Prelims 2020

6th September 2020 Daily Current Flash Cards

Great Indian Hornbill; Angikaar Campaign; Important ways of Virtual Reality that is Transforming Healthcare; Global Innovation Index; Global Economic Freedom Index; Hornbill Festival; National Waterway 2 (NW-2); Indo Bangladesh Protocol (IBP) route;
By IASToppers
September 06, 2020




National Waterway 2 (NW-2) is a section of which river: (a) Indus OR (b) Brahmaputra?

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  • National Waterway 2 (NW-2) is a section of Brahmaputra River.

Enrich Your Learning:

First ever movement of container cargo on Brahmaputra (NW -2)

  • The first cargo consignment will sail on National Waterway-2 from Haldia Dock Complex (HDC) to Pandu in Guwahati.


  • National Waterway 2 (NW-2) is a section of the Brahmaputra River having a length of 891 km between the Bangladesh border near Dhubri and Sadiya in Assam.
  • It was declared as NW No. 2 on 1 September 1988.
  • It has only one fixed terminals namely the Pandu Port while rest are floating which include Dhubri Port, Jogighopa, Tezpur, Silghat, Dibrugarh, Jamuguri, Bogibil, Saikhowa and Sadiya.

Some facts:

  • NW-1 has witnessed healthy growth with the augmentation of navigation capacity of Ganga under Jal Marg Vikas Project.
  • The traffic on NW-1 has grown from 5.48 million tonnes in 2017-18 to 6.79 million tonnes in 2018-19.
  • Out of the total traffic of 6.79 million tonnes on NW-1, approximately 3.15 million tonnes is the EXIM trade between India and Bangladesh using the Indo Bangladesh Protocol (IBP) routes.

What is the Indo Bangladesh Protocol (IBP) route?

  • The Protocol on Inland Water Transit and Trade (PIWTT) between India and Bangladesh allows mutually beneficial arrangements for the use of their waterways for movement of goods vessels of both countries.
  • The IBP route extends from Kolkata (India) on NW-1 to Silghat (Assam) on NW-2 (River Brahmaputra) and Karimganj (Assam) on NW-16 (River Barak).

Status of Development of Inland Waterways in the Country:

  • The Government is working to develop inland waterways as an alternative mode of transport in the country, which is cleaner and cheaper than both road and rail transport.
  • There are 111 National Waterways in India, after 106 waterways were declared as National Waterways.

Sr. No.

National Waterway No.

Length (km)

Location (S)


National Waterway-1: Ganga-Bhagirathi-Hooghly River System (Haldia – Allahabad)


Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal


National Waterway 2:Brahmaputra River (Dhubri – Sadiya)





National Waterway 3:West Coast Canal (Kottapuram – Kollam), Champakara and Udyogmandal Canals






National Waterway 4

(Phase-I : Vijaywada to Muktyala)


Andhra Pradesh


National Waterways in Maharashtra

i)National Waterway 10 (AMBA RIVER)










National Waterways in Goa

i) NW-27-Cumberjua – confluence with Zuari to confluence with Mandovi river (17 km)

ii)  NW 68 – Mandovi– Usgaon Bridge to Arabian Sea (41 km)

iii) NW 111 – Zuari– Sanvordem Bridge to Marmugao Port (50 km).










NW – 9: Alappuzha – Kottayam – Athirampuzha Canal Boat Jetty, Alappuzha to Athirampuzha (38 km) in Kerala.








 NW-97: Sunderbans Waterways


West Bengal

(through Indo-Bangladesh Protocol Route)





It is the state bird of Kerala and Arunachal Pradesh. There is a festival named after this bird. It is found in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. Identify this bird.

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  • It is Great Indian Hornbill.

Enrich Your Learning:

Great Indian Hornbill

  • The great hornbill also known as the concave-casqued hornbill, great Indian hornbill or great pied hornbill is one of the larger members of the hornbill family.
  • It is found in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia.
  • Its impressive size and colour have made it important in many tribal cultures and rituals.
  • The great hornbill is long-lived, living for nearly 50 years in captivity.
  • It is predominantly frugivorous, but is an opportunist and will prey on small mammals, reptiles and birds.
  • The great hornbill is a large bird, 95–130 cm long, with a 152 cm wingspan and a weight of 2 to 4 kg.
  • Due to habitat loss and hunting in some areas, the great hornbill is evaluated as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  • It is listed in Appendix I of
  • The great hornbill is the state bird of Kerala and Arunachal Pradesh.

Hornbill Festival

  • The Hornbill Festival is a celebration held every year from 1 to 10 December, in Nagaland.
  • It is also called the ‘Festival of Festivals’.
  • The Government of Nagaland organizes the Hornbill Festival every year.
  • The first festival was held in 2000.
  • The aim of the festival is to revive and protect the rich culture of Nagaland and display its extravaganza and traditions.
  • One of the major highlights of this festival is the Hornbill International Rock Festival, which is held at Indira Gandhi Stadium; local and international rock bands perform.




In 2019, India’s ranking in Global Innovation Index was higher than the ranking in Global Economic Freedom Index. True OR False.

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Answer: True

  • India ranked 52nd in Global Innovation Index 2019 while it ranked 79th in Global Economic Freedom Index.

Enrich Your Learning:

Global Innovation Index

  • It ranks nations based on 80 indicators, ranging from intellectual property filing rates to R&D, online creativity, mobile application creation, computer software spending, education spending, scientific & technical publications and ease of starting business.
  • India’s Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) is one of the knowledge partners which assist GII team in bringing out the annual ranking.
  • GII is published annually since 2007 and is considered leading benchmarking tool for business executives, policy makers and others seeking insight into state of innovation around the world.
  • It is being used by them to evaluate progress on continual basis.
  • GII 2018 has placed India at the 57thposition among 130 countries and improved its ranking by five places to 52nd in 2019.

Global Economic Freedom Index

  • India has jumped 11 spots on Global Economic Freedom index from last year’s 96th spot to the current ranking of 79.
  • The Index of Economic Freedom is an annual index and rankingcreated in 1995 by the Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal to measure the degree of economic freedom in the world’s nations.
  • Hong Kong’seconomic freedom score is 90.2, sustaining its status as the world’s freest economy in the 2019 Index. The second and third rank goes to Singapore and New Zealand.




How Virtual Reality (VR) can be used in various ways in transforming healthcare?

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Solution & Enrich Your Learning:

Important ways of Virtual Reality that is Transforming Healthcare:

  • Medical VR is an area which has endless and fascinating opportunities. It is one field which has not only excited the fans of science fiction, but has also moved the lives of scientists and medical professionals across the globe.
  • Though VR in healthcare is still in its initial stages, it has already proved to be highly advantageous, with a variety of healthcare applications that have positively impacted physician’s work and patient’s life. Some of the key ways in which VR is improving healthcare are listed here:

Superior Surgery Training:

  • Training for surgeons is usually carried out on cadavers followed by assisting senior doctors before taking over bigger portions of the surgery.
  • But with VR, this process can be sped up and the time needed for young surgeons to perform real surgeries can be drastically reduced.
  • VR in healthcare can now provide ample amount of practice to surgeons without posing any risk to real patients.

Exposure therapy 

  • Exposure therapyis a type of cognitive-behavioral therapy that is used to treat a variety of anxiety-related disorders, including phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder etc.
  • Exposure therapy is one of the methods to treat patients with phobias. VR is being increasingly used by physicians and medical professionals to treat such individuals.

Pain Management:

  • Pain is one of the most excruciating feelings experienced by patients. Medical researchers have been finding new ways using VR to treat sharp pain, particularly for burn victims. Distraction therapy using VR is the new method of treating patients with such extreme pain.
  • There are certain VR games developed to distract patients undergoing painful treatments, such as physical therapy and wound care, by overwhelming their senses and pain pathways in their brain.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Treatment:

  • VR is put to use to treat soldiers suffering from Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Clinics and hospitals are using virtual simulations caused during the warfare to treat soldiers who are still reliving the traumatic events of the past.
  • Here, the patients are exposed to realistic and immersive scenes, which trigger fear and anxiety in them. They are then guided through the scene to cope up with the situation in which they are placed. The patients are also equipped with methods to deal with such trauma in a controlled and safe environment.

Brain Damage Assessment:

  • Recently, CyberPsychology & behavior, a journal for understanding the psychological impact of social networking practices, has published consolidated VR experiences, which not only assess impairments but also retreat them.
  • Scientists have created virtual reality experiences which make the patients get out of a building using doors of different colo Such methods can assess different levels of the patient’s brain damage and help in further rehabilitation.

Phantom Limb Pain Treatment:

  • Phantom limb pain is one of the common issues with people who have lost a limb. People without a limb often feel that their fist is tightly clenched and are not able to relax.
  • Such consistent discomfort may result in a sharp, excruciating pain. Scientists have now come up with VR games, which help patients using virtual limbs to and complete certain tasks.
  • These games also help them gain control of their limb and relieve the feeling of painfully clenched fist.




Angikaar Campaign is the campaign of which central ministry?

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  • It is a campaign of Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation.

Enrich Your Learning:

Angikaar Campaign:

  • Ministry: Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation.
  • Aimed for social behaviour change, focusing on issues such as water & energy conservation, waste management, health, tree plantation, sanitation and hygiene for beneficiaries of completed houses under Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (Urban) (PMAY(U)).
  • It will converge with schemes and Missions of other Ministries dealing with these subjects.
  • It would especially focus on Ujjwala for gas connection and Ayushman Bharat for health insurance to the beneficiaries.
  • Possible Benefits: Bring PMAY(U) beneficiaries to the fold of several other central government schemes.
  • Medium: Through community mobilisation and Information-Education-Communication activities. The campaign will include door to door activities, ward and city level events.
Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020

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