Polity & Governance
- Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram Celebrate 32nd Statehood Day
- NABH revamps Entry-Level Certification process for Hospitals
Government Schemes & Policies
- Supreme Court orders eviction of 1.1 mn forest families
Science & Technology
- Hippocamp, Neptune’s new moon
- BEL Launches Atmospheric Water Generator safe Drinking Water, Straight From the Air
Key Facts for Prelims
- Shisht Bharat campaign
- Dakshina Bharat Hindi Prachar Sabha
- Apology for Jallianwala Bagh massacre
- Drone Olympics Competition
- Grand Cross of the Order of Civil Merit medal
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Polity & Governance
Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram Celebrate 32nd Statehood Day
On February 20, the North-Eastern States of Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram celebrate Statehood Day celebrated statehood day.
- Mizoram was previously part of Assam until 1972, when it was carved out as a Union Territory.
- Mizoram was declared Union Territory in 1972.
- It became the 23rd state of India, a step above Union Territory, on 20 February 1987, with Fifty-Third Amendment of Indian Constitution, 1986.
- Within the northeast region, it is the southernmost landlocked state, sharing borders with three of the Seven Sister States, namely Tripura, Assam and Manipur.
- The state also shares a 722 kilometre border with the neighbouring countries of Bangladesh and Myanmar.
- Aizawl is its capital city.
About Arunachal Pradesh:
- In 1972, Arunachal Pradesh became the Union Territory of the Republic of India.
- Arunachal Pradesh attained full statehood on 20 February 1987 after the passing of the Constitution 55th Amendment Act.
- Arunachal Pradesh borders the states of Assam and Nagaland to the south and shares international borders with Bhutan in the west, Myanmar in the east.
- It is separated from China in the north by the McMahon Line.
- Itanagar is the capital of the state.
- Land of the Dawn-Lit Mountains is the sobriquet for the state in Sanskrit. It is also known as the Orchid State of India or the Paradise of the Botanists.
- Geographically, it is the largest of the Seven Sister States of Northeast India.
NABH revamps Entry-Level Certification process for Hospitals
National Accreditation Board for Hospitals and Healthcare Organizations (NABH) has revamped Entry-Level Certification Process to make it simpler, digital, faster and user-friendly.
Vehicle for Revamp process:
- The revised process is driven through a new portal called HOPE – Healthcare Organizations’ Platform for Entry-Level-Certification’ with a focus to promote quality at nascent stages by enrolling a wide range of hospitals including Healthcare Organizations (HCOs) and Small Healthcare Organizations (SHCOs).
Objective for revamp process:
- The aim is to create a momentum for HCOs and SHCOs that want to avail benefits associated with Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI) and Ayushman Bharat by getting themselves NABH certified.
- The idea of cashless payment to patients under insurance coverage has been promoted by IRDAI to reduce financial burden on households.
What is ‘Healthcare Organizations Platform for Entry-Level-Certification’ – HOPE?
- HOPE is an online platform for smooth and secure registration.
- It is not just confined to certification of HCOs/SHCOs but also enables them to comply with quality protocols, improve patient safety and the overall healthcare facility of the organization.
- It provides a self-explanatory questionnaire to be filled by the HCO/SHCOs.
- A mobile application has also been developed to support HCO/SHCOs for directly uploading geotagged and timestamped evidences required for compliance to the standards.
- It has also changed the assessment process which is now carried out on a technology based application where the data is captured and validated on a real-time basis.
Various activities to ensure an active participation of HCO/SHCOs in the HOPE process:
- Nationwide awareness workshops to sensitize the hospitals on the entire process of assessment.
- Call center support to hospitals through an active helpline for resolving issues while filling the application form.
- Platform to connect hospitals with certified consultants for assistance in the certification processfollowing a cost effective manner.
- Knowledge bank providing a comprehensive guidebook, presentation etc. with detailedinformation of the step-by-step certification procedure.
- Created a larger and stronger network of qualified assessors.
In order to support maximum HCO/SHCOs in the country, Quality Council of India (QCI) and NABH have partnered with several organizations:
- Indian Medical Association (IMA)
- Patient Safety and Access Initiative of India Foundation (PSAIIF)
- Consortium of Accredited Healthcare Organizations (CAHO) and other stakeholders
Quality Council of India (QCI):
- Established in 1997 Quality Council of India (QCI) is an autonomous organization under the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade, Ministry of Commerce and Industry.
- It is the Quality Apex and National Accreditation Body for accreditation and quality promotion in the country.
- The Council was established to provide a credible, reliable mechanism for third party assessment of products, services and processes which is accepted and recognized globally.
National Accreditation Board for Hospitals & Healthcare Providers (NABH):
- NABH, a constituent body of QCI, has been working to ensure reliability and global accreditation in Indian healthcare sector using contemporary methodologies, standards of patient safety and infection control.
- NABH accreditation provides assurance of quality and care in hospitals at par with international benchmarks.
- NABH has designed an exhaustive healthcare standard for hospitals and healthcare providers that have been accredited by The International Society for Quality in Health Care (ISQUA).
Scope of NABHs:
- Accreditation of healthcare facilities
- Quality promotion: initiatives like Safe-I, Nursing Excellence, Laboratory certification programs (not limited to these)
- Information Education Communication (IEC) activities: public lecture, advertisement, workshops/ seminars
- Education and Training for Quality & Patient Safety
- Recognition: Endorsement of various healthcare quality courses/ workshops
- The standards provide framework for quality assurance and quality improvement for hospitals and focuses on patient safety and quality of care.
Patient Centred Standards:
- Access, Assessment and Continuity of Care (AAC)
- Care of Patients (COP)
- Management of Medication (MOM)
- Patient Rights and Education (PRE
- Hospital Infection Control (HIC)
Organisation Centred Standards:
- Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI)
- Responsibility of Management (ROM)
- Facility Management and Safety (FMS)
- Human Resource Management (HRM)
- Information Management System (IMS)
Government Schemes & Policies
Supreme Court orders eviction of 1.1 mn forest families
The Supreme Court has asked the governments of 17 states to evict an estimated one million tribal living in forests after their claims of the right to live in forests were rejected under the Forest Rights Act.
- The court has asked the evictions to be carried out by July 12 and directed the Dehradun-based Forest Survey of India to submit a satellite-image based report on the encroachments removed.
Reason for rejection:
- One of the reason for rejection was absence of proof that the land was in their possession for at least three generations.
- The law provides for giving land rights to those living on forest land for at least three generations before December 31, 2005.
- The rejections, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka and Odisha have the biggest numbers, comprise 20% of the total claims for land ownership submitted by those residing in forests under the Scheduled Tribes and Other Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006.
Forest Rights Act, 2006:
- The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 is a result of the protracted struggle by the marginal and tribal communities of India to assert their rights over the forestland over which they were traditionally dependent.
- Forest Rights Act is also known as Community Forest Management (CFM) in Telangana.
- The Ministry of Tribal Affairs releases monthly reports on the status of implementation of the Act.
- The tribal communities of India have had close knit relationship with the forests and have been dependent on the forests for livelihoods and existence.
- However, in the absence of real ownership of the land, the already marginalized local dwellers suffered.
- The reason for this is India’s forest laws. India’s forests are governed by two main laws, the Indian Forest Act, 1927 and the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972.
- Under the Indian Forest Act, areas were often declared to be “government forests” without noticing any relationship between tribal and land such as who lived in these areas, what land they were using etc.
- Under these laws, the rights of people living in the area to be declared as a forest area are to be “settled” by a “forest settlement officer.”
- This basically requires that officer to enquire into the claims of people to land, minor forest produce, etc., and, in the case of claims found to be valid, to allow them to continue or to extinguish them by paying compensation.
- It is found that in many areas this process either did not take place at all or took place in a highly faulty manner.
- Those whose rights are not recorded during the settlement process are susceptible to eviction at any time.
- The Statement of Objects and Reasons of the Forest Rights Act describes it as a law intended to correct the historical injustice done to forest dwellers.
Types of rights under this act:
- Title rights – i.e. ownership to land that is being farmed by tribals or forest dwellers subject to a maximum of 4 hectares; ownership is only for land that is actually being cultivated by the concerned family, meaning that no new lands are granted.
- Use rights – to minor forest produce (also including ownership), to grazing areas, to pastoralist routes, etc.
- Relief and development rights – to rehabilitation in case of illegal eviction or forced displacement; and to basic amenities, subject to restrictions for forest protection.
- Forest management rights – to protect forests and wildlife.
Eligibility under this act:
There are two ways to be eligible under this act
- Primarily residing in forests or forest lands.
- Depends on forests and forest land for a livelihood.
- Above conditions should have to be true for 75 years.
- Should be a member of a Scheduled Tribe
- Resident of an area where they are Scheduled
Process of recognition of rights:
- The Act provides that the gram sabha, or village assembly, will initially pass a resolution recommending whose rights to which resources should be recognised.
- This resolution is then screened and approved at the level of the sub-division (or taluka) and subsequently at the district level.
- The screening committees consist of three government officials (Forest, Revenue and Tribal Welfare departments) and three elected members of the local body at that level. These committees also hear appeals.
- The Act has been met with much concern and opposition from environmentalists and wildlife conservationists. Some of this opposition are:
- It will lead to the handing over of forests to tribals and forest dwellers.
- It will make impossible to create areas free of human presence, for the purposes of wildlife conservation.
Science & Technology
Hippocamp, Neptune’s new moon
After years of discovering a moon floating around Neptune, with help from NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers have confirmed the existence of this tiny moon called Hippocamp.
What is Hippocamp?
- The newly characterized moon Hippocamp is the smallest moon yet discovered in orbit around the Neptune.
- Hippocamp was discovered in July 2013 but astronomers had doubt on it.
- The name Hippocamp is derived from Greek mythology, where it symbolises a sea monster, while Hippocampus is a region in the brain that governs emotions, memory and cognition.
- NASA says the 20-mile-wide moon is about 100 million times fainter than the faintest star that’s visible to the naked eye.
What led to the formation of Hippocamp?
- Scientists concluded that a collision with a comet billions of years ago may have caused a part of one of the larger moon’s (out of any 13 moons of Neptune) to chip away and eventually form Hippocamp.
- Images from NASA’s 1989 Voyager 2 mission had also confirmed a large crater on Proteus — confirming the collision theory.
- In fact, it floats really close to the moon Proteus, the outermost and largest moon of Neptune out of 13 moons.
- The Kuiper belt occasionally called the Edgeworth–Kuiper belt, is a doughnut-shaped ring of icy objects in the outer Solar System, extending from the orbit of Neptune (at 30 astronomical units) to approximately 50 Astronomical units from the Sun.
- The first mission to explore the Kuiper Belt is New Horizons. It flew past Pluto in 2015 and is on its way to explore another Kuiper Belt world.
BEL Launches Atmospheric Water Generator safe Drinking Water, Straight From the Air
Navratna Defence PSU Bharat Electronics Ltd (BEL) has unveiled the ‘Atmospheric Water Generator’(AWG) to meet the increasing need for drinking water worldwide at ‘Aero India’ 2019.
What is Atmospheric Water Generator?
The Atmospheric Water Generator is being manufactured by BEL in collaboration with Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (CSIR-IICT) and MAITHRI, a start-up company based in Hyderabad.
- BEL’s Atmospheric Water Generator can be used to generate water straight from the humidity present in the atmosphere.
- The Atmospheric Water Generator can be used to provide drinking water in community centres and public places.
- The AWG is configurable in static and mobile (vehicular) versions and is available from 30 litres/day to 1,000 litres/day capacities.
- It uses heat exchange for condensing the atmospheric moisture to produce pure, safe and clean potable water.
- The AWG comes with a Mineralisation Unit, which is used to add minerals which are required to make the water potable.
How does Atmospheric Water Generators work?
- A centrifugal fan draws air into the system through an electrostatic filter.
- The compressor circulates refrigerant through a coil array and the chilled coils condense moisture from the air.
- The condensed water drips down and collects in a holding tank underneath the coils. This water is then pumped firstly through a series of high-density and low-density charcoal filters to remove the solids and oxygenate the water.
- Secondly it goes through a reverse osmosis filter and thirdly through an ozone-generating ultraviolet light chamber to kill bacteria.
- Finally, it can be pumped into the holding tank, depending on the end use of the water.
- The Atmospheric Water Generator can be used to provide drinking water in community centres and public places like health care centres, schools, colleges, offices, railway stations, bus stands, airports, sea ports, off-shore oil rigs, military establishments, remote field areas and remote establishments and residential complexes.
Key Facts for Prelims
Shisht Bharat campaign
- It was launched by an NGO.
- It aims to strengthen the moral character of Indian citizens by sensitizing them about values of morality, civic sense, politeness, decorum and dignity.
- Launched initially in Delhi NCR, the campaign brings together policy-makers, media personalities, parents, RWAs, Delhi traffic police, NGOs, corporate houses and multinationals together for the promotion of the cause.
The revolutionary campaign will execute under three pillars:
- Educate the masses by engaging with schoolchildren, parents, youth, media persons, ordinary citizens and advocacy with policy makers.
- Reach out to community members by engaging with RWAs, market clusters, clubs, associations and other relevant stakeholders.
- Inspire action through novel and encouraging methods like social media, competitions and awards, among others.
Dakshina Bharat Hindi Prachar Sabha
- Dakshina Bharat Hindi Prachar Sabha was established in the year 1918 by Mahatma Gandhi with the sole aim of propagating Hindi in southern states.
- The first Pracharak was Devadoss Gandhi, son of Mahatma Gandhi.
Why in news?
- Recently, the President of India unveiled a statue of Mahatma Gandhi at the Dakshina Bharat Hindi Prachar Sabha in Chennai.
Apology for Jallianwala Bagh massacre
- The Punjab Assembly passed a resolution, seeking an apology from the British government for the proper acknowledgement of Jallianwala Bagh massacre.
About Jallianwala Bagh massacre:
To know more about the Jallianwala Bagh massacre, visit 16th February 2019 Current Affairs Analysis
Drone Olympics Competition
- Recently, the first ever ‘Drone Olympics’ competition for UAV’s was held at Air Force Station, Bengaluru alongside the Aero India exhibition.
- Theme – ‘The Runway to a Billion Opportunities’
- It was organized by Ministry of Defence.
- Its aim is to encourage the UAV industry to connect with potential buyers and business partners in the country and also provide an opportunity to the Armed Forces to assess the capabilities of UAVs.
Grand Cross of the Order of Civil Merit medal
- Recently, Indian External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj was presented with Grand Cross of the Order of Civil Merit medal to honour India’s support for Spanish victims of the earthquake that devastated Nepal in April 2015.
- The award recognises the extraordinary service by Spanish and foreign citizens for the benefit of Spain.
Location of Spain:
- Spain is a country mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
- Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea.
- The African enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco).
- Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory.
- The country’s mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.