Flash-Cards-for-IAS-Prelims-2020-Day-12
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Day#12 Current Affairs Flash Cards [PRELIMS 2020]

“Gandhipedia”; Warehouse receipt financing (WFR); Farmer Producer Organizations (FPOs); ‘Parthenogenesis’; ‘Enabling Clause’;
By IASToppers
August 07, 2019

 

 

Recently, the government announced to develop “Gandhipedia”. What is it?

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Answer:

  • In budget 2019-2020, the Finance Minister announced that a “Gandhipedia” was being developed in order to sensitise society, particularly the youth, about Gandhian values.

Enrich Your Learning:

More about Gandhipedia:

  • It is being developed by National Council for Science Museums.
  • It is being developed as a social media portal that will contain original works related, to Mahatma Gandhi.
  • The portal will run on artificial intelligence and machine running and will be accessible to all.
  • It is to be jointly implemented by IIT Kharagpur and IIT-Gandhinagar, it will act as a repository of knowledge on Gandhiji and will contain.
  • Presently, a repository of knowledge on Gandhiji is maintained by the Sabarmati Ashram Preservation and Memorial Trust in the form of the Gandhi Heritage Portal, it will be available even after Gandhipedia is inaugurated.

Significance

  • The information to be stored in Gandhipedia will be uploaded optical character recognition and other advanced technologies thus all information in Gandhipedia will be in a searchable format.

 

 

What do you mean by the term ‘Enabling Clause’, sometimes appeared in news?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

  • The Enabling Clause is officially called the “Decision on Differential and More Favourable Treatment, Reciprocity and Fuller Participation of Developing Countries,”.
  • It was adopted under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1979.
  • It allows developed country members to give differential and more favourable treatment to developing countries.
  • The Enabling Clause is the legal basis under the World Trade Organization (WTO) for Generalized System of Preferences (GSP).
  • Under the GSP program, developed countries offer non-reciprocal preferential treatment (such as zero or low duties on imports) to qualifying imports from developing countries.
  • Preference-giving countries unilaterally determine which countries and which products are included in their schemes.

 

 

The term ‘Parthenogenesis’ was recently in news? Why are parthenogenesis not called true clones?

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Answer:

  • Parthenogenesis is a form of asexual reproduction where the growth and development of the embryo occurs without fertilization.
  • Parthenogenesis is not true clones because the offspring doesn’t have the same genetics as the parent like cloned animals do.

Enrich Your Learning:

How does it happen?

  • Parthenogenesis as “a reproductive strategy that involves development of a female (rarely a male) gamete (sex cell) without fertilisation.
  • It occurs commonly among lower plants and invertebrate animals (particularly rotifers, aphids, ants, wasps and bees) and rarely among higher vertebrates”. A gamete is the egg in females and the sperm in males.
  • In animals, parthenogenesis means development of an embryo from an unfertilised egg cell.
  • Gynogenesis and Pseudogamy are closely related to parthenogenesis, in these two cases sperm or pollen triggers the development of the egg but doesn’t contribute to the genetic of the embryo.
  • Parthenogenesis is a form of cloning, and the offspring’s can either get half of all of the mother genes, making them “half clones” or “full clones”.
  • It has never been seen in mammals it is believed to be due to the fact that mammals need to have a fertilized egg to attach in the uterus to create offspring’s.
  • Parthenogenesis occurs naturally in plants, some invertebrates’ species e.g. nematodes, waters fleas, scorpions, bees and parasitic wasps also a few vertebrates e.g. fish, amphibians, reptiles and birds.

Parthenogenesis can also use sexual reproduction

  • Some species that use parthenogenesis can also use sexual reproduction, because of different season or lack of males.
  • During spring and summer female’s uses parthenogenesis to produce plenty of offspring’s instead of finding a male to mate with.
  • When the conditions are not as great (fall or winter) the females will find males to mate with in order to mix the genes, giving offspring´s the best chance of survival.
  • This practice is used by honeybees where females are produced through sexual reproduction, while males (drones) are produced when the queen lays unfertilized eggs.

Why do Komodo dragons use parthenogenesis?

  • The theory why Komodo dragons use parthenogenesis and then change back to sexual reproduction, is that when they colonies islands one single female can start producing offspring’s.
  • If the offspring are male she can then reproduce with them to give the next generation a larger genetic diversity.

Key Facts

  • The term parthenogenesis is an amalgam of the Greek words parthenos meaning virgin and genesis meaning origin.
  • About 2,000 species are known to reproduce through parthenogenesis, which is one of the known means of asexual reproduction.
  • Grafting (of plants) is also a type of asexual reproduction.

 

 

Government of India is promoting Farmer Producer Organizations (FPOs) through which body?

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Answer:

  • Government of India is promoting Farmer Producer Organizations (FPOs) through Small Farmers’ Agribusiness Consortium (SFAC).

Enrich Your Learning:

Farmer producer organizations

  • An FPO, formed by a group of farm producers, is a registered body with producers as shareholders in the organisation.
  • It deals with business activities related to the farm produce and it works for the benefit of the member producers.
  • The success of FPO depends on players such as Banks, Retailers and Corporate sector.

Challenges FPOs are facing

  • Most of the FPOs depend on Government programs and have no business acumen.
  • These organisations face challenges such as funding, capacity building and value chain investments.
  • The value chain required for the development of FPOs cannot be done by one player.
  • Since the subsidies given by farmers have reached a limit the government will start giving funds to the FPOs but it will not enhance agriculture incomes.

Challenges-FPOs-are-facing

 

 

What is ‘Warehouse receipt financing’? What are the advantages of it?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Warehouse receipt financing

  • When loans are made to manufacturers and processors on the basis of goods or commodities held in trust as collateral for the loans it is known as Warehouse financing.
  • Warehouse receipt financing is a form of inventory financing.

Warehouse receipt financing in India

  • Warehouse receipt financing received major impetus post the enactment of the Warehousing (Development and Regulation) Act of 2007.
  • Warehousing Development and Regulatory Authority (WDRA) was set up under the act.
  • The objective of the law is to develop scientific warehousing techniques in India.
  • The Act introduced a negotiable warehouse receipt system.

Benefits of Warehouse receipt financing (WFR)

  • WFR brings about better price realization for farmers, especially small and marginal farmers thereby reduce poverty.
  • A major impetus on WFR can help government realise their promise of a 50 per cent profit over input cost for farmers.
  • A well-developed WRF will diminish the dependency of farmers on informal sector.
  • Increased usage of WFR will kick-start a circle of investments in warehousing infrastructure and reduce the loss of agricultural produce every year.
  • Lending against WHR is safer and more liquid for banks.
  • WRF can dramatically reduce inter-seasonal price fluctuations, as it increases liquidity in the rural economy, helping consumption.
  • A well-developed WRF system will help fix the supply issues, which will lead to a lower inflation-lower interest rates regime in India.
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