Flash-Cards-for-IAS-Prelims-2018-(12)
70 Days WAR Plan

70 Days WAR Plan Static Flash Cards Day-28 [REVISION]

Kanishka; Trade and commerce in Post-Mauryan period; ‘Pavarana’; Continental crust Vs. oceanic crust; Effects of excess nitrogen in the atmosphere; UN High-Level Political Forum (HLPF); Presence of carbon dioxide in earth’s atmosphere; Mechi River; Term of President of India; Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO); etc
By IT's Core Team
April 18, 2019

 

 

 

Which countries are the members of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)?

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Answer:

  • The SCO has now eight members: China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, India and Pakistan.
  • India, which has had an observer status for the past 10 years, was accepted along with Pakistan as full members of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) in July 2015.

Enrich Your Learning:

About Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO):

  • Seen as a counter to the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), SCO is a Eurasian political, economic and military organisation which was founded in 2001 in Shanghai by the leaders of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.
  • These countries, except for Uzbekistan, had been members of the Shanghai Five, founded in 1996; after the inclusion of Uzbekistan in 2001, the members renamed the organisation.
  • Its headquarters is located in Beijing, China.
  • SCO has Afghanistan, Iran, Mongolia and Belarus as observers.
  • The SCO has established relations with the United Nations, where it is an observer in the General Assembly, the European Union, Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.

 

 

 

President can terminate his term by sending his resignation to Chief Justice of India. Right OR Wrong?

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Answer:

Right Statement:

  • President can resign from his office at any time by addressing the resignation letter to the Vice President.

Enrich Your Learning:

About term of President of India:

  • The President is elected for a term of five years, but even after the expiry of the term, he/she may continue to hold office until his/her successor enters the office.
  • There is a provision for the re-election of a person who is holding or who has held the office as President.
  • Impeachment to be adopted by a special majority of votes in both the Houses of Parliament.
  • As provided in the Constitution, in the event of the occurrence of any vacancy in the office of the President, the Vice President acts as President until the date on which a new President is elected and enters upon his/her office.
  • But the Vice-President can act as the President for not more than six months.

A vacancy in the office of the President may be caused in any of the following ways:

  • in the event of his/her death.
  • if he/she resigns.
  • if he/she is removed from office by impeachment.

 

 

 

The Mechi River is a trans-boundary river flowing through India and which other neighbouring country?

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Answer:

  • The Mechi River is a trans-boundary river flowing through Nepal and India.

Enrich Your Learning:

About Mechi River:

  • It is a tributary of the Mahananda River.
  • The Mechi originates in the Mahabharat Range in Nepal.
  • It flows through Nepal, forms the boundary between India and Nepal and then flows through the Indian state of Bihar to join the Mahananda in Kishanganj district.

New Bridge over Mechi River

  • India and Nepal agreed on implementation on Cost sharing, Schedules and Safeguard issues for starting construction of a new Bridge over Mechi River at Indo-Nepal border.
  • This bridge is an ending point of Asian Highway project 02 (AH02) in India leading to Nepal.
  • National Highway and Infrastructure Development Corporation (NHIDCL) under Ministry of Road Transport & Highways will be the executing agency for the Mechi bridge project.
  • The Mechi bridge is part of the Asian Development Bank’s South Asian Sub-Regional Economic Cooperation (SASEC) road connectivity programme, with India pulling out all stops to expedite it in the backdrop of China’s ambitious ‘One Belt One Road’ initiative aimed at connecting around 60 countries across Asia, Africa and Europe.

 

 

 

Presence of carbon dioxide in earth’s atmosphere is harmful for the growth of plants. Right OR Wrong?

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Answer:

Right Statement:

  • Carbon dioxide is essential for the growth of plants.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • Carbon dioxide is a colorless gas.
  • Carbon dioxide, though present in minute amount, is important as it absorbs heat radiated by the earth, thereby keeping the planet warm.
  • Nitrogen 78 per cent, oxygen 21 per cent and other gases like carbon dioxide, argon and others comprise 1 per cent by volume.
  • Natural sources of carbon dioxide include volcanoes, hot springs and geysers, and it is freed from carbonate rocks by dissolution in water and acids.
  • Wildfires and volcanic outgassing are two significant natural sources of CO2 in Earth’s atmosphere.
  • Respiration, the process by which organisms liberate energy from food, emits carbon dioxide.
  • Because carbon dioxide is soluble in water, it occurs naturally in groundwater, rivers and lakes, ice caps, glaciers and seawater. It is present in deposits of petroleum and natural gas.
  • Carbon dioxide is the most abundant gas in the atmospheres of Mars and Venus.
  • Green plants use CO2 gas to prepare their food through photosynthesis.
  • Carbon dioxide absorbs heat radiated by the earth and does not absorb the incoming visible radiations directly coming from the sun. By absorbing infrared radiations, the atmosphere gets heated. This is known as Greenhouse Effect. Thus, carbon dioxide helps in keeping the earth warmer by blocking the infrared radiations.

 

 

 

What do you know about the UN High-Level Political Forum (HLPF)?

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Answer:

  • The HLPF is the main United Nations platform on sustainable development and it has a central role in the follow-up and review of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) at the global level.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • The establishment of the United Nations High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development (HLPF) was mandated in 2012 by the outcome document of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), “The Future We Want”.
  • HLPF, comprising the political representatives (heads of states or ministers) of the members, meets every July at the UN in New York to review progress on Agenda 2030.
  • The Forum meets annually under the auspices of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) for eight days and every four years at the level of Heads of State and Government under the auspices of the General Assembly for two days.
  • Voluntary National Reviews, which are voluntary and country driven, form the basis of this review.
  • The Forum adopts inter-governmentally negotiated political declarations.

 

 

 

What are the effects of excess nitrogen in the atmosphere?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

  • Too much nitrogen and phosphorus in the water causes algae to grow faster than ecosystems can handle.
  • Nutrient pollution in ground water can be harmful, even at low levels.
  • Infants are vulnerable to a nitrogen-based compound called nitrates in drinking water.
  • Excess nitrogen in the atmosphere can produce pollutants such as ammonia and ozone, which can impair our ability to breathe, limit visibility and alter plant growth.
  • When excess nitrogen comes back to earth from the atmosphere, it can harm the health of forests, soils and waterways.

 

 

 

Continental crust is denser than oceanic crust. Right OR Wrong?

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Answer:

Right Statement:

  • Continental crust is thicker than oceanic crust.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • Continental crust is less denser than oceanic crust as the later is made of basaltic rocks.
  • The continental crust is made mostly of rocks with a composition similar to granite (a lightcolored rock you would expect to find in the Sierra Nevada).
  • The oceanic crust is made mostly of rocks with a composition of basalt (a dark- colored rock, like the rocks that make up the Hawaiian volcanoes).

 

 

 

In Ancient India, Buddhist monasteries used to be held a Ceremony called ’Pavarana’. What is the ’Pavarana’?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

  • Pavarana is a Buddhist holy day celebrated on Aashvin full moon of the lunar month.
  • It marks the end of the 3 lunar months of Varsha (rainy season), sometimes called “Buddhist Lent”.
  • On this day, each monk (bhikkhu) must come before the community of monks (Sangha) and atone for an offense he may have committed during the Varsha (rainy season/Monsoon).

 

 

 

In Post-Mauryan period, which factors were responsible for growth of trade and commerce?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

  • The most important feature of the post-Mauryan period was the growth of trade and commerce, both internally as well as externally.
  • One of the most important elements in the society was the village community. To a certain extent the village community was independent of outside control as far as its internal affairs were concerned.
  • In spite of preponderance of villages, some towns, big and small, came into existence. The emergence of towns made some impact on both the social and economic life.
  • Monetization of economy was a significant feature of the post Mauryan period.
  • The Indo- Greek rulers issued gold coins. Menander was the last Indo-Greek king to issue gold coins.
  • Central Asian contacts also brought to India new methods of making coins. This new format became the model for the subsequent coinage in India.
  • There were two major internal land routes in ancient India. First was known as ‘Uttarapatha’ which connected northern and eastern parts of India with the northwestern fringes of the present day Pakistan and further beyond that. The second land route was known as ‘Dakshinapatha’ had connected the peninsular India with the western and northern parts of India.
  • The best account of Indo-Roman trade is given in the book called ‘Periplus of the Erythrean Sea’ which was written in the first century AD by an anonymous author.
  • Main requirements of these Romans were the Indian products such as spices, per- fumes, jewels, ivory and fine textiles, i.e. muslin. Spices were exported from India to the Roman empire included pepper, also called ‘yavanapriya’ because of its high popularity among the Romans.
  • Against this import Romans exported gold and silver to India. This indicates an enormous drain of gold from the Roman empire towards India.
  • There was constant trade in silk between India and China. This silk route passed through Afghanistan and Iran. Wine, luxury goods and gold and silver coins were sent to Rome.
  • India forged trade relations with Java, Sumatra, Malaysia, Burma and China also. India brought spices from the territories of East Indies and exported it to European countries. The Chinese silk too found its way to Europe via India as the Parthian rulers of Iran had put obstacles in their way.

 

 

 

Kanishka was the emperor of which dynasty?

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Answer:

  • Kaniska was the greatest king of the Kushan dynasty that ruled over the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, Afghanistan, and possibly areas of Central Asia north of the Kashmir region.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • Kanishka was a king of the Kushana Empire in South Asia. He was famous for his military, political and spiritual achievements.
  • Kanishka was tolerant towards all the religions.
  • He is remembered for his association with Buddhism. He himself was a Buddhist convert, and convened the fourth Buddhist council in Kashmir. This council in Kashmir marked the beginning of Mahayana cult of Buddhism.
  • He patronized both the Gandhara School of Greco-Buddhist Art and the Mathura School of Hindu Art.
  • A direct road from Gandhara to China remained under Kushan control for more than a century, encouraging travel across the Karakoram and facilitating the spread of Mahayana Buddhism to China.
  • During his reign, contacts with the Roman Empire via the Silk Road led to a significant increase in trade and the exchange of ideas.
  • Perhaps the most remarkable example of the fusion of Eastern and Western influences in his reign was the Gandhara school of art, in which Classical Greco-Roman lines are seen in images of the Buddha.
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