Prelims 2020

28th August 2020 Daily Current Flash Cards

Samagra Shiksha; Institution’s Innovation Council (IIC); IUDX – The India Urban Data Exchange; Apprenticeship Rules (1992); Index of economic freedom;
By IASToppers
August 28, 2020

 

 

 

What are the four criteria used in ‘Index of Economic Freedom’ report?

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Answer:

  • Rule of Law (property rights, government integrity, and judicial effectiveness).
  • Government Size (government spending, tax burden, fiscal health).
  • Regulatory Efficiency (business freedom, labor freedom, monetary freedom).
  • Open Markets (trade freedom, investment freedom, and financial freedom).

Enrich Your Learning:

Index of economic freedom

  • Index of Economic Freedom report is released by the Heritage Foundation.
  • The Heritage Foundation is an American conservative public policy think-tank based in Washington.

Criterion:

  • Economic freedom is measured based on 12 quantitative and qualitative factors, grouped into four broad categories, or pillars, of economic freedom:
  1. Rule of Law (property rights, government integrity, and judicial effectiveness).
  2. Government Size (government spending, tax burden, fiscal health).
  3. Regulatory Efficiency (business freedom, labor freedom, monetary freedom).
  4. Open Markets (trade freedom, investment freedom, and financial freedom).
  • Each of the ten economic freedoms within these categories is graded on a scale of 0 to 100.
  • A country’s overall score is derived by averaging these ten economic freedoms, with equal weight being given to each.

Highlights of the report:

  • Top 10 countries are Hong Kong, Singapore, New Zealand, Switzerland, Australia, Ireland, Estonia, United Kingdom, Canada and UAE.
  • China is ranked 111 and Pakistan is now at 131 positions.

India’s performance:

  • India’s economic freedom score is 54.5, making its economy the 130th freest in the 2018 Index.
  • In 2017, India with a score of 52.6 points was ranked at 143 among 180 countries.
  • India is ranked 30th among 43 countries in the Asia-Pacific region and its overall score is below the regional and world averages.
  • India is developing into an open-market economy. However, traces of its past autocratic policies still remain.
  • Economic liberalisation measures, including industrial deregulation, privatisation of state-owned enterprises and reduced controls on foreign trade and investment that began in the early 1990s, accelerated growth.
  • More recently, the government reformed one of its more opaque operational practices to make the auctioning of rights to exploit state-owned resources more transparent.

 

 

 

Recently, Central government has notified changes in Apprenticeship Rules (1992). What are those changes?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Why in News?

  • Central government has notified changes in Apprenticeship Rules (1992) with an aim to increase skilled manpower in the country, and raise monetary compensation of apprentices.

Key Highlights:

  • As per the notified Apprenticeship (Amendment) Rules, 2019, the hiring limit of apprentices has been raised to 15 per cent of total strength of an establishment.
  • Minimum stipends have been doubled to between Rs 5,000 and Rs 9,000 per month.
  • The stipend for graduate apprentices or degree apprentices has been increased to Rs 9,000 per month.
  • For school pass outs, between Class 5th and 9th, the stipend has been increased to Rs 5,000 per month.
  • The Centre has also lowered the size limit of an establishment with a mandatory obligation to engage apprentices on an optional basis from 40 to 30, and reduced the size-limit of an establishment wanting to engage apprentices from 6 to 4.

Data:

  • In India, less than 0.1% of the employed workforce or just 0.3 million people are apprentices.
  • In comparison, the UK has 1.5% or 5 million, China has 2.5% or 20 million, and Germany has 5% or 2.5 million apprentices.

Significance:

  • The new rules will allow smaller companies to hire more trainees and give more youths an opportunity to get into the apprenticeship fold.
  • Though it will add to the cost of firms, the government believes apprenticeship is one of the most sustainable models globally for skill training as it allows the youth to earn while they learn.

 

 

 

What is the fund sharing pattern for the Samagra Shiksha Scheme between Centre and state?

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Answer:

  • 60:40 for the States and Union Territories with Legislature.
  • 90:10 for the North Eastern States.

Enrich Your Learning:

Samagra Shiksha

  • The Department of School Education and Literacy under the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) has formulated the Samagra Shiksha – an Integrated Scheme for School Education as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme.
  • The programme was introduced in the Union Budget 2018-19 and it is being implemented throughout the country with effect from the year 2018-19.
  • It is an overarching programme for the school education sector extending from pre-school to class XII and aims to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education at all levels of school education.
  • It envisages the ‘school’ as a continuum from pre-school, primary, upper primary, secondary to senior secondary levels.
  • The main emphasis of the Scheme is on improving quality of school education and the strategy for all interventions would be to enhance the Learning Outcomes at all levels of schooling.
  • The fund sharing pattern for the scheme between Centre and States is at present in the ratio of 90:10 for the 8 North-Eastern States viz. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura and 3 Himalayan States viz. Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand and 60:40 for all other States and Union Territories with Legislature.
  • It is 100% centrally sponsored for Union Territories without Legislature.
  • This single Scheme will enable the State Council Educational Research and Training (SCERT) to become the nodal agency for conduct and monitoring of all in-service training programmes to make it need-focused and dynamic.

Subsumed schemes:

  • This programme subsumes the three erstwhile Centrally Sponsored Schemes:
  • Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA),
  • Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA)
  • Teacher Education (TE)

Major interventions:

  • The major interventions, across all levels of school education, under the scheme are:
  • Universal Access including Infrastructure Development and Retention;
  • Gender and Equity;
  • Inclusive Education;
  • Quality;
  • Financial support for Teacher Salary;
  • Digital initiatives;
  • Entitlements under the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009 including uniforms, textbooks etc.;
  • Pre-school Education;
  • Vocational Education;
  • Sports and Physical Education;
  • Strengthening of Teacher Education and Training;
  • Monitoring and
  • Programme Management.

 

 

 

The Indian Urban Data Exchange (IUDX) project is being implemented under which national mission?

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Answer:

  • IUDX is a research project under smart cities mission being implemented by Union Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) in collaboration with Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bengaluru.

Enrich Your Learning:

IUDX – The India Urban Data Exchange

  • IUDX is a research project under smart cities mission being implemented by Union Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) in collaboration with Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bengaluru.
  • The India Urban Data Exchange set up by the MoHUA for its Smart Cities would be expanded, eventually leading to a “marketplace”.
  • IUDX will be an open source software platform for cities, industry and researchers to share Smart City data with each other that could be monetised in the future, similar to the UPI for bank accounts and digital payments.

Facilities provided

  • MoHUA said that the open data platform for the 100 cities would be expanded to cover 500 cities by 2022 and all urban centres in the country by 2024.
  • It will facilitate secure, authenticated and managed exchange of data amongst various data platforms, third-party authenticated and authorized applications and other data sources, data producers and consumers, both within a city to begin with and scaled up across cities eventually at a national level, in a uniform and seamless way.

 

 

 

The Institution’s Innovation Council (IIC) program was launched by which ministry?

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Answer:

  • Human Resource Development Ministry has launched the ‘Institution’s Innovation Council (IIC) program.

Enrich Your Learning:

Institution’s Innovation Council (IIC)

  • Union HRD Ministry has launched the ‘Institution’s Innovation Council (IIC) program under Innovation cell of MHRD in New Delhi.
  • Aim: To foster the culture of Innovation in all Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) across the country.
  • It is a significant step in institutionalizing innovation and developing a scientific temperament in the country.
  • More than 1000 Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have already formed IICs in their campuses and enrolled for the IIC network managed by MHRD’s Innovation cell.
  • Indian universities are setting up research centers through ‘Institution’s Innovation Council (IIC) program to improve global innovation ranking in next 2-3 years through this initiative.
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Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020
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