Flash-Cards-for-IAS-Prelims-2018-CA-Day-15
70 Days WAR Plan

Day#15 Current Affairs Flash Cards [70 Days WAR Plan]

‘Yudh Abhyas’ 2018; ‘BUFFALO Survey’; ‘Chola Naikar’ tribe; Rashtriya Garima Abhiyaan (RGA); Lippa-Asra wildlife sanctuary; Bishkek Declaration; Adriatic Sea; ‘United Nations Interagency Task Force on NCDs (UNIATF)’; Transformative Carbon Asset Facility (TCAF); IBSAMAR naval exercise;
By IT's Core Team
April 05, 2019

 

 

 

IBSAMAR are a series of naval exercises between the navies of which countries?

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Answer:

  • IBSAMAR are a series of naval exercises between the navies of India, Brazil, South Africa.

Enrich Your Learning:

IBSAMAR naval exercise:

  • The name IBSAMAR is an abbreviation of India-Brazil-South Africa Maritime.
  • The first exercise took place in 2008.
  • The primary aim of this exercise is to increase interoperability amongst the three navies as well as develop common understanding and procedures for maritime security operations.
  • ‘Exercise IBSAMAR’ is the most visible manifestation of this convergence of democratic values, economic interests and maritime cooperation.
  • The scope of ‘Exercise IBSAMAR-V’ includes wide-ranging professional interactions during the harbour phase and a diverse range of operational activities at sea during the sea phase.
  • IBSAMAR IV took place off the coast of South Africa in October 2014.
  • The fifth edition of ‘Exercise IBSAMAR’ between Brazil, India and South Africa was held in July 2018, off the country’s west coast with the harbour phase being conducted at Goa.
  • This is the first time that ‘Exercise IBSAMAR’ is being conducted in Indian waters and it will conclude on February 29. All previous editions were held off South Africa.
  • The thrust of exercises at sea this year would be on anti-submarine warfare (ASW), surface firings, air defences, visit board search and seizure (VBSS), flying operations, search and rescue and tactical procedures.
  • During ‘Exercise IBSAMAR-V’, the Indian Navy will be represented by INS Mumbai – an indigenous designed and built guided missile destroyer -, INS Trishul – a stealth frigate – and INS Shalki, a Shishumar class submarine.
  • In addition, various fast attack craft, Sea Harriers and Mig 29K fighter aircraft, Dornier maritime patrol aircraft and helicopters also participated in the trilateral exercise representing India.
  • The Brazilian Navy would be represented by Brazilian Naval Ship Amazonas, with embarked special forces, commanded by Commander Alessander Felipe Imamura Carneiro.
  • The South African Navy would be represented by South African Naval Ship SAS Spioenkop with integral helicopter and embarked special forces, Commanded by Captain MA Boucher.
  • Both the ships are on return passage after participating in the International Fleet Review held at Visakhapatnam earlier this month.
  • The exercise also enhanced maritime security in the Indian Ocean Region and beyond, for the benefit of the global maritime community.

 

 

 

Transformative Carbon Asset Facility (TCAF) was established by which international organization?

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Answer:

  • Transformative Carbon Asset Facility (TCAF) was established by World Bank Group.

Enrich Your Learning:

Transformative Carbon Asset Facility (TCAF):

  • The World Bank Group, in partnership with several contributing countries, established the Transformative Carbon Asset Facility (TCAF).
  • It is market-based scheme specially designed to help developing countries and would establish the world’s first programmatic carbon market.
  • It will support developing countries in increasing their mitigation ambition. 
  • This will in turn help to inform the international process for shaping international carbon markets going forward.
  • TCAF became operational in March 2017, with contributions from the Climate Cent Foundation, Germany, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom.
  • These countries are contributing to TCAF in order to obtain carbon assets for potential use for international compliance, build the international architecture for the transfer of units, support development of domestic carbon pricing, and help transform targeted GHG emitting sectors in host countries.
  • The facility will help countries implement their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs).
  • TCAF will test various methods to transfer “mitigation outcomes” between parties transparently and to provide stringent accounting and transparency, thereby ensuring the environmental integrity of the assets.
  • A predictable long-term price on carbon is recognized as a necessary element in spurring climate change mitigation.
  • TCAF will support measurable, reportable and verifiable (MRV) of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) by developing baselines and monitoring the performance of the programs.
  • The average program size will be $30-$50 million in carbon payments, with the expectation that this will leverage $2 to $4 billion in additional financing from other sources (e.g., IBRD, IDA, IFC, the private sector, and other institutions).

What will TCAF do?

  • TCAF will assist countries to implement market-based carbon pricing and sectoral mitigation measures in the emitting sectors of these countries’ economies.
  • TCAF will leverage public finance through these programs to create favourable conditions for private sector investment in low-carbon technologies, provide blueprints for efficient and low-cost mitigation (globally and at scale), and achieve lasting transformational impact.
  • TCAF’s efforts will inform the international process established in Paris to develop standards and agreements for future carbon crediting instruments and transfer of mitigation assets.
  • TCAF will test various methods to transparently transfer “mitigation outcomes” between parties and to provide stringent accounting and transparency, thereby ensuring the environmental integrity of the assets.
  • The scheme will reward countries for reducing emissions by paying a fee for each tonne of carbon dioxide (CO2) reduced.
  • The facility will help countries implement their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs).
  • Of the total 500 million dollars, Germany, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland have jointly pledged an initial 250 million dollars investment.
  • The scheme would support renewable energy, energy efficiency and waste management projects as well to cut emissions in cities and from the transport sector.

 

 

 

‘United Nations Interagency Task Force on NCDs (UNIATF)’ reports to United Nations General Assembly (UNGA). Right OR Wrong?

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Answer:

Right Statement:

  • ‘United Nations Interagency Task Force on NCDs (UNIATF)’ reports to the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).

Enrich Your Learning:

‘United Nations Interagency Task Force on NCDs (UNIATF)’

  • The United Nations Interagency Task Force on the Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases (UNIATF) was established by the United Nations Secretary-General in 2013.
  • It coordinates the activities of relevant UN organizations and other inter-governmental organizations to support Governments to meet high-level commitments to respond to NCD epidemics worldwide.
  • It aimed to provide scaled up action across the UN system to support governments, in particular in low- and middle-income countries, to tackle non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and chronic respiratory disease.
  • UNIATF’s scope of work was expanded in 2016 to include “NCD related SDGs” – i.e. mental health, violence and injuries, nutrition, and environmental issues that impact on NCDs.
  • The UNIATF works to support countries through a biennial work plan, the key elements of which are joint programming missions and follow up technical assistance, global joint programmes, and thematic working groups.
  • The World Health Organization acts as a Secretariat and lead for the Task Force.
  • The Task Force reports once a year to the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).

Objectives:

  • To raise the priority level of prevention and control of NCDs on the national and global agenda, enhancing international cooperation through advocacy efforts;
  • To strengthen national capacities and leadership to prevent and control NCDs at the national level;
  • To reduce modifiable risk factors for NCDs through the establishment of Working Thematic Groups, ensuring tobacco control is prioritized;
  • To provide accurate information to strengthen health systems and ensure proper allocation of resources for joint programmes;
  • To promote high-quality research and development related to NCDs; and
  • To monitor the trends and determinants of NCDs and to evaluate progress in their prevention and control.

 

 

 

Which countries share borders with Adriatic Sea?

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Answer:

Adriatic Sea:

Adriatic Sea

  • The Adriatic Sea is a northern most part of the Mediterranean Sea.
  • It is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.
  • The countries with coasts on the Adriatic are Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Montenegro and Slovenia.
  • The southern boundary of the sea ends in the Strait of Otranto between Albania and Italy’s Salento Peninsula. Immediately south of that strait the Ionian Sea begins.

 

 

 

Bishkek Declaration is related with the conservation of which animal?

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Answer:

  • Bishkek Declaration on the Conservation of the Snow Leopard was adopted in 2013 by 12 snow leopard range countries in Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic.

Enrich Your Learning:

Bishkek Declaration:

  • The 12 countries that signed the declaration were Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, India, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
  • The declaration was initiated in order to formulate a long-term Global Snow Leopard Conservation Programme by the formation of a high-level steering committee to guide programme implementation and regularly review its progress.
  • The Bishkek Declaration set a goal of protecting at least 20 snow leopard landscapes with viable snow leopard populations by 2020 and led to the formation of the Global Snow Leopard and Ecosystem Protection Program (GSLEP).
  • Since then, October 23 is commemorated each year as International Snow Leopard Day.
  • The key goals of the programme are to evaluate and map the current status of key snow leopard populations and habitats to set baselines and indicators against which to assess future change.
  • These indicators will also be used to conduct an economic valuation of snow leopard habitats and intensify scientific research and monitoring to support future policy and action and to intensify conservation efforts in the large landscapes required for snow leopard survival. Identifying and designating critical habitats of key snow leopard populations as no-go areas for destructive land uses will determine these landscapes.
  • The declaration reflects the determination of the participating countries to preserve snow leopard populations and to ensure the cultural, social and economic well-being mountain communities.

 

 

 

Lippa-Asra wildlife sanctuary is located in which Indian state?

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Answer:

  • Lippa-Asra wildlife sanctuary is part of district Kinnaur in Himachal Pradesh and also is part of Moorang town.

Enrich Your Learning:

‘Lippa-Asra wildlife sanctuary’

  • It was established in 1974 and is spread over an area of 3089 hectares.
  • It hosts a wide range of flora and fauna due to varied elevation, different climatic situation and topographical type of weather found in its vicinity.
  • This type of weather conditions thus helps in the survival of different type of species that are housed in the sanctuary. 
  • The sanctuary has diversified wildlife that forms part of it. It houses wild species of animal like Yak, Ibex, Blue Sheep, Himalayan Musk Deer, Goral, Brown Bear and Himalayan Black Bear.
  • The dry alpine scrub and dry coniferous type of forest are main type of flora found in this sanctuary.  Besides, dwarf juniper scrub, coniferous forest and temperate type of forest of Himalayan region is also found in this sanctuary.

 

 

 

‘Yudh Abhyas’ is the joint military drill between India and which country?

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Answer:

  • ‘Yudh Abhyas’ is the joint military drill between the India and US.

Enrich Your Learning:

‘Yudh Abhyas’ 2018:

  • Yudh Abhyas 2018 commenced at Chaubattia, Uttarakhand.
  • It will be fourteenth edition of exercise in Yudh Abhyas series which was started in 2004 under US Army Pacific Partnership Program.
  • The joint exercise Yudh Abhyas 2018 will simulate a scenario where both nations will work together in counter insurgency and counter terrorism environment in mountainous terrain under United Nation charter.
  • The aim of this exercise will be to enhance interoperability between armies. It will also focus on enhancing counter-terror cooperation.
  • The scope and intensity of this year’s exercise is much wider and is in reflection of upswing in defence ties between the two countries.
  • It will be upgraded to battalion-level field training exercise (FTX) and division-level command post exercise (CPX).

 

 

 

What is the objective of a national campaign – ‘Rashtriya Garima Abhiyaan’?

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Answer:

  • Rashtriya Garima Abhiyaan is an NGO-led movement for manual scavengers.

Rashtriya Garima Abhiyaan (RGA):

  • RGA is a campaign for eradication of inhuman practice of manual scavenging and comprehensive rehabilitation of manual scavengers in India.
  • Ashif Shaikh is well known for his role in the campaign (Rashatriya Garima Abhiyan) through various campaigns of Jan Sahas.
  • Rashtriya Garima Abhiyaan is also known as National Campaign for Dignity and Eradication of Manual Scavenging.
  • It is also associated with the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, for the identification of manual scavengers and their rehabilitation.
  • Due to the efforts of RGA, the Governments of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh are now in different stages of liberation and rehabilitation.
  • Rashtriya Garima Abhiyan had also launched a campaign Knock the Door on 12th August 2013 at New Delhi for early passage the legislation and inclusion of demands regarding rehabilitation and total elimination of manual scavenging in Indian Railways.
  • Through this campaign, liberated manual scavenger women are knocking the doors of Parliamentarians and appealing them for an enactment of the bill.
  • Rashtriya Garima Abhiyan started national wide march “Maila Mukti Yatra” for total eradication of manual scavenging from 30th November 2012 from Bhopal. It aims at covering 18 states, 200 districts in 63 days. Around 10,000 liberated women will participate in the Yatra to appeal with a target of 50,000 manual scavengers to stop the practice.
  • Under the “Maila Mukti Yatra” Rashtriya Garima Abhiyan launched a Mobile Campaign to demanding the total eradication of inhuman slavery of manual scavenging and support to Maila Mukti Yatra.

 

 

 

‘Chola Naikar’ tribe are found mainly in which Indian state?

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Answer:

  • Chola Naikar also known as Chola Naickans tribe are found mainly in the Nilambur jungle in Kerala.

Enrich Your Learning:

‘Chola Naikar’ tribe:

  • ‘Chola’ or ‘shoals’ means deep ever green forest, and ‘naikan’ means King. They are said to have migrated from Mysore forests.
  • They speak Canarese, the Cholanaikkan language, which belongs to the Dravidian family and a dialect of Kannada.
  • It is one of the particularly vulnerable and dwindling groups in Kerala.
  • They are the ethnic group of India, called a ‘Chemmam’, primarily inhabiting in the southern Kerala, especially Silent Valley National Park, and are one of the last remaining hunter-gatherer tribes of the region.
  • Until the 1960s, they were leading a secluded life with very limited contact with mainstream urban society. Since then, the Cholanaikkans’ traditional lifestyle has been altered.
  • The Cholanaikkan numbered 360 individuals in the 1991 census. Their population has since fallen considerably, with only 191 members today.
  • They currently have a 16% literacy rate.
  • The Cholanaikans are very particular in observing the rules framed by their ancestors for the purpose of maintaining the territories under the Chemmam.
  • Their livelihood is totally dependent on the forest. The collection and selling of minor forest produce are the major source of income. There are still many customs, practices and taboos prevailing among the Cholanaikans.
  • They were living in caves till 2009, when heavy rains forced them to move to out. They were bundled into make-shift tenements and have been living there ever since.

 

 

 

BUFFALO is an astronomical survey built to learn about what?

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Answer:

  • BUFFALO is an astronomical survey aimed to learn about early galactic assembly.

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‘BUFFALO Survey’:

  • Beyond Ultra-deep Frontier Fields and Legacy Observations (BUFFALO) is an astronomical survey built around the six Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Frontier Fields clusters designed to learn about early galactic assembly and clustering and prepare targets for observations with the James Webb Space Telescope. 
  • It is dedicated to enlarging the sky area covered by the six Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) that focused on very rich galaxy clusters, originally with the aim of exploiting their gravitational fields as “cosmic telescopes” to study very distant galaxies in unprecedented detail.
  • BUFFALO will place significant new constraints on how and when the most massive and luminous galaxies in the universe formed and how early galaxy formation is linked to dark matter assembly.
  • The same data will also probe the temperature and cross section of dark matter in the massive Frontier Fields galaxy clusters, and tell us how the dark matter, cluster gas, and dynamics of the clusters influence the galaxies in and around them.
  • BUFFALO is also set to investigate how and when the most massive and luminous galaxies in the Universe formed and how early galaxy formation is linked to the gravitational assembly of the dark matter that was one of the first major events after the Big Bang.
  • It will allow the astronomers to map with more fidelity the total mass distribution (both ordinary and dark matter) of these 6 massive galaxy clusters in order to learn more about their evolution and about the nature of the mysterious dark matter. 
  • This program will pave the way for observations with the upcoming NASA/ESA/CSA James Webb Space Telescope, as well as current and future ground-based telescopes.