Prelims 2020

4th September 2020 Daily Current Flash Cards

Nameri National Park; SeeTB; 3D Printing; Headline vs. Core Inflation; Maritime museum; Public Debt; Murlen National Park;
By IASToppers
September 04, 2020

 

 

 

Where are the Murlen and Nameri National Parks are situated?

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Answer:

  • Murlen National Park is a national park located in the Champhai district Mizoram in India.
  • Nameri National Park is a national park in the foothills of the eastern Himalayas in the Sonitpur District of Assam, India.

Enrich Your Learning:

Murlen National Park

  • The park is situated east of Aizawl and is close to the Chin Hills. It lies north of Lengteng Wildlife Sanctuary in the same district.
  • It was established in 1991.
  • Only about 1% of the sun’s ray can penetrate the forest on a sunny day. So the thickness of the forest in the park is generally compared to the forest found in the Amazon region in South America.
  • There is an area in the park where not even a single sun’s ray can penetrate. Some of the trees found in the park are as old as 350 years.

Nameri National Park

  • Nameri National Park is the second tiger reserve of Assam and is also important for the conservation of elephants, apart from the 30 species of mammals recorded in this area.
  • It was established in

Conflicts and threats:

  • Nameri faces two threats: One is due to continued official logging in the area of Sonitpur.
  • The major threat for Nameri is human/animal conflict due to around 3000 cattle grazing the forest.
  • The other human/animal conflict is due to the vast group of elephants in Nameri.
  • A great threat is possessed on this protected area because of poachers who hunt the valuable birds for their wings.

 

 

 

Public Debt includes small saving and provident funds accounts. True OR False?

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Answer: False

Correct Answer:

  • Public Debt does not include small savings, provident funds and other accounts, reserve funds and deposits.

Enrich Your Learning:

Public Debt

  • In the Indian context, public debt includes the total liabilities of the Union government that have to be paid from the Consolidated Fund of India.
  • Public debt is the total amount borrowed by the government of a country.
  • Public debt, sometimes also referred to as government debt, represents the total outstanding debt (bonds and other securities) of a country’s central government.
  • Public debt as a percentage of GDP is usually used as an indicator of the ability of a government to meet its future obligations.
  • It is an important source of resources for a government to finance public spending and fill holes in the budget.
  • Public debt can be split into internal (money borrowed within the country) and external (funds borrowed from non-Indian sources).
  • However, it does not include small savings, provident funds and other accounts, reserve funds and deposits.

What are the types of Public Debt?

  • The Union government broadly classifies its liabilities into two broad categories.
  • The debt contracted against the Consolidated Fund of India is defined as public debt and includes all other funds received outside Consolidated Fund of India under Article 266 (2) of the Constitution, where the government merely acts as a banker or custodian.
  • The second type of liabilities is called public account.

Sources of Public Debt:

  • These are listed as follows:
  • Dated government securities or G-secs
  • Treasury Bills or T-bills
  • External Assistance
  • Short term borrowings
  • Public Debt definition by Union Government
  • The Union government describes those of its liabilities as public debt, which is contracted against the Consolidated Fund of India. This is as per Article 292 of the Constitution.

Public Debt versus Private Debt:

  • Public Debt is the money owed by the Union government, while private debt comprises of all the loans raised by private companies, corporate sector and individuals such as home loans, auto loans, and personal loans.

 

 

 

Where the India’s first maritime museum will be established?

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Answer:

  • National Maritime Heritage Museum will be established at Lothal, a Harappan site on the Saurashtra coast in Gujarat.

Enrich Your Learning:

Maritime museum

  • National Maritime Heritage Museum will be established at Lothal, a Harappan site on the Saurashtra coast in Gujarat.
  • The museum will also be an independent research centre of underwater archaeology for reconstruction of maritime history, archaeology of boat building and materials traded.
  • It will have on display salvaged material from shipwreck sites in the Indian Ocean waters.

Background:

  • Underwater archaeology is a specialized branch of archaeology that involves recovering submerged remains such as ports, shipwrecks and studying proxy records of maritime activity from archaeological excavations as well as archival and historical records.
  • According to the UNESCO, there are an estimated three million undiscovered shipwrecks lying on the ocean floor.
  • Between 1824 and 1962, over 12,000 sailing ships and war vessels were lost at sea. Many of them got wrecked in Indian coastal waters.

 

 

 

Core inflation considers commodity prices while headline inflation does not. True OR False?

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Answer: False

Correct Answer:

  • Headline inflationconsiders the price of all the goods and services, but Core inflation considers the prices of all goods and services except commodity prices (like prices of vegetables, fruits etc) and oil prices.

Enrich Your Learning:

Headline vs. Core Inflation

  • Core Inflation excludes the inflation caused by volatile price commoditiessuch as food and energy.
  • Headline inflation includes inflation due to prices of all the commodities(including commodities like food and energy).
  • Headlines and core inflation are used to set monetary policyin India by RBI. 
  • Headline includes volatile inputs like food and energy in the CPI basket which are seldom affected by short term demand- supply shocks.
  • This is done because the prices of commodities and oil fluctuate very frequently and give us unstable numbers. So, many economists prefer to take core instead of headline inflation in order to get stable numbers over time.

 

 

 

 

Recently, researchers have developed a small device called as ‘SeeTB’. What is the significance of this device? 

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Answer:

  • Researchers have developed a small device called as SeeTB that can be attached to a simple optical microscope to convert it into a fluorescence microscope, thus enabling better TB (Tuberculosis) diagnosis at the point-of-care.

Enrich Your Learning:

Why in News?

  • Researchers have developed a small device called as SeeTB that can be attached to a simple optical microscope to convert it into a fluorescence microscope, thus enabling better TB diagnosis at the point-of-care.

Background:

  • Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major healthcare burden for most developing countries, and India still leads the list with the largest number of cases.
  • The World Health Organization has aimed at eliminating TB by 2035, and the Indian government has vouched to do this by 2025.

Significance:

  • The device is battery operated and allows quick identification of the bacteria.
  • The team has also developed a clearing reagent called CLR which helps in thinning the collected sputum thus enhancing the bacteria detection.
  • The currently used fluorescence microscopy requires infrastructure, an air-conditioned room, trained professionals and is functional only in tertiary health care centers.
  • SeeTB can be used at the primary health care centres in the villages, and once diagnosed, the treatment can be started.
  • CLR-SeeTB is a highly economical platform and is most suited for a country like India which has a high TB burden.
  • The results during diagnosis showed that compared to fluorescence microscopy, the CLR-SeeTB system had higher sensitivity.
  • When the performance was compared against GeneXpert, another diagnosis tool that looks for DNA markers of TB bacteria, SeeTB showed improved sensitivity.
  • Also, while GeneXpert method takes about two hours, SeeTB can help find the bacteria in about 30 minutes.

3 D Printing:

  • The team used 3D printing to rapidly prototype this compact optical platform, and now are using injection moulding to produce these components in large scale.
  • This can help drastically bring down the cost, thus making it feasible for large scale distributions across the country.

Tuberculosis:

  • Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  • The bacteria usually attack the lungs, but they can also damage other parts of the body.
  • TB spreads through the air when a person with TB of the lungs or throat coughs, sneezes, or talks.
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Daily Current Quiz 2020 Prelims 2020
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