Flash-Cards-for-IAS-Prelims-2018-A&M-Day-2
70 Days WAR Plan

Day#2 Static Flash Cards Ancient & Medieval History [70 Days WAR Plan]

‘Sulh-i-kul doctrine’; Pancha Siddhantika’; Diwan-i-Bayutat ; ‘Polaj’; Domingo Paes; Fernao Nune; Tactic of tulughma; Sufi khanqah; ‘Shramana tradition’; Chishti Order of Sufi tradition;
By IT's Core Team
March 24, 2019

 

 

 

The Chishti Order of Sufi tradition was the first of the four main Sufi Orders to be established in India. Right OR Wrong?

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Answer:

About the Chishti Order of Sufi tradition:

  • The Chishti Order is a Sufi order within the mystic Sufi tradition of Islam.
  • It began in Chisht, a small town near Herat, Afghanistan about 930 CE.
  • The Chishti Order is primarily followed in Afghanistan and Indian subcontinent.
  • Moinuddin Chishti introduced the Chishti Order in Lahore (Punjab) and Ajmer (Rajasthan), sometime in the middle of the 12th century CE.
  • The Chishti Order is known for its emphasis on love, tolerance, and openness.
  • The Chishti Order of Sufis was the first of the four main Sufi Orders, namely Chishtia, Qadiria, Suhurawadia and Naqshbandia, to be established in India.
  • Unlike other Sufi orders, Chishti sect maintained distance with the ruling class, accepted the traditions of common men and gave them the message to lead a simple life.

 

 

 

In the context of ancient Indian history, what does the ‘Shramana tradition’ refer to?

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Answer:

The Shramana movement was a Non-Vedic movement parallel to Vedic Hinduism in ancient India.

What is the ‘Shramana tradition’?

  • Shramana means “seeker, one who performs acts of austerity, ascetic”.
  • Shramana is a wandering monk in certain austere traditions of ancient India, including Jainism, Buddhism, and ajvika religion.
  • The Shramana tradition gave rise to Jainism and Buddhism. The Shramanas adopted a path that is alternate to the Vedic rituals to achieve salvation, while renouncing domestic life.
  • The Shramana tradition was responsible for the related concepts of saṃsāra (the cycle of birth and death) and moksha (liberation from that cycle).
  • The Shramanas typically engaged three types of activities like austerities, meditation, and associated theories.
  • Śramaṇas held a view of samsara as full of suffering (Dukka). They practiced Ahimsa and rigorous ascetism. They believed in Karma and Moksa and viewed rebirth as undesirable.

The basis beliefs of Shramana philosophy are as follows:

  • “Belief in Karma and rebirth, and Samsara and transmigration of Soul”
  • “Denunciation of creator and omnipotent God”
  • “Rejection of Vedas as revealed texts”
  • “Belief in purification of soul to attain moksa through Ahimsa, renunciation and austerities”
  • “Rejection of caste system”
  • “Denial of efficacy of sacrifices and rituals for purification”

 

 

 

One reason why Islam became more favourable in India was due to the establishment of Sufi khanqah. What is khanqah? 

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Answer:

  • A khanqah is commonly defined as a hospice, lodge, community center, or dormitory ran by Sufis.

More about khanqah:

  • Khanqahs were also known as Jama’at Khana, large gathering halls. Structurally, a khanqah could be one large room or have additional dwelling space. Although some khanqah establishments were independent of royal funding or patronage, many received fiscal grants (waqf) and donations from benefactors for continuing services. Over time, the function of traditional Sufi khanqahs evolved as Sufism solidified in India.
  • Initially, the Sufi khanqah life emphasized a close and fruitful relationship between the master-teacher (sheikh) and their students. For example, students in khanqahs would pray, worship, study, and read works together.
  • The other major function of a khanqah was of a community shelter. Many of these facilities were built in low caste, rural, Hindu vicinities. The Chishti Order Sufis in India, especially, crystallized khanqahs with the highest form of modest hospitality and generosity.
  • Through a khanqah’s humble services, Sufis presented the true form of Islam and forged a way for voluntary large scale conversions of lower class Hindustanis.

 

 

 

The tactic of tulughma is associated with which Mughal ruler? 

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Answer:

  • Babur used tulughma tactic during the First Battle of Panipat.

What was the tactic of tulughma?

  • Babur was a skilled tactician and surprised the Delhi sultan with his clever tactics.
  • The first was called tulughma, a tactic in which Babur divided his force into forward left, rear left, forward right, rear right, and center divisions.
  • Once the fighting began, the right and left flanks broke away and surrounded Lodi’s army, forcing them towards the center. That’s where Babur’s second tactic came into play.

 

 

 

Which is the only surviving Indian text that includes a description of Greeks who decided to stay in India after arriving with Alexander the Great? Yavana Purana OR Yuga Purana?  

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Answer:

  • Yuga Purana

Enrich your learning:

  • The Yuga Purana is a Sanskrit text and the last chapter of a Jyotisha (astrology) text Vriddhagargiya Samhita. It is also considered a minor text in the Puranic literature.
  • The Yuga Purana is structured as a chronicle, and is notable for historical information.
  • It is the only surviving Indian text that includes a description of Greeks who decided to stay in India after arriving with Alexander the Great, and several Indo-Greek rulers of the ancient Indian history.
  • The extant manuscripts of the Yuga Purana are in poor form and considered by scholars as highly corrupted over its history.

Background:

  • In Sanskrit sources, the usage of the words “Yona”, “Yauna”, “Yonaka”, “Yavana” or “Javana” etc. appears repeatedly, and particularly in relation to the Greek kingdoms which neighbored or sometimes occupied the Punjab region over a period of several centuries from the 4th century BCE to the first century CE.

 

 

 

In Medieval India, Portuguese travellers Domingo Paes and Fernao Nuniz visited which emperor’s land?

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Answer:

  • Krishnadevaraya of the Vijayanagara Empire

Enrich your learning:

Domingo Paes:

  • Domingo Paes was a Portuguese traveller who visited the Vijayanagara Empire, located in the Deccan in southern India, around 1520.
  • He went there as part of a group of traders from the then colony of Goa. His visit took place during the rule of King Krishna Deva Raya and Paes recorded his impressions of Vijayanagara state in his Chronica dos reis de Bisnaga (“Chronicle of the Vijayanagar kings”).
  • His detailed account is the only known description of that empire and of its capital, Vijayanagara (Hampi), by a traveller from abroad.

Fernao Nunes:

  • Fernao Nunes, also known as Fernao Nuniz, was a Portuguese traveler, chronicler and horse trader who spent three years in Vijayanagara, capital of the Vijayanagara Empire in the time period 1535-1537 CE.
  • His writings have brought to light many interesting details about Vijayanagara at that time, including construction of massive fortification works, watch towers and security walls.
  • From his notes it is known that the expansion of the regal capital limits happened during the rule of King Bukka Raya II and Deva Raya I.

Other foreign travellers who visited India:

  • Other foreign travellers included Venetian traveller Nicolo de Conti, Persian traveller Abdur Razzak and Ibn Batuta has left account of Harihara-I and Bahamani kingdom in his work Rehla.

 

 

 

Do you know about the term ‘Polaj’ in context of Mughul period in India?

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Answer:

  • Polaj was the ideal and best type of land throughout the empire.

Enrich your learning:

Shershah Suri had already divided land into four different categories. Akbar followed the system and to make a comparative estimate of the produce of lands and fixed different revenues for each of them. These four types were as follows:

  • Polaj was the ideal and best type of land throughout the empire. This land was cultivated always and was never allowed to lie fallow.
  • Parati was the land kept out of cultivation temporarily in order to recoup its lost fertility.
  • Chachar was a kind of land allowed to lie fallow for three or four years and then resumed under cultivation.
  • Banjar was the worst kind of land that was left out of cultivation for five years or upwards.

 

 

 

The official Diwan-i-Bayutat in Mughal India was responsible for which function?

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Answer:

Diwan-i-Bayutat in Mughal India was responsible for the maintenance of roads and government buildings.

Important ranks and their functions:

  • Wazir- Head of revenue department; but reduced power as compared to Sultanate
  • Diwan- Responsible for all income and expenditure; control over Khalisa & Jagir
  • Mir Bakshi- Headed military department, nobility, information and intelligence agencies
  • Mir Saman- Incharge of imperial households (Karkhanas)
  • Diwan-i-Bayutat- Maintained roads, govt. buildings
  • Mir Manshi- Royal correspondence
  • Sadr-us-Sadr- Incharge of charitable & religious endowments
  • Qazi-ul-Quzat- Head of judicial department
  • Muhtasib- Censor of public morals
  • Mushrif-i-Mumalik- Accountant general
  • Mustauf-i-Mumalik- Auditor general
  • Daroga-i-dak-chauki- Officer in charge of imperial post
  • Mir-i-arz- Officer in charge of petition
  • Waqia Navis- News reporters

 

 

 

In context of Medieval History of India, what do you mean by the ‘Sulh-i-kul doctrine’?

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Answer:

  • Sulh-i kul is an Arabic term literally meaning “peace with all,” “universal peace,” or “absolute peace,” drawn from a Sufi mystic principle.
  • The new religion developed by Akbar known as Din-i-Ilahi has its genesis in Sulh-i-kul doctrine.
  • Akbar took the Sufi mystic notion of sulh-i-kul and transformed it to become a principle denoting amity- within a culturally pluralistic India.
  • Sulh- i-kul was to become his method of judging what was legally right or wrong within his empire and was created because Akbar understood that he was trying to build political institutions for predominately non-Muslim society. Thus, in his empire, the beliefs and opinions of the orthodox mullahs were not to be the critical test for his rule because he wanted all of his subjects to be judged equally before the law.
  • Akbar established separation of state and religion and opened government positions to members of all religions. He abolished the jizya on non-Muslims and the forced conversion of prisoners of war to Islam. He converted the meetings of Muslim clerics into open discussions between Islam, Hindu, Parsi and Christian scholars and in 1579 issued an edict that made him the highest authority in religious matters.
  • In the civil courts Akbar abolished laws that discriminated against non-Muslims. He raised the Hindu court system to official status side by side with Muslim law and reformed the legislation with the aim to maximize common laws for Muslim and Hindu citizens.

 

 

‘Pancha Siddhantika’ is one of the famous books written by Varahamihira. It is a treatise on which subject?

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Answer: 

  • Varahamihira’s main work is the book Pancha Siddhantika (Treatise on the five Astronomical Canons). It is a treatise on mathematical astronomy.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • Varahamihira was an Indian astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer who lived in Ujjain.
  • He is considered to be one of the “Nine Jewels” (Navaratnas) of the court of legendary ruler Yashodharman Vikramaditya of Malwa.
  • Pancha Siddhantika summarises five earlier astronomical treatises, namely the Surya Siddhanta, Romaka Siddhanta, Paulisa Siddhanta, Vasishtha Siddhanta and Paitamaha Siddhanta. It is a compendium of Vedanga Jyotisha as well as Hellenistic astronomy.
  • Another important contribution of Varahamihira is the encyclopaedic Brihat-Samhita. It covers wide ranging subjects of human interest, including astrology, planetary movements, eclipses, rainfall, rainfall, clouds even domestic relations, gems, pearls and rituals.