Prelims 2021

8th October 2020 Daily Current Flash Cards

Meenakshi Temple; Quantum State Interferography; Quantum State Tomography; Ulcerative colitis; River Gomati; Tripura-Bangladesh water route; Police Commissionerates System.
By IASToppers
October 08, 2020

 

 

 

Who is responsible for the force in the city and accountable to the state government in the Police Commissionerates System?

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Answer: Commissioner of Police

Enrich Your Learning:

Police Commissionerates System:

  • Under the 7th Schedule of the Constitution, ‘Police’ is under the State list, meaning individual states typically legislate and exercise control over this subject.
  • In the arrangement in force at the district level, a ‘dual system’ of control exists, in which the Superintendent of Police (SP) has to work with the District Magistrate (DM) for supervising police administration.
  • The system gives more responsibilities, including magisterial powers, to IPS officers of Inspector General of Police (IG) rank posted as commissioners. 
  • At the metropolitan level, many states have replaced the dual system with the commissionerate system, as it is supposed to allow for faster decision-making to solve complex urban-centric issues.
  • Commissioner of Police (CP) is the head of a unified police command structure, is responsible for the force in the city, and is accountable to the state government.
  • The CP is drawn from the Deputy Inspector General rank or above, and is assisted by Special/Joint/Additional/Deputy Commissioners.

How many states have it?

  • Almost all states barring Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, UT of J&K, and some North-eastern states have a commissionerate system.

Difference between Dual system and Police Commissionerates System:

  • Policing is based on the Police Act of 1861. Under the colonial system, the overall in-charge of a district or region was the district collector; the SP reported to him.
  • The powers of the executive magistrate, such as issuing orders for preventive arrests or imposition of Section 144 CrPC, were vested in the district collector. This was called the dual system of police administration.
  • Under the Commissionerate system, the commissioner does not report to the DM. In Mumbai and Delhi, he reports directly to the government.
  • It gives an integrated command structure. It helps fix responsibility with the Commissioner and eliminates blame game between civil administration and police when something goes wrong.

 

 

 

River Gomati is the largest and longest river of Tripura. True OR False.

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Answer: True

Enrich Your Learning:

River Gomati:

  • The Gomati Riveris a tributary of the Ganges, Uttar Pradesh.
  • River Gomati connects with Meghna in Bangladesh. 
  • River Gomati is the largest and longest river of Tripura with cumulative length of 180 km.
  • It is considered a sacred river and devotees converge along its banks at Tirthmukh.
  • Due to the high altitude of in its upper catchment and Dumbur dam built in 1974 as part of the Gumti hydro-electric power project, the river erodes a lot of sand and rocky particles in its upper segment.
  • A river needs at least 4-5 feet depth for goods carriers to navigate on a regular basis.
  • Gomati riverbed remains navigable for less than four months a year, that too only during monsoon days.
  • For rest of the year, scanty rainfall in the hills results in low volume while accumulating sediments raise the average riverbed, rendering Gomati even shallower.

Tripura-Bangladesh water route:

  • Recently, Tripura opens its first-ever inland waterway with Bangladesh from Sonamura in Sepahijala district.
  • The route connecting Sonamura, about 60 km from Agartala in the Indian side, and Daudkandi of Chittagong in Bangladesh was included in the list of Indo-Bangladesh Protocol (IBP) routes.

 

 

 

Define the term: Ulcerative colitis.

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Answer:

Ulcerative colitis is a long-term condition that causes the lining of the colon and rectum to become inflamed and develop tiny open sores (ulcers). 

Enrich Your Learning:

Ulcerative colitis:

  • Scientists aren’t sure what causes it, but there are known risk factors. These include recent gut infections, a family history of the disease, and taking anti-inflammatory painkillers such as ibuprofen.
  • People living in western nations and at higher latitudes are also at greater risk.
  • Most new cases are reported in early adulthood, but some people develop the disease in childhood or in later life.
  • Ulcerative colitis often causes diarrhoea and blood in the stool. This may be associated with abdominal pain and cramps. 

Treatments:

  • Although there is no cure for the disease, there is a range of drugs that can help to reduce the symptoms or lengthen the period of remission.

 

 

 

What do you mean by Quantum State Tomography (QST)?

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Answer:

The determination of an unknown quantum state is usually done by a method known as Quantum State Tomography (QST). It involves measuring projection of the quantum state on various directions in state space and reconstructing the quantum state from the information obtained.

Enrich Your Learning:

Quantum State Interferography & Quantum State Tomography:

  • Recently, scientists from Raman Research Institute, an autonomous institute under the Department of Science & Technology have found a new way of inferring the state of a system from an interference pattern, which they term Quantum State Interferography.
  • Scientists experimenting with new ways to manipulate quantum states so that they can be harnessed for computing, communication, and metrology, has found a novel way to characterise and estimate such states. This method of characterisation called Quantum State Interferography.
  • It can help make such manipulations simpler so that several crucial operations in quantum technologies become less cumbersome.
  • The determination of an unknown quantum state is usually done by a method known as Quantum State Tomography (QST).
  • This involves measuring projection of the quantum state on various directions in state space and reconstructing the quantum state from the information obtained.
  • However, scenarios where the dimensions are large, the operations needed to perform tomography increase quadratically. The experimental settings often need to be changed many times, thus making the process very cumbersome.
  • This work gives a single-shot black-box approach to quantum state estimation as well as quantifying quantum entanglement. 
  • Quantum State Interferography can serve as a “black box” tool for quantum state estimation from the interference pattern without any need for change in experimental settings.

Key fact:

  • A qubit is a 2-dimensional quantum system and requires usually 2 complex numbers to be determined towards state estimation.

 

 

 

Meenakshi Temple at Madurai was originally built during reign of__________. a) Pandyas OR b) Nayakar

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Answer:

It was originally built during reign of Pandyas. However, it was rebuilt by the Nayak ruler Vishwanatha Nayakar around the 16th century.

Enrich Your Learning:

Meenakshi Temple:

  • The Meenakshi temple at Madurai located near the bank of the Vaigai River, Tamil Nadu.
  • It is dedicated to goddess Meenakshi, the consort of lord Shiva.
  • All the major festivals of Tamil Nadu are celebrated here, most important being the Chitrai festival.
  • The sculpted pillars are adorned with the exquisite murals that celebrate the ethereal beauty of princess Meenakshi and the scenes of her wedding with Lord Shiva.
  • At the Sundareswarar temple across the courtyard, Lord Shiva is represented as a lingam.
  • The pillars depict scenes from the wedding of Meenakshi and Sundareswarar.
  • There are 985 richly carved pillars here and each one surpasses the other in beauty.
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Prelims 2021 Daily Current Flash Cards 2020
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