Flash-Cards-for-IAS-Prelims-2018-Revision-Day-12
70 Days WAR Plan

70 Days WAR Plan Static Flash Card Day-12 [REVISION]

Ox-bow lake; Naqshbandi school of Sufi movement; Budget; Union Executive; Westerlies; Mahabalipuram; High Courts having jurisdiction over more than one state and / or Union Territories; 'Visti' In medieval India; Ordinance making power of the President of India; 'Tamizhakam'; etc.
By IT's Core Team
April 02, 2019

 

 

In the context of ancient Indian history, what does the term ‘Tamizhakam’ refer to?

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Answer:

  • ‘Tamizhakham’ refers to the cultural and economic contacts established between the north and south as a result of trade between people which became important from 4th century BC.

Enrich Your Learning:

‘Tamizhakam’:

  • ‘Tamizhakam’ is the name of the ancient Tamil country, which included parts of present-day Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Kerala, in addition to Tamil Nadu.
  • It is also referring to Sangam Age, during which the Tamil culture began to spread outside Tamilakam.
  • Deep South or Tamizhakam – the southern end of the Indian peninsula situated south of the krishna river was divided into three kingdoms namely, the Chola, the Pandya and the Chera.
  • The three kingdoms grew many spices specially pepper had a great demand in the western world.
  • Their elephants supplied Ivory, which was highly valued in the west.
  • Pearls were obtained from the sea.
  • The Tamizhakam had rich mines which produces precious stones.
  • The three kingdoms produce muslin and silk.

Social aspects of Tamizhakam understood from the Sangam texts and other literary sources:

  • The traces of early megalithic life appear in the Sangam texts.
  • The texts suggest that war booty was an important source of livelihood.
  • They also state that when a hero dies he is reduced to a piece of stone.
  • It may have led to the later practice of raising hero stones called ‘virarkal’ in honour of the heroes who died fighting for kins and other objects.
  • The didactic texts cover the early centuries of Christian era and prescribe a code of conduct not only for the king and his court but also various social groups and occupations.

 

 

Meandering tendency of the river is responsible for the formation of which depositional feature of river? 

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Answer:

  • Meandering tendency of the river is responsible for the formation of depositional feature of river–ox-bow lakes.

Enrich Your Learning:

Ox-bow lake:

  • In the lower course of a river, a meander becomes very much more pronounced.
  • The outside bend of the river bank is so rapidly eroded that the river becomes almost a complete circle.
  • Simultaneously the river cuts through the narrow neck of the loop, abandoning an ox-bow lake or ‘mortlake’. The river then flows straight.
  • The ox-bow lake will later degenerate into a swamp through subsequent floods that may silt up the lake become marshy and will eventually dried up.
  • In lower course the work of the river is mainly deposition which produces the and features like Ox-bow lake, is mainly deposition.
  • A meandering river across a floodplain forms cut-off that later develops into ox-bow lakes.

 

 

Article 123 of the Constitution empowers the President to promulgate ordinances during the recess of Parliament. What are the limitations on Ordinance making power of the President of India?

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Answer:

  • The President can promulgate an ordinance only when both the Houses of Parliament are not in session or when either of the two Houses of Parliament is not in session.
  • An ordinance can be issued only when both the Houses of Parliament are not in session or when either of the two Houses of Parliament is not in session because a law can be passed by both the Houses and not by one House alone.

Enrich Your Learning:

Ordinance making power of the President of India:

  • The ordinance-making power is the most important legislative power of the President.
  • Article 123 of the Constitution empowers the President to promulgate ordinances during the recess of Parliament.
  • These ordinances have the same force and effect as an act of Parliament but are in the nature of temporary laws. It has been vested in him to deal with unforeseen or urgent matters.
  • The power of the President to legislate by ordinance is not a parallel power of legislation.

Limitations on Ordinance making power of the President of India:

  • An ordinance can also be issued when only one House is in session because a law can be passed by both the Houses and not by one House alone. An ordinance made when both the Houses are in session is void.
  • He can make an ordinance only when he is satisfied that the circumstances exist that render it necessary for him to take immediate action. Thus, the President’s satisfaction is justiciable on the ground of malafide.
  • His ordinance-making power is coextensive as regards all matters except duration, with the law-making powers of the Parliament. But it has two implications:
    • An ordinance can be issued only on those subjects on which the Parliament can make laws.
    • An ordinance is subject to the same constitutional limitation as an act of Parliament. Hence, an ordinance cannot abridge or take away any of the fundamental rights.
  • Every ordinance issued by the President during the recess of parliament must be laid before both the Houses of Parliament when it reassembles. If the ordinance is approved by both the Houses, it becomes an act. If Parliament takes no action at all, the ordinance ceases to operate on the expiry of six weeks from the reassembly of Parliament. The ordinance may also cease to operate even earlier than the prescribed six weeks, if both the Houses of Parliament pass resolutions disapproving it.
  • If an ordinance is allowed to lapse without being placed before Parliament, then the acts done and completed under it, before it ceases to operate, remain fully valid and effective.

 

 

In context of the economic history of medieval India, the term ‘Visti’ refers to?

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Answer:

  • ‘Visti’ means forced labour.

Enrich Your Learning:

‘Visti’ In medieval India:

  • ‘Visti’ in Sanskrit means mandatory or forced labour.
  • The term Visti was used in the sense of labour, which the villagers were obliged to provide to the king or state, during Mauryan Age.
  • Visti was the manual labour for the state given by the labourers, artisans and slaves instead of paying taxes.
  • This was one among the four kinds of taxes imposed on agriculturists or cultivators by the State.
  • We find in the Arthashastra that there were two kinds of labour tax — the ordinary tax, paid in the form of labour (simhanika) and the additional gratuitous performance of public service.
  • Needless to say, this ‘mandatory’ labour went unpaid.
  • The other three were tithe on raw produce, special levy on produce during war or famine and occasional contributions to the king’s household by his subjects.
  • Alternatively, the word can also mean a person who is doing the said mandatory labour.
  • However various types of works were done by means of Visti labour like measuring, supervision of grinding etc., in royal farms and industries. But the occasion for demand was perhaps not fixed and it was counted as one of the important resources both for the army and kingdom.
  • The huge constructions in stone and reservoirs, buildings and other works of art could not have been possible simply with the help of the regular employees.
  • The system of Visti was so common in use that the terms such as Vigipradhana, kosavigi, Viscirvahana, Karmantaviyi, vigikara-pratikaram and hiragya – visti etc were in use.
  • Generally, the states of early India demanded labour from their citizens from time to time for the performance of works of public utility.
  • This was regarded so essential in the Mauryan period that the village and city accountants were instructed to keep an account of men engaged in Visti.

 

 

Puducherry comes under the jurisdiction of Chennai high court. True or False?

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Answer:

Right Statement:

  • Puducherry comes under the jurisdiction of Madras High Court (1862) – seated at Chennai.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • Andaman and Nicobar comes under the jurisdiction of Calcutta high court.
  • Before 2013, the six north-eastern states – Tripura, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh – have benches of the Guwahati High Court. Sikkim has a separate high court since 1975. In 2013, three north-eastern Indian states of Tripura, Manipur and Meghalaya got their own high courts.

High Courts having jurisdiction over more than one state and / or Union Territories:

  • Hyderabad High Court (1954) – Andhra Pradesh and Telangana seated in
  • Bombay High Court (1862) – Maharashtra, Goa, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu seated in Mumbai (Benches at Nagpur, Panaji and Aurangabad).
  • Calcutta High Court (1862) – West Bengal and Andaman and Nicobar Islands seated at Kolkata (Circuit Bench at Port Blair).
  • Guwahati High Court (1948) – Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh seated at Guwahati (Benches at Kohima, Aizawl and Itanagar).
  • Kerala High Court (1958) – Kerala and Lakshadweep seated at Ernakulam.
  • Madras High Court (1862) – Tamil Nadu and Puducherry seated at Chennai.
  • Punjab and Haryana High Court (1875) – Punjab, Haryana and Chandigarh seated at Chandigarh.

 

 

It is famous for its stone carvings flourished under the Pallava rulers. It depicts arjuna’s penace or the descent of Ganges. It is also a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Which temple has these kinds of characteristics?

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Answer:

  • Mahabalipuram

Enrich Your Learning:

  • The temple city of Mahabalipuram is located in Tamil Nadu, famous for its stone carvings.
  • It dates back to the Tamil Pallava dynasty in the 7th-9th century.
  • Mamallapuram became prominent during the Pallava-era reign of Simhavishnu during the late 6th century, a period of political competition with the Pandyas, the Cheras and the Cholas and spiritual ferment with the rise of 6th- to 8th-century Bhakti movement poet-scholars: the Vaishnava Alvars and the Shaiva Nayanars.
  • These are the ratha temples, the best examples of rock-cut temples.
  • They are Monolithic temples carved out of a huge, single piece of stone.
  • The structures here, mostly carved straight out of granite, are among the oldest existing examples of Dravidian (South Indian) architecture.
  • The group of monuments at Mahabalipuram is a collection of 7th- and 8th-century CE religious monuments in the coastal resort town of Mamallapuram.
  • The city has 400 ancient monuments and Hindu temples, including one of the largest open-air rock reliefs in the world: The Descent of the Ganges or Arjuna’s Penance.
  • It is a historic city and a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • It became a prominent center of art and literature between 3rd and 7th century CE.
  • Ancient mariners referred to Mahabalipuram as the “land of the Seven Pagodas”.
  • When Marco Polo arrived in India on his way back to Venice from Southeast Asia, he mentioned (but did not visit) “Seven Pagodas” and the name became associated with the shore temples of Mahabalipuram in publications by European merchants’ centuries later.
  • They are also called the Mamallapuram temples or Mahabalipuram temples in contemporary literature.
  • Several coins excavated from here reveal the existence of trade with Romans in ancient times.
  • The group of monuments contains several categories like:
    • Ratha temples with monolithic processional chariots, built between 630 and 668;
    • Mandapa viharas (cave temples) with narratives from the Mahabharata and Shaivic, Shakti and Vaishna inscriptions in a number of Indian languages and scripts;
    • Rock reliefs (particularly bas-reliefs); stone-cut temples built between 695 and 722, and
    • Archaeological excavations dated to the 6th century and earlier.
  • There is also a set of bas reliefs found at Mahabalipuram (Mamallapuram) which is attributed to the pallava period.
  • The site, restored after 1960, has been managed by the Archaeological Survey of India.

 

 

In context of winds, what are Roaring Forties?

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Answer:

  • Westerlies are known with various names such as the Roaring Forties, the Furious Fifties and the Shrieking Sixties.

Enrich Your Learning:

Westerlies:

  • Westerlies blow from the sub-tropical high-pressure regions to the sub-polar low-pressure regions.
  • These winds blow in the opposite direction of the Trade Winds.
  • In the northern hemisphere they blow from the south-west to the north-east and in the southern hemisphere they blow from the north-west to the south-east.
  • In the northern hemisphere they are characterized by depressions and anti-cyclones moving in an easterly direction.
  • They bring plenty of rain most of the year because having originated in the warmer regions these winds bear plenty of moisture.
  • In the northern hemisphere, land masses cause a lot of disruption and so the winds become weak.
  • In the southern hemisphere, between the latitudes 40° S and 60° S there is a continuous expanse of ocean and the Westerlies gain considerable strength and persistence.

 

 

In context of Indian Parliament, the Union Executive consists of whom?

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Answer:

  • The Union executive consists of the President, the Vice-President, the Prime Minister, the council of ministers and the attorney general of India.

Enrich Your Learning:

The Union executive:

  • Articles 52 to 78 in Part V of the Constitution deal with the Union executive.
  • The Union Executive is the body that is set up to look into the implementation of the laws. 
  • The organ of a government that primarily looks after the function of implementation and administration is known the Executive.
  • The Executive is the branch of Government accountable for the implementation of laws and policies legislated by the legislature.
  • Article 74 (1) of the Indian Constitution states that “there shall be a Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister at the head to aid and advise the President who shall in the exercise of his functions, act in accordance with such advice.”

 

 

How the recent change or shift to 1st February is beneficial as compare to the old tradition of announcing Budget proposals on February 28?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

  • The government in the year 2017 presented the Budget on February 1, departing from the British-era practice of announcing Budget proposals on February 28.
  • India currently follows April-March financial year, again a 150-year-old tradition of British rule.
  • In India, the Budget is presented in Parliament on a date fixed by the President.
  • In an election year, Budget may be presented twice — first to secure vote on account for a few months and later in full.
  • While the Constitution does not mandate any specific date for presentation of the Budget, the finance minister is required to submit the Budget to the Parliament usually on the last working day of February so that the Lok Sabha has one month to review and modify the Budget proposals.
  • The government had been mulling a shift to January-December financial year and set up a committee to deliberate the issue.
  • The recent change or shift to 1st February is done so that the legislative approval for annual spending plans and tax proposals could be completed before the beginning of the new financial year on 1 April.
  • It is said that the advancement of budget announcement date will help the entire budgetary exercise to be over by, and the Finance Bill to be passed and implemented from 1 April onwards, instead of June. It’ll help companies and households to finalise their savings, investment and tax plans.
  • The Finance Bill and Appropriation Bill containing tax changes and expenditure details respectively are passed in May. Several tax proposals come into effect only after the Finance Bill is passed in May.
  • The advantage here is that the Finance Bill will be passed in the Parliament in two months — February and March, and expenditures can begin from 1 April, unlike now. As per the traditional practice, after presenting the budget in Parliament on the last day of February, the Cabinet has the last month (March) left to get all the legislative approvals for the annual spending and tax proposals before the beginning of the new financial year on 1 April.
  • Therefore, if the process is initiated earlier, there would be no need for getting a Vote on Account.
  • Early presentation of budget will help the entire exercise to get over by 31 March, and expenditure as well as tax proposals can come into effect right from the beginning of new fiscal, thereby ensuring better implementation.

 

 

Which school of Sufi movement in India was organized into Sunni spiritual orders and claims to trace its spiritual lineage to Prophet Muhammad?

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Answer:

  • Naqshbandi school of Sufi movement is the only Sufi tariqah which traces its lineage to Prophet Muhammad through Abu Bakr as-Siddiq, the first Caliph.

Enrich Your Learning:

Naqshbandi school of Sufi movement:

  • The Sufis were organised into religious orders or silsilahs.
  • These silsilahs were named after their founders such as Chishti, Suhrawardi, Qadi. and Naqshbandis.
  • The Naqshbandi is a major Sunni spiritual order of Sufism.
  • All other sufi tariqahs trace their lineage through Ali ibn Abu-Talib (ra), who became the fourth Caliph of Islam.
  • It rose in Central Asia and greatly influenced the development of the Indian and Turkish empires.
  • The school gained the momentum in the last years of Akbar’s reign.
  • Of all the Sufi orders, it was the nearest to orthodoxy and tried to counteract the liberal religious policies of Akbar whom they considered a heretic.
  • Naqshbandi movement was the most Muslim orthodoxy and revivalist movement of the time.
  • Naqshbandi school opposed the concept of pantheistic mysticism (tauhid) or the belief in the unity of God and the created beings, denouncing it as un-lslamic.
  • It also opposed all those practices and beliefs which were due to the influence of Hinduism, such as the use of music in religious gatherings fsama) excessive meditation, visiting tombs of saints etc.
  • In order to assert the Islamic character of the state, they demanded re-imposition of jizya, a stern attitude towards the Hindus and minimum association with them by Muslims.
  • Naqshbandi Order has been divided into several sub-orders by the course of time that include the likes of Sardaria, Owaisiah, Haqqani, Aslamiya, Hijazi, Mujarradiya, Maqsoodiya and Tauheedia.