Prelims 2020

15th September 2020 Daily Current Flash Cards

High-Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane (HTPEM) technology; Tourism and Economic Survey; Debt Financing; Equity Financing; National Achievement Survey (NAS); Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT); New Millennium Indian Technology Leadership Initiative (NMITLI); Jan Dhan Darshak;
By IASToppers
September 15, 2020

 

 

 

High-Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane (HTPEM) Technology works on which two modes of operation with respect to the source of fuel?

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Solution:

  • One mode is based on the conversion of natural gas into Hydrogen by means of steam reforming. This mode is used to fulfill stationary power demands.
  • The second mode is based on the operation of Hydrogen with Oxygen obtained by the process of electrolysis. This is generally used in the space-related applications.

Enrich Your Learning:

High-Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane (HTPEM) technology:

  • High Temperature Proton-Exchange-Membrane (HTPEM) is the core of the fuel cells running above 150 °C.
  • Hydrogen is electrochemically split to proton and electron on anode. Proton is transported through membrane to cathode while electricity is yielded in external circuit. At cathode protons recombine with electron and reacts further with Oxygen to water and heat.
  • The technology can achieve efficiency approaching 90% calculated as combined yield of electricity and heat.

New Millennium Indian Technology Leadership Initiative (NMITLI):

  • It is the largest Public-Private-Partnership effort within the R&D domain in the country.
  • It seeks to catalyze innovation centred scientific and technological developments as a vehicle to attain for Indian industry a global leadership position, in selected niche areas.
  • It synergizes the best competencies of publicly funded R&D institutions, academia, and private industry.
  • It has so far evolved 60 largely networked projects in diversified areas viz. Agriculture & Plant Biotechnology, General Biotechnology, Bioinformatics, Drugs & Pharmaceuticals, Chemicals, Materials, Information and Communication Technology, and Energy.

 

 

 

The Patent Cooperation Treaty is administered by which international organization?

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Solution:

  • The Patent Cooperation Treaty is administered by World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).

Enrich Your Learning:

Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT):

  • The Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) is an international patent law treaty, concluded in 1970.
  • It provides a unified procedure for filing patent applications to protect inventions in each of its contracting states.
  • It makes it possible to seek patent protection for an invention simultaneously in each of a large number of countries by filing an “international” patent application.
  • Such an application may be filed by anyone who is a national or resident of a PCT Contracting State.
  • It may generally be filed with the national patent office of the Contracting State of which the applicant is a national or resident or, at the applicant’s option, with the International Bureau of WIPO in Geneva. 

 

 

 

The National Achievement Survey (NAS) is a research study undertaken by which organisation of the Government of India?

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Answer:

  • National Achievement Survey is a research study undertaken by the National Council of Educational research and Training (NCERT).

Enrich Your Learning:

National Achievement Survey (NAS)

  • National Achievement Survey is a research study undertaken by the National Council of Educational research and Training (NCERT)and supported by Ministry of Human Resource development.
  • It was conducted throughout the country on November 13, 2017 for Classes 3, 5 and 8 in government and government aided schools.
  • This is the Largest Assessment survey conducted in the country and is amongst the largest conducted in the world.
  • It aims to understand how effectively the school system is working in the country based on student learning.
  • This will help the ministries and departments of education to support the system to be more effective and improve student learning.
  • Only small proportion of students across India undertakes this test at selected schools, where randomly selected students are asked to undergo the test.
  • The survey tools used multiple test booklets with 45 questions in Classes III and V and 60 questions in Class VIII in Mathematics, Language, Environmental Sciences, Sciences and Social Sciences.
  • The competency-based test questions developed reflected the Learning Outcomes developed by the NCERT which were recently incorporated in the Right to Education Act (RTE) by the Government of India.
  • Along with the test items, questionnaires pertaining to students, teachers and schools were also used.
  • A web-based application has been developed for generating the district wise learning report cards to reflect the disaggregated and detailed learning levels.
  • The District Report Cards contain various sections, including indicating the lowest performing area in Learning Outcomes.
  • NAS results will help guide education policy, planning and implementation at national, state, district and classroom levels for improving learning levels of children and bringing about qualitative improvements.

 

 

 

What is the main difference between a debt and equity financing?

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Answer:

  • The primary difference between debt and equity financingis that debt must be repaid at maturity, while there is no obligation to repay equity financing. Interest must be paid on debt while the company is under no obligation to issue dividends on equity financing.

Enrich Your Learning:

Debt Financing:

  • When a firm raises money for capital by selling debt instruments to investors, it is known as debt financing.
  • In return for lending the money, the individuals or institutions become creditors and receive a promise that the principal and interest on the debt will be repaid on a regular schedule.

Equity Financing:

  • Equity financing is the process of raising capital through the sale of shares in a company. With equity financing comes an ownership interest for shareholders.
  • Equity financing may range from a few thousand dollars raised by an entrepreneur from a private investor to an initial public offering (IPO) on a stock exchange running into the billions.

 

 

 

In terms of foreign exchange earnings from tourism, India is among the top 10 countries in the world. True OR False?

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Answer: False

Correct Answer:

  • In terms of foreign exchange earnings from tourism, India ranks 13th in the world and 7th in Asia & Pacific.

Enrich Your Learning:

Why in News?

  • Growth of foreign tourist arrivals to India slowed down to 2.7 per cent in January-October period of 2019 in tune with the global trend, according to the Economic Survey 2019-20.

Key Facts:

  • Foreign tourist arrivals growth (year-on year) has decelerated since then to 2 per cent in 2018 and 2.7 per cent in January-October 2019.
  • Foreign exchange earnings totaled USD 24 billion in January-October 2019, with a growth of 2 per cent.
  • In 2018, India ranked 22nd in the world in terms of international tourist arrivals, improving from the 26th position in 2017.
  • In terms of foreign exchange earnings from tourism, India ranks 13th in the world and 7th in Asia & Pacific.
  • The survey said visitors from the top 10 countries — Bangladesh, USA, UK, Sri Lanka, Canada, Australia, Malaysia, China, Germany and Russia — accounted for 65 per cent of the total foreign tourist arrivals in India.
  • Among foreign tourists, 4 per cent visited India for leisure; holiday and recreation, 16.3 per cent for business purposes, and 13.5 per cent was Indian Diaspora.
  • Foreign tourist arrivals to India on e-visas increased from 4.45 lakh in 2015 to 23.69 lakh in 2018, and stood at 21.75 lakh in January-October 2019, recording nearly 21 per cent.
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Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020
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