Flash Cards

Day#13 Current Affairs Flash Cards [PRELIMS 2020]

NGTS-4b/ Forbidden Planet; National Anti-Profiteering Authority (NAA); International Labour Organisation’s Global Wage Report 2018-19; ‘Neptunian Desert’; ‘Glanders Disease’; National Research Centre on Equines (NRCE); ‘Operation Vijay’; ‘Operation Safed Sagar’;
By IASToppers
August 08, 2019



‘Operation Safed Sagar’ was launched along with which operation of Indian armed forces?

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  • ‘Operation Safed Sagar’ was launched by Indian Air Force along with Indian Armed Forces’ ‘Operation Vijay’ in Kargil war.

Enrich Your Learning:

‘Operation Safed Sagar’

  • Operation Safed Sagar was the air operations in the Kargil area.
  • It was a milestone in the history of military aviation, as this was the first time that air power was employed in such an environment.
  • In this operation, IAF used air power at the height of 32,000 feet for the first time.
  • The Operation Safed Sagar by IAF started at 6:30 am on May 26, 1999, when they launched the first strike on the Pakistani posts.
  • Along with armed forces’ Operation Vijay, Indian Air Force (IAF) carried out Operation Safed Sagar, which became a crucial move that helped the Indian forces to win the kargil war.
  • Kargil Vijay Divas is celebrated on July 26 every year.



Which bacteria is responsible for the Glanders disease?

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Glanders is an infectious disease that is caused by the bacterium Burkholderia mallei.

Enrich Your Learning:

‘Glanders Disease’

  • Glanders is primarily a disease affecting horses. It also affects donkeys and mules and can be naturally contracted by other mammals such as goats, dogs, and cats.
  • In some cases, humans can also get the disease. Those who care for affected animals or handle infected specimens may also face an increased risk.


  • The bacteria enter the body through cuts or abrasions in the skin and through mucosal surfaces such as the eyes and nose.
  • The bacteria are transmitted to humans through contact with tissues or body fluids of infected animals.
  • Sulfadiazine has been found to be effective in experimental animals and in humans.

Why in news?

  • Recently, the Gorakhpur district administration euthanised three horses tested positive for Glanders disease.
  • The report was given by Hisar-based National Research Centre on Euquines (NRCE).

National Research Centre on Equines (NRCE)

  • National Research Centre on Equines is a premier institute established under the aegis of Indian Council of Agricultural Research for conducting research on equine health and production.
  • National Research Centre on Equines (NRCE) was established during 7th five-year plan under the aegis of ICAR for research on equine health and production.
  • The Centre became operational at Hisar on 7th Jan. 1986 for conducting researches and providing effective health coverage for equines.
  • There is also a sub-campus was created during 1989 at Bikaner, Rajasthan.



Recently, the term ‘NGTS-4b’ was in news. What is it?

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  • NGTS-4b, nick-named ‘The Forbidden Planet’ is a planet smaller than Neptune but three times the size of Earth.

Enrich Your Learning:

NGTS-4b/ Forbidden Planet

  • It has a mass of 20 Earth masses, a radius 20 per cent smaller than Neptune, and temperature of 1000 degrees Celsius.
  • It orbits around the star in only 1.3 days. It has its atmosphere of gas.
  • It is the first exoplanet of its kind to have been found in the Neptunian Desert.
  • As Neptune-sized planets is not expected to survive in the Neptunian dessert zone, this planet must be tough.
  • The NGTS telescopes, situated in the Atacama Desert, Chile.

Why in news?

  • A planet labelled NGTS-4b has turned up in a data space where astronomers had not expected it, the so-called ‘Neptunian desert’.

‘Neptunian Desert’

  • The Neptunian Desert is the region close to stars where no Neptune-sized planets are found.
  • This area receives strong irradiation from the star, so the planets do not retain their gaseous atmosphere as they evaporate leaving just a rocky core.



International Labour Organisation’s Global Wage Report 2018-19 is focused on which subject?

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Focus of 2018-19 year’s Global Wage Report is ‘What lies behind gender pay gaps’.

Enrich Your Learning:

The Global Wage Report

  • International Labour Organisation (ILO) publishes GWR every year since 2014.
  • It examines the evolution of real wages around the world, giving a unique picture of wage trends globally and by region.

Global Wage Report 2018-19

  • This is the sixth global wage report of its series. Theme of this year’s report is ‘What lies behind gender pay gaps’.
  • This report provides a detailed examination of gender pay inequalities. The findings are based on data from 136 countries.
  • One part of the report provides comparative data and information on recent global and regional wage trends.
  • The second part of this year’s report is devoted to the gender pay gap.

Highlights of the report:

Recent global and regional wage trends

  • Global wage growth in 2017 fell to its lowest rate since 2008, far below levels before the global financial crisis.
  • The global wage growth declined to 1.8 per cent in 2017 from 2.4 per cent in 2016.
  • In advanced G20 countries real wage growth declined from 0.9 per cent in 2016 to 0.4 per cent in 2017.
  • In emerging and developing G20 countries, real wage growth fluctuated between 4.9 per cent in 2016 and 4.3 per cent in 2017.
  • In Europe (excluding Eastern Europe), real wage growth declined 3 per cent in 2016 to about zero in 2017, owing to lower wage growth in countries including France and Germany, and declining real wages in Italy and Spain.

Gender pay gaps

  • Gender pay gaps has been calculated using data covering 70 countries and about 80 per cent of wage employees worldwide.
  • It finds that globally women continue to be paid approximately 20 per cent less than men.
  • In high-income countries it is at the high end of the pay scale that the gender pay gap is wider.
  • In low- and middle-income countries the gender pay gap is wider amongst the lower paid workers.
  • The wages of both men and women also tend to be lower in enterprises and occupations with a predominantly female workforce.
  • Motherhood also acts as a factor for gender wage gap. Mothers tend to have lower wages compared to non-mothers.
  • It shows that even before women reach motherhood, there is already a pay gap.
  • There is a need to combat stereotypes and discrimination at the point of entry into the labour market.

In India:

  • According to the Global Wage Report 2018/19, workers in India got the highest average real wage growth in the last decade in southern Asia.
  • India stood at 5 per cent in real wage growth in During 2008-17.
  • However, India and Pakistan had the highest gap of 34.5 per cent and 34 per cent respectively between what men and women earn.
  • Workers in Asia and the Pacific got the highest real wage growth over the period 2006-17 including India.

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What are the functions of National Anti-Profiteering Authority (NAA)?

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Functions of NAA

  • To ensure that traders are not realizing unfair profit by charging high price from consumers in the name of GST.
  • To examine and check such profiteering activities and recommend punitive actions including cancellation of Registration.

Enrich Your Learning:

National Anti-Profiteering Authority (NAA)

  • National Anti-Profiteering Authority (NAA) has been constituted under Section 171 of the Central Goods and Services Tax (GST) Act, 2017.
  • NAA is the institutional mechanism under GST law to check the unfair profit-making activities by the trading community.
  • NAA was aimed to ensure that the reduction in rate of tax or the benefit of input tax credit is passed on to the recipient by way of commensurate reduction in prices.
  • NAA consists of a chairman, along with 4 Technical members and a Standing Committee.
  • NAA has a Screening Committee in every state.

Steps taken by the NAA to ensure that customers get the full benefit of tax cuts:

  • Holding regular meetings with the Zonal Screening Committees and the Chief Commissioners of Central Tax to stress upon consumer awareness programmes.
  • Launching a helpline to resolve the queries of citizens regarding registration of complaints against profiteering.
  • Receiving complaints through email and NAA portal.
  • Working with consumer welfare organizations in order to facilitate outreach activities.
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