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Flash Cards

Day#14 Current Affairs Flash Cards [PRELIMS 2020]

‘Bonn Challenge’; Forest landscape restoration (FLR); ‘Protocol on Establishment of Joint Ocean Observation Station’; ‘United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)’; Bering Sea; Bering Strait; Carbon quantum dots’ (CQDs);
By IASToppers
August 09, 2019

 

 

What do you understand by the term ‘Carbon quantum dots’?

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Answer:

CQDs are carbon-based nanomaterials whose size is less than 10 nm (nanometre).

Enrich Your Learning:

‘Carbon quantum dots’

  • Carbon-based nanomaterials are used as diagnostic tools for bio-imaging, especially in detecting cancer cells, for chemical sensing and in optoelectronics.
  • They were first obtained during the purification of single-walled carbon nanotubes through preparative electrophoresis in 2004.
  • There are diverse techniques to synthesize CQDs such as hydrothermal approach, microwave method etc.

Why in news?

  • A team of scientists in Assam has developed a chemical process that turns coal into a biomedical ‘dot’ to help detect cancer cells.
  • They developed a chemical method of producing carbon quantum dots (CQDs) from cheap, abundant, low-quality and high-sulphur coals.
  • The method was developed by such a process that uses environment-friendly reagents and less water than methods elsewhere.

 

 

Alaska and Russia are separated by which water body?

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Answer:

Alaska and Russia are separated by the Bering strait.

Enrich Your Learning:

Bering Sea

  • Bering sea is the northernmost part of the Pacific Ocean, separating the continents of Asia and North America.
  • Bering sea is bordered in the west by Russia and the Kamchatka Peninsula; in the south by the Aleutian Islands, and in the east by
  • The sea is located just to the south of the Arctic Circle and upwards it ends in the Bering strait.
  • The sea is named for Russian mariner Vitus Bering, who first spotted the Alaskan mainland in the mid-18th century.
  • The Bering Sea is one of the world’s most productive fishing grounds.
  • It produces huge quantities of king crab, salmon and other varieties of fish. Also many species of whales, walrus, and millions of seabirds are seen there in quantities.

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Bering Strait

  • Bering strait is the northern edges of the Bering Sea.
  • It is a somewhat narrow sea passage between the easternmost point of the Asian continent and the westernmost point of the North American continent.
  • This strait separates the United States and Russia by 85 km.
  • The official boundary between the United States and Russia lies at in the middle of the strait, are two islands – Big and Little Diomede.

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Recently, United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) has celebrated its 25th anniversary through a campaign. What was the theme of this campaign?

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Answer:

A campaign under the theme “Let’s grow the future together” was initiated on 25th anniversary of the Convention and also the World Day to Combat Desertification on 17th June 2019.

Enrich Your Learning:

‘United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)’

  • The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) is the legally binding international agreement linking environment and development to sustainable land management.
  • It was established in 1994. It addresses arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas, known as the drylands. It has 195 parties.
  • It has been ratified by 194 states plus the European Union. Secretariat of UNCCD is at Bonn, Germany.
  • The UNCCD is particularly committed to a bottom-up approach, encouraging the participation of local people in combating desertification and land degradation.
  • The Conference of the Parties (COP) oversees the implementation of the Convention.
  • It is established by the Convention as the supreme decision-making body, and it comprises all ratifying governments.
  • The first five sessions of the COP were held annually from 1997 to 2001. After that, it is continuously held at every twice year.

Key Facts:

  • India will host the 14th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 14) of 2019 to the UNCCD to address the issues of land degradation and desertification.
  • The logo of COP 14 designed by Aayush Naresh Kumar from Meerut, which was selected by the ministry through a contest.
  • The World Day to Combat Desertification and Drought is observed every year on 17th June to promote public awareness of international efforts to combat desertification.

 

 

The agreement titled ‘Protocol on Establishment of Joint Ocean Observation Station’ was signed between which two nations?

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Answer:

The agreement titled ‘Protocol on Establishment of Joint Ocean Observation Station’ was signed between China and the Maldives.

Enrich Your Learning:

‘Protocol on Establishment of Joint Ocean Observation Station’

  • It is an official agreement titled Protocol on Establishment of Joint Ocean Observation Station between China and the Maldives.
  • It was finalised in 2017.
  • The agreement allowed China to build an observatory at Makunudhoo, which is the westernmost island of the Maldives, and close to the Indian waters.
  • The observatory was giving China access to a critical space in the Indian Ocean both from the commercial shipping and strategic point of view. Also It will be uncomfortably close to Indian waters.

Why in News?

  • The agreement is likely to be scrapped, as India’s relations with its maritime neighbour shows signs of improvement.
  • The recent visit by PM of India was the first full-fledged visit by an Indian PM in 8 years.
  • It saw the inauguration of a coastal surveillance radar system and also a composite training facility for the Maldivian defence forces.

The proposed site of the Chinese ocean observation station in the Maldives.

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What years are set as target years to achieve goals under ‘Bonn Challenge’?

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Answer:

Under ‘Bonn Challenge’, a global effort to bring 150 million hectares of the world’s deforested and degraded land into restoration by 2020, and 350 million hectares by 2030.

Enrich Your Learning:

‘Bonn Challenge’

  • It was launched in 2011 by the Government of Germany and IUCN, and later endorsed and extended by the New York Declaration on Forests at the 2014 UN Climate Summit.
  • It is a practical means of realizing many existing international commitments, including the CBD Aichi Target 15, the UNFCCC REDD+ goal, and the Rio+20 land degradation neutrality goal.
  • Bonn Challenge is the forest landscape restoration (FLR) approach.

Forest landscape restoration (FLR)

  • Forest landscape restoration (FLR) is the ongoing process of regaining ecological functionality and enhancing human well-being across deforested or degraded forest landscapes.
  • Besides only planting, FLR is restoring a whole landscape to meet present and future needs and to offer multiple benefits and land uses over time.
  • FLR aims to restore ecological integrity at the same time as improving human well-being through multifunctional landscapes.
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