while an equal contribution is made by the employer.
[Ref: Indian Express]

 

Mobile App to Allow Beneficiaries to Capture & Upload Photographs of Completed Houses

The Union Government has launched PMAY (U) Mobile App to allow beneficiaries to capture and upload high resolution photographs of completed houses along with their families. 

Mobile-App-to-Allow-Beneficiaries-to-Capture-&-Upload-Photographs-of-Completed-Houses

  • The App will also allow uploading of selfies of beneficiaries with their house and a 30 – 60 seconds video clip where beneficiaries share their stories of owning a house under PMAY (U).

 

Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (Urban) Programme:

  • Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana is an initiative by Government of India under the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs in which affordable housing will be provided to the urban poor.
  • The PMAY (U) mission was launched on 25th June 2015 with the aim to provide houses to every eligible urban household in India by the year 2022.
  • Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana(U) has 4 verticals:

1– In-Situ Slum Redevelopment (ISSR)

2– Credit Linked Subsidy Scheme (CLSS)

3– Affordable Housing in Partnership (AHP)

4– Beneficiary led Construction (BLC)

  • The beneficiaries are poor and people living under EWS and LIG categories in the country.
  • The scheme is divided into three phases. In the first phase, a total of 100 cities will be covered from April 2015 to March 2017. In phase two, 200 cities will be covered from April 2017 to March 2019. In the third phase, the leftover cities will be covered from April 2019 to March 2022.
  • The government is providing an interest subsidy of 6.5% on housing loans which can be availed by beneficiaries for 15 years from start of loan date.
  • The government will grant Rs 1 lakh to all the beneficiaries of the scheme. In addition, Rs 1.5 lakh will be given to all eligible urban poor who want to construct their houses in urban areas or plan to go for renovation in their existing houses.
  • One can also avail loans under this scheme to build toilets in existing houses.
[Ref: PIB]

 

Expert Committee Submits its Report on Determining Methodology for Fixing National Minimum Wage

The Expert Committee constituted by the Ministry of Labour and Employment has submitted its report on “Determining the Methodology for Fixation of the National Minimum Wage” to the Government of India.

National Minimum Wage 2019

  • The committee has also recommended reviewing the consumption basket every five years, subject to the availability of NSSO-CES data.

Background:

  • The Ministry of Labour and Employment had constituted an expert committee on 17thJanuary 2017, under the Chairmanship Dr. Anoop Satpathy to review and recommend methodology for fixation of National Minimum Wage (NMW).
  • There have been several developments since the norms for the fixation of the minimum wages were recommended by the 15th ILC in 1957 and subsequently strengthened by the judgement of the Supreme Court in the judgement of Workmen vs Reptakos Brett & Co. case in 1992.

Recommendations in Report:

  • On nutritional requirement norms as recommended by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) for Indian population, the report has recommended a balanced diet approach which is culturally palatable for fixation of national minimum wage.
  • It has proposed that food items amounting to the level of ± 10 per cent of 2,400 calories, along with proteins ≥ 50 gm and fats ≥ 30 gm per day per person to constitute a national level balanced food basket.
  • This report proposes minimum wage should include reasonable expenditure on ‘essential non-food items’, such as clothing, fuel and light, house rent, education, medical expenses, footwear and transport, which must be equal to the median class.
  • Expenditure on any ‘other non-food items’ be equivalent to the sixth fractile (25-30 per cent) of the household expenditure distribution as per the NSSO-CES 2011/12 survey data.
  • It has also recommended to introduce an additional house rent allowance, averaging up to INR 55 per day i.e., INR 1430 per month for urban workers over and above the NMW.
  • The report has recommended to fix the need based national minimum wage for India at INR 375 per day (or INR 9,750 per month) as of July 2018, irrespective of sectors, skills, occupations and rural-urban locations for a family comprising of 3.6 consumption unit.

Regional NMW:

National Minimum Wage 1 2019

  • The socio-economic factors considered to group major states into five categories were state income, cost of living, labour market situations, and levels of women’s empowerment.
  • Four of these five regions were grouped using varied socio-economic and labour market factors. The fifth group included all North-eastern states except Assam.
  • The region-wise minimum monthly wage prescribed by the committee is higher than the current minimum monthly level seen in most states.
  • Delhi (Rs 13,988) and Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Rs 11,366) are exceptional.
  • No state has a minimum wage higher than what has been suggested in the report.

Key facts:

  • Minimum wage across states has wide variations in India. It stood at Rs 1,794 a month in Arunachal Pradesh and Telangana but at Rs 8,476 in Haryana and Rs 9,100 in Chandigarh, as of November 2018.
[Ref: PIB]

 

Issues related to Health & Education 

February 11: Unani Day

February 11 every year is observed as the Unani Day.

About Unani Day:

  • This year it was 150th Birth Anniversary of Hakim Ajmal Khan. The birthday of great Unani researcher Hakim Ajmal Khan i.e. 11th February is celebrated as Unani Day.

Who is Hakim Ajmal Khan?

Hakim-Ajmal-Khan-Unani-IASToppers

  • Hakim Ajmal Khan was eminent Indian Unani physician who was versatile genius, freedom fighter, educationist and founder of scientific research in Unani Medicine.

Unani system of medicine

Unani-system-of-medicine-iastoppers

  • Unani system of medicine is the term for Perso-Arabic traditional medicine as practiced in Mughal India and in Muslim culture in South Asia and modern day Central Asia. It had originated in Greece.
  • Aesculapius is credited as originator of this system. Buqrat (better known as Hippocrates, 460-377 BC) is said to be a descendent of Aesculapius and recognised as ‘father of Unani medicine’.
  • The term Yūnānī (Greek) means Perso-Arabic system of medicine.

Unani system of medicine in India:

  • It was introduced to India by the Arabs and Persians sometime around the eleventh century.
  • The Delhi Sultans (rulers) provided patronage to the scholars of Unani System and even enrolled some as state employees and court physicians.
  • After it was influenced by Indian medical teachings of Sushruta and Charaka.
  • Currently, the Unani Medicine education in India is governed by Central Council of Indian Medicine

Principles and Concepts of Unani:

Principles-and-Concepts-of-Unani-ias2

  • The basic theory of Unani system is based upon the well- known four – humour theory of Hippocrates.
  • As per this theory, the human body is composed of four basic elements: earth, air, water and fire having cold, hot, wet and dry temperaments respectively.
  • The body fluids are composed of four humors: blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile. These humors have their own temperament:

Principles and Concepts of Unani ias

[Ref: PIB]

 

Oxytocin ban: Karnataka pharma PSU incapable of handling responsibility, says IMA

The ‘Indian Medical Association’ (IMA) spoke against the ban on ‘Oxytocin drug’ after the order of Delhi high court which rejects government’s ban on manufacturing and selling of Oxytocin.

Oxytocin ban 2 2019

Background:

  • The Delhi high court had quashed the Centre’s December 14, 2018 notification, which had banned its sale by private manufacturers and retail chemists, saying the sale was allowed.
  • Subsequently, the central government moved Supreme Court against the Delhi high court order.
  • The decision was taken after the Drug Technical Advisory Board (DTAB), in a meeting in February 2018, had recommended various measures to check widespread misuse of the drug.
  • The DTAB proposed restrictions on imports and decided to confine manufacturing to Karnataka Antibiotics and Pharmaceuticals (KAPL) Ltd, a government company.
  • The Delhi high court had quashed the Centre’s December 14, 2018 notification, which had banned its sale by private manufacturers and retail chemists, saying the sale was allowed.
  • Subsequently, the central government moved Supreme Court against the Delhi high court order.

IMA’s Stance:

  • IMA has noted that Oxytocin is a life-saving drug used during childbirth. It is the only drug available to control bleeding after delivery.
  • As per IMA, The Centre has intervened to handover the production of this drug exclusively to one public sector company of which IMA claimed that the company neither has the experience nor the capacity to handle such a huge responsibility.
  • The IMA noted that curtailing the manufacture of a lifesaving drug, which is listed in the national and World Health Organization lists of essential medicines with restrictions, will create artificial bottlenecks and shortages.

What is Oxytocin?

Oxytocin ban 2019 3

  • Oxytocin is a hormone that is made in the brain, in the hypothalamus. It is transported to, and secreted by, the pituitary gland, which is located at the base of the brain.
  • It acts both as a hormone and as a brain neurotransmitter.
  • The release of oxytocin by the pituitary gland acts to regulate two female reproductive functions: Childbirth and Breast-feeding.
  • Oxytocin has also been dubbed the hug hormone, cuddle chemical, moral molecule, and the bliss hormone due to its effects on behavior, including its role in love and in female reproductive biological functions in reproduction.

ias-toppers-Oxytocin-facts2

Why ban on its sale?

oxy

  • The drug is used by dairy owners and farmers to boost milk production and make vegetables look bigger and fresher. But, it was found that indiscriminate use of Oxytocin in milch animals and by farmers was causing irreversible hormone damage.

Other concerns:

  • Despite it being a Schedule H1 drug, it is impossible to prevent its manufacturing at registered private factories.
  • Implications to human health are humongous, from reproductive complications to hormonal imbalances.
  • One major reason for such blatant misuse of this drug is the absence of robust veterinary services in India.
[Ref: The Hindu]

 

WHO issues new international standard for music devices

The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) issued a new international standard for the manufacture and use of musical devices.

WHO issues new international standard for music devices 1 2019

 

  • The standard for safe listening devices was developed under WHO’s “Make Listening Safe” initiative by experts from WHO and International Telecommunication Union (ITU) over a two-year process.

Motive:

  • The aim behind the move is to prevent young people from going deaf.

WHO issues new international standard for music devices 3 2019

Recommendation of new WHO Standard:

  • Sound allowance function: software that tracks the level and duration of the user’s exposure to sound as a percentage used of a reference exposure.
  • Personalised profile: an individualized listening profile, based on the user’s listening practices, which informs the user of how safely (or not) he or she has been listening.
  • Volume limiting options: options to limit the volume, including automatic volume reduction and parental volume control.
  • General information: information and guidance to users on safe listening practices, both through personal audio devices and for other leisure activities.
  • The WHO has recommended that governments and manufacturers adopt the standard.

Statistics of Hearing conditions across globe:

  • Over 5% of the world’s population has disabling hearing loss impacting on their quality of life in which majority live in low- and middle-income countries.
  • It is estimated that by 2050, 1 in every 10 people will have disabling hearing loss.
  • Hearing loss which is not addressed poses an annual global cost of $750 billion.
  • According to WHO, nearly 50 % of people aged 12-35 years are at risk of hearing loss due to prolonged and excessive exposure to loud sounds, including music they listen to through personal audio devices.
  • Overall, it is suggested that half of all cases of hearing loss can be prevented through public health measures.

Key facts:

  • World Hearing Day is held on 3 March each year to raise awareness on how to prevent deafness and promote hearing care.
  • The theme for 2019, decide by WHO, is ‘Check your hearing!’ which will draw attention to the importance of early identification and intervention for hearing loss.

About International Telecommunication Union (ITU):

ITU is the UN specialised agency for information and communication technologies (ICTs).

WHO issues new international standard for music devices 4

  • It has 193 countries as its members and also 800 private-sector entities and academic institutions. It is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.
  • ITU is responsible for allocating global radio spectrum and satellite orbits.
  • It also develops the technical standards that ensure networks and technologies to seamlessly interconnect.
  • It also strives to improve access to ICTs among the underserved communities worldwide.
[Ref: DownToEarth]

 

Environment, Ecology & Disaster Managemen

Dolphin numbers have shrunk in Odisha, reveals Census

Odisha’s recent annual census of dolphins in its waters have thrown up some shocking numbers, with the aquatic mammals’ population declining from 469 in 2018 to 259 this year.

Dolphin census 1 2019

  • The census was carried out by the state’s forest and environment department covering important aquatic ecosystems in the Odisha including the Chilika lake, the Gahirmatha Marine Sanctuary and its nearby areas within the Bhitarkanika National Park.
  • In comparison with the year 2018, 307 dolphins were sighted as only 126 were sighted this year which shows reduction to half of the number from last year.

Parameters that affects Census of the Dolphins:

  • The dolphin species sighted during the state-wide census includes the Irrawaddy, the Bottle Nose and the Humpback.
  • The sighting of dolphins depends on the weather condition of the day the census was carried out.
  • Conduction of dolphin censuses in the sea at a distance of only 10 kilometres from the coast as it is not possible to count dolphins in the deep sea.

Reasons for the Reduction in the number of dolphins:

  • The reduction in the number of dolphins compared to last year may be due to the migration of species from the Chilika lake and other water bodies to the deep sea.
  • Climate change and bad weather may be also the reasons for the dolphins to migrate towards the deep sea.
  • Death could not be the reason behind the decline in numbers as only a few carcasses of dolphins washed ashore on the Odisha beaches.

Key Facts:

  • Dolphins have been included in Schedule I of the Indian Wild Life (Protection) Act 1972.
  • It has been listed in Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) and in Appendix II of the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS).
  • It has been categorised as ‘Endangered’ on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature’s (IUCN) Red List.
[Ref: Down To Earth]

 

World Sustainable Development Summit 2019

Sustainable Development Summit 2019 has been organised by The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) in Delhi.

World Sustainable Development Summit 3 2019

World Sustainable Development Summit:

  • The World Sustainable Development Summit (WSDS) is The Energy and Resources Institute’s (TERI) annual flagship event
  • Since 2001, it is a single platform to accelerate action towards sustainable development especially climate change.
  • It is the sole Summit on global issues taking place in the developing world.
  • It provides a platform for global leaders and practitioners to discuss and deliberate over climatic issues of universal importance.
  • It strives to provide long-term solutions for the benefit of the global community by assembling the world’s most enlightened leaders and thinkers on a single platform.

The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI):

  • The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) is a research institute in New Delhi that specializes in the fields of energy, environment and sustainable development.
  • Established in 1974, it was formerly known as the ‘Tata Energy Research Institute’.
  • it was renamed ‘The Energy and Resources Institute’ in 2003.

Objective:

  • Helping a global transition to renewable energy pathways
  • Facilitating more efficient use of iron and cement
  • Building resilience to adverse impacts of climate change due to cyclones and variations in hydrology and temperature
  • Accelerating pollution abatement
  • Developing green mobility solutions
  • Enabling sustainable food production and nutritional security

Publication by TERI:

  • TerraGreen – Monthly magazine of TERI on issues of environment and biodiversity.
  • TERI Energy Data Directory and Yearbook (TEDDY): Launched in 1986, it is a compilation of energy and environment data.
  • Energy Future: A quarterly magazine focused on future of sustainable energy.
  • Mycorrhiza News– Quarterly newsletter of Mycorrhiza Network.

Products innovated by TERI:

  • Mycorrhizae-based bio fertilizers: a natural alternative to chemical fertilizers
  • Bollcure: Bio pesticide based on plant extract
  • High-quality planting material produced through micro propagation
  • Biomass Gasifier for heat and power generation applications
  • Smokeless, clean combustion cook stoves
  • Oilzapper: Microbes to treat oil contaminated soil and sludge
  • Enhanced Acidification and Methanation (TEAM) – for turning organic waste into energy
  • Ceramic membranes for treating industrial waste

Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment (GRIHA):

  • Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment (GRIHA) was conceived by TERI and developed with Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, is a national rating system for green buildings in India.
[Ref: The Hindu]

 

Wasted effort: half of India’s waste-to-energy plants defunct

An analysis by the Centre for Science and Environment has revealed that nearly half of India’s waste-to-energy (WTE) plants, meant to convert non-biodegradable waste, are defunct.

Wasted effort half of India’s waste to energy plants defunct 2019

  • Further, the country’s inability to segregate waste has resulted in even the existing plants working below capacity.

WTE plants scenario in India:

  • Since 1987, 15 WTE plants have been set up across the country. However, seven of these plants have since shut down.
  • Apart from Delhi, these include plants at Kanpur, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Lucknow, Vijayawada and Karimnagar.
  • About 1.43 lakh tonnes per day of (TPD) municipal solid waste (MSW) is generated in India. Of this, 77% is collected and only 25% is processed.
  • As per the Union Ministry of Environment and Forests, MSW generation will reach 4.5 lakh TPD by 2031 and 11.9 lakh TPD by 2050.

Reason for closure:

  • The key reasons for closure are the plants’ inability to handle mixed solid waste and the high cost of electricity generated by them that renders it unattractive to power companies.
  • MSW (municipal solid waste) in India has low calorific value and high moisture content. As most wastes sent to the WTE plants are unsegregated, they also have high inert content.
  • These wastes are just not suitable for burning in these plants. To burn them, additional fuel is required which makes these plants expensive to run.

New WTE plant:

  • The NITI Aayog, as part of the Swachh Bharat Mission, envisages 800 megawatt from WTE plants by 2018-19, which is 10 times the capacity of all the existing WTE plants put together.
  • It also proposes setting up a Waste-to-Energy Corporation of India, which would construct incineration plants through PPP models.
  • Currently, there are 40-odd WTE plants at various stages of construction.

Criticism:

  • The WTEs have also triggered widespread opprobrium among citizens. For instance, there has been a continuous protest against the Okhla WTE plant for polluting the environment.
  • In 2016, the National Green Tribunal (NGT) slapped environmental compensation fine of ₹25 lakhs on the plant.
  • Moreover, the plants are expensive because they produce power at nearly ₹7 per unit, which is more than the ₹3-5 offered by thermal as well as solar sources.

Waste to Energy:

  • Waste to Energy (WTE), is a term that is used to describe various technologies that convert non-recyclable waste into usable forms of energy including heat, fuels and electricity.

Why Waste to Energy?

  • The problems caused by solid and liquid wastes can be mitigated through the adoption of waste to energy technologies that will allow treatment of wastes before their disposal.
  • It generates clean, reliable energy from a renewable fuel source, thus reducing dependence on fossil fuels.
  • In addition to energy generation, it can fetch significant monetary benefits such as significant profit, government incentive and Related opportunities such as Success in municipal solid waste management could lead to opportunities in other waste such as sewage waste

Method of Waste to Energy:

Thermal Conversion:

  • The process involves thermal degradation of waste under high temperature. In this complete oxidation of the waste occurs under high temperature.
  • The major technological option under this category is incineration

Thermo-chemical conversion:

  • This process entails high temperature driven decomposition of organic matter to produce either heat energy or fuel oil or gas.
  • The main technological options under this category include Pyrolysis and Gasification.

Bio-chemical conversion:

  • This process is based on enzymatic decomposition of organic matter by microbial action to produce methane gas, and alcohol etc.
  • The major technological options under this category are anaerobic digestion (bio-methanation) and fermentation.

Electrochemical conversion:

  • Electrochemical conversion in the context of waste to energy refers typically to microbial fuel cells (MFC). These systems are developed to trap the energy from wastes.

Benefits from waste-to-energy:

  • If the right technology is employed with optimal processes and all components of waste are used to derive value, waste to energy could be a profitable business. When government incentives are factored in, the attractiveness of the business increases further.
  • The government of India already provides significant incentives for waste to energy projects, in the form of capital subsidies and feed in tariffs. With concerns on climate change, waste management and sanitation on the increase, the government incentives for this sector is only set to increase in future.
  • Success in municipal solid waste management could lead to opportunities in other waste such as sewage waste, industrial waste and hazardous waste. Depending on the technology/route used for energy recovery, eco-friendly and “green” co-products such as charcoal, compost, nutrient rich digestate (a fertilizer) or bio-oil can be obtained. These co-product opportunities will enable the enterprise to expand into these related products, demand for which are increasing all the time.
  • With distributed waste management and waste to energy becoming important priorities, opportunities exist for companies to provide support services like turnkey solutions. In addition, waste to energy opportunities exist not just in India but all over the world. Thus, there could be significant international expansion possibilities for Indian companies, especially expansion into other Asian countries.

Key facts:

  • India’s largest solid waste-to-energy plant is Narela-Bawana in Delhi which can process 2,000MT of waste and generate up to 24MW energy.
  • Sweden and Denmark are the two countries that have made significant contributions toward a sustainable Waste Management.
[Ref: The Hindu]

 

Science & Technology 

Selenium nanoparticles may act like antibacterial agents

Scientists have found that nanoparticles of selenium, an essential micronutrient, can be used as an antibacterial agent.

selenium 1 2019

About the research:

  • Scientists found that selenium nanoparticles, owing to their unique structure and properties, may be more effective than antibiotics as they have a larger surface area and therefore can be more in contact with the external environment.

What is Selenium?

  • Selenium is a trace mineral that is found naturally in the soil. It also appears in water and some foods.
  • It is referred to as a micronutrient because the body requires less of it than other essential vitamins and minerals.
  • Selenium is found naturally in wheat, eggs, cheese, nuts and sea food. It is an antioxidant and immunity booster.
  • It is toxic in large doses. In plants, it sometimes occurs in toxic amounts as forage, e.g. locoweed.
[Ref: The Hindu]

 

Key Facts for Prelims

PETROTECH -2019

PETROTECH -2019

  • Recently, the PETROTECH -2019 conference was held at India Expo Centre, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh.
  • It is being organized by Oil & Natural Gas Corporation Limited, under the aegis of Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas, Government of India.
  • PETROTECH is a biennial International Oil & Gas Conference.
  • The conference provides a platform for national and international experts in the oil & gas industry to exchange views and share knowledge, expertise, and experiences.

 

BAFTA Film Awards 2019

BAFTA Film Awards 2019

  • The British Academy of Film and Television Arts, BAFTA awards are presented in an annual award show.
  • The show was hosted by the British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA) to honour the best British and international contributions to film.

 

13th February: World Radio Day

13th February World Radio Day

  • The World Radio Day is observed every year on 13th February to celebrate radio as the medium for entertainment, information and the mode for communication.
  • The theme for the 2018 edition of World Radio Day is “Dialogue, Tolerance and Peace”.
  • Under the ambit of theme “Radio and Sports” are three sub-themes for World Radio Day 2018. They are: Diversity in Sports Coverage, Gender Equality in Sports Coverage and Peace and Development through Sports Coverage.

world radio day 2019

Background:

  • After originally proposed by the Kingdom of Spain, UNESCO in its 36th General Conference proclaimed World Radio Day on November 3, 2011. Later, it was adopted as an International Day by the United Nations General Assembly. It was first celebrated in 2012.
  • 13 February is the anniversary of the day the United Nations established United Nations Radio, the United Nation’s international broadcasting service which was established on February 13, 1946.

 

Topics
Current Affairs Analysis
Tags

Facebook

My Favourite Articles

  • Your favorites will be here.

Calendar Archive

May 2019
M T W T F S S
« Apr    
 12345
6789101112
13141516171819
20212223242526
2728293031