Prelims 2020

31st August 2020 Daily Current Flash Cards

Promotion of Agricultural Mechanization for In-Situ Management of Crop Residue; Composition of service Imports; Global Migration Report 2020; Economic Survey; National Career Service (NCS);
By IASToppers
August 31, 2020

 

 

 

National Career Services (NCS) Project is launched by whom?

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Answer: The Ministry of Labour and Employment (India) Government of India

  • National Career Service (NCS) project is an initiative launched by the Ministry of Labour and Employment (India) Government of India as a Mission Mode Project for establishing quick and efficient career related services.

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National Career Service

  • National Career Service (NCS) project is an initiative launched by the Ministry of Labour and Employment (India) Government of India as a Mission Mode Project for establishing quick and efficient career related services.
  • It was launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2015 as part of government’s focus on providing right skills and generating employment.
  • A National ICT based portal (www.ncs.gov.in) is developed primarily to connect the opportunities with the aspirations of youth. This portal facilitates registration of job seekers, job providers, skill providers, career counsellors, etc.
  • National Career Service is one of the mission mode projects under the umbrella of E-Governance Plan.
  • It works towards bridging the gap between job-seekers and employers, candidates seeking training and career guidance and agencies providing training and career counselling by transforming the National Employment Service.
  • It brings together all stakeholders like job seekers, employers, counsellors, trainers and private placement agencies to facilitate convergence of information and create synergies through these associations.
  • NCS provides a host of career-related services such as dynamic job matching, career counselling, job notifications, vocational guidance, information on skill development courses, internships and alike.

The focus areas for the National Career Service platform are listed below:         

  1. Enhancing career and employment opportunities
  2. Counselling and guidance for career development
  3. Focusing on decent employment
  4. Enhancing female labour force participation
  5. Encouraging entrepreneurial endeavours

The main stakeholders for the NCS would include:

  • Unemployed candidates seeking jobs
  • Students seeking career counselling
  • Candidates seeking vocational / occupational guidance
  • Illiterate, under-privileged sections of society, blue-collar workers seeking placements and guidance
  • Person with different abilities (PWDs), ex-servicemen, veterans / senior citizens, etc.
  • Employers seeking suitable candidates

 

 

 

Recently, the central government launched Promotion of Agricultural Mechanization for In-Situ Management of Crop Residue scheme in which states?

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Answer: Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and NCT of Delhi

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Promotion of Agricultural Mechanization for In-Situ Management of Crop Residue

 

Background:

  • Earlier, as per directions from Prime Minister’s Office in 2017 with regard to the pollution caused in Delhi NCR due to stubble burning in States surrounding, a high-level committee under Secretary (DARE)has been set up. 
  • The committee has recommended for adopting mechanized crop residue management.
  • As per the recommendations Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare has formulated a Scheme which was included in the 2018-19 Budget.

Objectives of the Scheme:

  • Protecting the environment from air pollution and preventing loss of nutrients and soil micro-organisms caused by burning of crop residue
  • Promoting in-situ management of crop residue by retention and incorporation into the soil through the use of appropriate mechanization inputs
  • Promoting Farm Machinery Banks for custom hiringof in-situ crop residue management machinery to offset the adverse economies of scale arising due to small landholding and high cost of individual ownership. 
  • Creating awareness among stakeholders through demonstration, capacity building activities and differentiated Information, Education and Communication strategies for effective utilization and management of crop residue.

Components of the scheme:

  • Establish Farm Machinery Banks or Custom Hiring Centres of in-situ crop residue management machinery.
  • Procurement of Agriculture Machinery and Equipment for in-situ crop residue management.
  • Information, Education, and Communication for awareness on in-situ crop residue management.

Key features the scheme:

  • The Central Sector Scheme,‘Promotion of Agricultural Mechanization for In-Situ Management of Crop Residue in the State of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh & NCT of Delhi’ was launched by the Government of India to tackle air pollution and to subsidize machinery required for in-situ management of crop residue in the States of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and NCT of Delhi. 
  • Within one year of its implementation utilizing an amount of Rs. 500 crore, the happy seeder/zero tillage technology was adopted in 8 lakh hectares of land in the North-Western States of India. 
  • Under the scheme, financial assistance @50% of the cost is providedto the farmers for the purchase of in-situ crop residue management machines on individual ownership basis.
  • The financial assistance for the establishment of Custom Hiring Centres of in-situ crop residue managementmachinery is @ 80% of the project cost.

 

 

 

As per recent Economic Survey, Farm mechanisation in India is lower than China but higher than Brazil. True OR False.

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Answer: False

Correct Statement:

  • Emphasising on the need to enhance mechanisation in agriculture, Economic Survey pointed out that in India, mechanisation is 40 percent compared to China (59.5 percent) and Brazil (75 percent).

Answer:

  • Economic Survey emphasised on mechanisation of agriculture, livestock and fisheries sector, food processing, financial inclusion, agricultural credit and crop insurance, micro irrigation and buffer stock management.

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Farm Mechanisation:

  • With the shrinking land and water resources and labour force, the onus rests on mechanisation of production and post-harvesting operations, says Economic Survey.
  • Agriculture Mechanisation will help Indian farming transform into commercial farming from subsistence farming.
  • Emphasising on the need to enhance mechanisation in agriculture, Economic Survey pointed out that in India, mechanisation is 40 percent compared to China (59.5 percent) and Brazil (75 percent).

Livestock and Fisheries Sector:

  • Livestock income has become an important secondary source of income for millions of rural families and has assumed an important role in achieving the goal of doubling farmers’ income, says Economic Survey.
  • Livestock sector has been growing at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 7.9 percent during last five years.
  • Economic Survey further states that fisheries remain an important source of food, nutrition, employment and income in India.
  • It provides livelihood to about 16 million fishers and fish farmers in the country.
  • Fisheries sector has registered annual average growth rate of more than 7 percent in the recent years.

Food Processing:

  • Economic Survey stressed on the need to promote food processing sector as higher level of processing helps in the reduction of wastage, improves value addition, promotes crop diversification, ensures better return to the farmers, promotes employment as well as increases export earnings.
  • During the last 6 years ending 2017-18, Food processing industries sector has been growing at an Average Annual Growth Rate (AAGR) of around 5.06 percent.
  • The sector constitutes as much as 83 percent and 10.66 percent of Gross Value Added (GVA) in manufacturing and agriculture sector respectively in 2017-18 at 2011-12 prices.

Financial Inclusion, Agricultural Credit and Crop Insurance:

  • Economic Survey also pointed out the need for increasing financial inclusion in north east areas to rectify highly skewed distribution of credit in the region.
  • Highlighting the need for crop insurance, Economic Survey underscores the benefits of Pradhan Mantri Fasal BimaYojana (PMFBY) which has been under implementation since 2016 to provide risk coverage from pre-sowing to post harvest natural preventable risks.
  • PMFBY envisages increase in coverage from the existing 23 percent to 50 percent of Gross Cropped Area (GCA).
  • Government has also created a National Crop Insurance Portal which provides interface among all stakeholders.

Gross Value Added in Agriculture:

  • Following the natural trajectory of development process and owing to structural changes taking place in the economy, share of agriculture and allied sectors in Gross Value Added (GVA) of the country at current prices has declined from 18.2 percent in 2014-15 to 16.5 percent in 2019-2020.

Buffer Stock Management:

  • Economic Survey further proposed revision of rates under National Food Security Act (NFSA) to address the issue of burgeoning food subsidy bill.
  • Economic Survey also advises for prudent management of Food Corporation of India (FCI) buffer stocks.

Micro Irrigation:

  • To increase water use efficiency at farm level, Economic Survey advises further penetration of micro irrigation (drip and sprinkle irrigation) through schemes like Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY).
  • Economic Survey also mentions the dedicated Micro Irrigation Fund (MIF) with an initial corpus of 5,000 crore created with National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD).

 

 

 

As per World Migration Report 2020, which country has the largest number of migrants living abroad?

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Answer: India has the largest number of migrants living abroad.

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Global Migration Report 2020

Why in News?

  • As per International Organisation for Migration’s (IOM)latest report, ‘Global Migration Report 2020’, India continues to be the largest country of origin of international migrants with a 17.5 million-strong Diaspora across the world.
  • India also received the highest remittance of $78.6 billionfrom Indians living abroad.

Key Points:

Migrants

  • The total number of international migrantsin 2019 is now estimated at 270 million.
  • This is a very small percentage of the world’s population (at 3.5%), that is, the vast majority of people globally (96.5%) are estimated to be residing in the country in which they were born.
  • The top destination countryremained the United States (50.7 million international migrants).
  • More than half of all international migrants (141 million) live in Europe and North America.
  • The top three countries of originof international migrants – India (17.5 million) > Mexico (11.8 million) > China (10.7 million).

Remittances

  • The international remittances increased to $689 billion in 2018.
  • The top three remittance recipients were India ($78.6 billion) > China ($67.4 billion) > Mexico ($35.7 billion).
  • The United States remained the top remittance-sending country($68 billion) followed by the United Arab Emirates ($44.4 billion) and Saudi Arabia ($36.1 billion).

Reasons for migration:

  • Economic:Apart from U.S., other important migration corridors from poorer countries to richer nations were France, Russia, the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia.
    • The Gulf countries have some of the largest numbers of temporary labour migrantsin the world, including the United Arab Emirates, where they make up almost 90% of the population.
  • Ongoing conflicts and violencein Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Myanmar, South Sudan, Syria and Yemen have led to massive internal displacement in the last two years. A total of 41.3 million people were forced to flee their homes at the end of 2018 — a record since monitoring began in 1998.
  • Syria has the highest internally population of displaced people,at 6.1 million, followed by Colombia (5.8 million) and the Congo (3.1 million).
  • Impact of climate and weather disasters,such as Typhoon Mangkhut in the Philippines contributed to 3.8 million displaced people, the largest number globally.

 

 

 

The per centage increase in service exports as per cent of GDP in India from 2016-17 to 2017-18 is higher than the percentage increase in 2017-18 to 2018-19. True OR False.

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Answer: True

The per centage increase in service exports as per cent of GDP in India from 2016-17 to 2017-18 is 0.2 while percentage increase in 2017-18 to 2018-19 is 0.3. (Shown in below graph).

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Service Exports as percent of GDP

An increase in service exports to GDP ratio has a net positive impact on the BoP position.

Composition of service exports

  • The composition of service exports has remained largely unchanged over the years.
  • Software services constitute the bulk of it at around 40- 45 per cent, followed by business services at about 18-20 per cent, travel at 11-14 per cent and transportation at 9- 11 per cent.

Service imports as percent of GDP

  • An increase in service imports to GDP ratio has a net negative impact on the BoP position.
  • Over the years, service imports in relation to GDP have been steadily raising putting pressure on BoP to worsen.
  • However, increase in service imports to GDP ratio is inevitable given a rising level of FDI and a gradual upscaling of the Make in India program.

Composition of service Imports

  • Business services constitute about a third of service imports and the component of travel services has been steadily increasing reflecting the growing attractiveness of global destinations to the domestic tourists in the country.

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