Flash-Cards-for-IAS-Prelims-2018-Revision-Day-11
70 Days WAR Plan

Day#11 Static Flash Cards Polity & Geography [70 Days WAR Plan]

Airavatesvara Temple; State legislative Council; Different layers of atmosphere; Amara-nayaka system; Right to equality in the Indian Constitution; Tropical evergreen forest; Fundamental Rights also available to foreign nationals; Office of Whip; Nayanars and Alvars; Minerals; etc.
By IT's Core Team
April 01, 2019

 

 

A naturally occurring organic and inorganic substance, having an orderly atomic structure and a definite chemical composition and physical properties is known as?

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Answer:

  • A mineral is a naturally occurring organic and inorganic substance, having an orderly atomic structure and a definite chemical composition and physical properties.

Enrich Your Learning:

Minerals:

  • A mineral is composed of two or more elements. But, sometimes single element minerals like sulphur, copper, silver, gold, graphite etc. are found.
  • 98 per cent of the total crust of the earth is composed of eight elements, they are: oxygen, silicon, aluminium, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium.
  • The remaining 2 per cent consists of titanium, hydrogen, phosphorous, manganese, sulphur, carbon, nickel and other elements.
  • The basic source of all minerals is the hot magma in the interior of the earth. When magma cools, crystals of minerals appear, and a systematic series of minerals are formed.

 

 

Nayanars were the ardent devotees of Lord Vishnu and Alvars were the ardent devotees of Lord Shiva. Right OR Wrong?

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Answer:

Right Statement:

  • Nayanars were the ardent devotees of Lord Shiva and Alvars were the ardent devotees of Lord Vishnu.

Enrich Your Learning:

Nayanars and Alvars:

  • The seventh to ninth centuries saw the emergence of new religious movements.
  • These movements were led by:
    • Nayanars the saints that were devoted to Shiva and
    • Alvars the saints that were devoted to Vishnu.
  • These saints came from all castes including those considered “untouchable” like the Pulaiyar, the Panars, workers, peasants, hunters, soldiers, Brahmanas and chiefs.
  • They preached ardent love of Shiva or Vishnu as the path to salvation and were critical towards Buddhism and Jainism.
  • The drew in, the ideals of love and heroism that were found in the Sangam literature (the earliest example of Tamil literature, composed during the early centuries of the Common Era) and blended them with the values of bhakti.
  • They went from place to place composing exquisite poems in praise of the deities enshrined in the villages they visited and set them to music.
  • Between the 10th and 12th centuries the Chola and Pandya kings built elaborate temples around many of the shrines visited by the saint-poets, strengthening the links between the bhakti tradition and temple worship.
  • During this time the poems were compiled along with the hagiographies or religious biographies of the Alvars and Nayanars.

 

 

In context of Indian Parliament, what is Whip? What are the various types of the Whip?

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Answer:

  • A whip is an official of a political party whose task is to ensure party discipline in a legislature. This usually means ensuring that members of the party vote according to the party platform, rather than according to their own individual ideology or the will of their constituents.

A whip is of three kinds.

  1. A one-line whip is non-binding, and merely serves to inform the members of the vote.
  2. A two-line whip seeks attendance in the legislature during the vote.
  3. A three-line whip is a clear-cut directive, to be present in the legislature during the vote and cast vote according.

Enrich Your Learning:

Office of Whip:

  • The office of ‘whip’ is neither mentioned in the Constitution of India nor in the Rules of the House or in a Parliamentary Statute.
  • It is based on the conventions of the parliamentary government.
  • Therefore, every political party, whether ruling or opposition, has its own whip in the Parliament.
  • He is appointed by the political party to serve as an assistant floor leader and charged with the responsibility of ensuring the attendance of his party members in large numbers and securing their support in favour of or against a particular issue.
  • He regulates and monitors their behaviour in the Parliament.
  • The members are supposed to follow the directives given by the whip. Otherwise, disciplinary action can be taken.

 

 

Which Fundamental Rights are also available to foreign nationals?

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Solution:

  • Except the Fundamental Rights under the articles 15, 16, 19, 29 and 30 all the Fundamental Rights are available to both citizens and foreign nationals.
  • Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of race, religion, caste, sex or place of birth and protection of language, script and culture of minorities are not available to foreigners.

Enrich Your Learning:

Fundamental Rights also available to foreign nationals:

  • Equality before law and equal protection of laws (Article 14).
  • Protection in respect of conviction for offences (Article 20).
  • Protection of life and personal liberty (Article 21).
  • Right to elementary education (Article 21A).
  • Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases (Article 22).
  • Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour (Article 23).
  • Prohibition of employment of children in factories etc., (Article 24).
  • Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion (Article 25).
  • Freedom to manage religious affairs (Article 26).
  • Freedom from payment of taxes for promotion of any religion (Article 27).
  • Freedom from attending religious instruction or worship in certain educational institutions (Article 28).

Fundamental Rights available to only citizens and not foreigners

  • Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth (Article 15).
  • Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment (Article 16).
  • Six basic freedoms subject to reasonable restrictions (Article 19).
  • Protection of language, script and culture of minorities (Article 29).
  • Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions (Article 30).

 

 

Which type of forests are found mostly near the equator?

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Answer:

  • Tropical evergreen forests are thick forests occur in the regions near the equator and close to the tropics because these regions are hot and receive heavy rainfall throughout the year.

Enrich Your Learning:

Tropical evergreen forest:

  • Tropical evergreen forests are also called tropical rainforests.
  • The trees do not shed their leaves altogether and therefore called evergreen.
  • In India these forests are found in the western slope of the Western Ghats, hills of the north-eastern region and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
  • Species found in these forests include rosewood, mahogony, aini, ebony, etc.

 

 

Which Articles of Indian Constitution can be grouped under the Right to equality?

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Answer:

Provisions of the Right to Equality:

  • Article 14 Equality before law and equal protection of laws.
  • Article 15 Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.
  • Article 16 Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.
  • Article 17 Abolition of untouchability and prohibition of its practice.
  • Article 18 Abolition of titles except military and academic.

Enrich Your Learning:

Right to equality in the Indian Constitution

  • Right to Equality ensures equal rights for all the citizens.
  • The Right to Equality prohibits inequality on the basis of religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth, place of residence or any of them
  • It also ensures equality of opportunity in matters of public employment and prevents the State from discriminating against anyone in matters of employment on the said grounds.
  • It confers rights on all persons whether citizens or foreigners.

 

 

Amara-nayaka system was a major political innovation of which empire?

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Answer:

  • The amara-nayaka system was a major political innovation of the Vijayanagara Empire.

Enrich Your Learning:

Amara-nayaka system:

  • The amara-nayakas were military commanders.
  • It was a political innovation of Vijayanagara Empire.
  • Many features of this system were derived from the iqta system of the Delhi Sultanate.
  • They were given territories to govern by the raya (the rulers of Vijayanagara empire).
  • They collected taxes and other dues from peasants, craftsperson’s and traders.
  • They retained part of the revenue for personal use and for maintaining a stipulated contingent of horses and elephants.
  • The other remaining part of the revenue was used for the maintenance of temples and irrigation works.
  • They provided effective fighting force to the vijayanagara kings with which they brought the entire southern peninsula under their control.
  • They sent tribute to the king annually and personally to express their loyalty.
  • Kings occasionally asserted their control over them by transferring them from one place to another.
  • During the 17th century, many of these nayakas established independent kingdoms that largely affected the central imperial structure of the empire.

 

 

What are the salient features of different layers of atmosphere?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Salient features of different layers of atmosphere:

  • Troposphere is the most important layer of the atmosphere because all kinds of weather changes take place only in this layer.
  • The air never remains static in this layer; therefore, this layer is called changing sphere or troposphere.
  • The upper limit of the troposphere is called tropopause, a transitional zone, where characteristics of both the troposphere and ionosphere are found.
  • The temperature of Tropopause above the equator is less than the temperature of Tropopause above the poles.
  • Weather related incidents do not take place in Stratosphere, like clouds and rainfall. The air blows horizontally here and therefore this layer is considered ideal for flying of aircrafts.
  • ‘Meteors’ or falling stars occur in Mesosphere.
  • Electrically charged currents flows in the air in this sphere, which reflects the radio waves back on the earth making the radio broadcasting possible.

 

 

Who is authorized to create or abolish the State Legislative Councils?

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Answer:

  • There is a constitutional provision that confers to create or abolish the State Legislative Councils to Parliament.

Enrich Your Learning:

State legislative Council:

  • The Constitution provides for the abolition or creation of legislative councils in states.
  • Accordingly, the Parliament can abolish a legislative council (where it already exists) or create it (where it does not exist), if the legislative assembly of the concerned state passes a resolution to that effect.
  • Such a specific resolution must be passed by the state assembly by a special majority, that is, a majority of the total membership of the assembly and a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members of the assembly present and voting.
  • This Act of Parliament is considered as an amendment of the Constitution for the purposes of Article 368 and is passed like an ordinary piece of legislation (i.e., by simple majority).

 

 

A Hindu temple of Tamil architecture located in the town of Darasuram of Tamil Nadu was built by which Chola king?

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Answer:

  • Airavatesvara Temple was built by Rajaraja Chola II in the 12th century CE.

Enrich Your Learning:

Airavatesvara Temple:

  • The Cholas built hundreds of Hindu temples across their empire.
  • The Cholas continued the temple-building traditions of the Pallava dynasty and contributed significantly to the Dravidian temple design.
  • The Airavatesvara temple is one of those temples built by Cholas.
  • It is a Hindu temple of Tamil architecture located in the town of Darasuram, near Kumbakonam in the Tamil Nadu.
  • It is one among a cluster of eighteen medieval era large Hindu temples.
  • This temple was built by Rajaraja Chola II in the 12th century CE is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, along with the Brihadeeswara Temple at Thanjavur, the Gangaikondacholisvaram Temple at Gangaikonda Cholapuram that are referred to as the Great Living Chola Temples.
  • The temple is dedicated to Shiva and displays Vaishnavism and Shaktism traditions of Hinduism, along with the legends associated with Nayanars – the Bhakti movement saints of Shaivism.

 

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