Flash-Cards-for-IAS-Prelims-2018-M-HisDay-16
70 Days WAR Plan

Day#16 Static Flash Cards Modern Indian History [70 Days WAR Plan]

Lord Cornwallis; ‘Non-cooperation movement’; Tilak Swaraj Fund; Tripuri Session of the Indian National Congress (1939); ‘The Arctic Home in the Vedas’; ‘Passive Resistance Association’; Queen’s proclamation of 1858; Partition of Bengal of 1905; Indian High Courts Act of 1861; Father of Marathi Journalism;
By IT's Core Team
April 07, 2019

 

 

 

Who is considered as the father of Marathi Journalism?

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Answer:

  • Bal Shastri Jambekar is considered as the father of Marathi Journalism.

Enrich Your Learning:

Bal Shastri Jambekar:

  • Bal Shastri Jambekar was one of the pioneers in Bombay, to attack the Brahmanical orthodoxy and tried to reform popular Hinduism.
  • He is renowned for his contributions in the field of print media and social awareness.
  • He is known as the Father of Marathi Journalism, for his efforts in starting journalism in Marathi language with the first newspaper in the language named ‘Darpan’ in 1832, in the early days of British Rule in India.
  • His birthday and coincidentally the day of publication of the first issue of Darpan is 6 January and it is celebrated as the Journalist Day (Darpan Din) in Maharashtra in his memory.
  • He founded ‘The Bombay Native General Library’.
  • He also started ‘Native Improvement Society’, of which ‘Student’s Literary and Scientific Society’ was an offshoot.
  • Intellectual giants like Dadabhai Navroji and Bhau Daji Lad drew inspiration through these institutions.
  • He was the first Indian to have published research papers in the quarterly journal of the Asiatic Society.
  • He was the first person to print Dnyaneshwari in 1845. It was known as the first ever-printed version.
  • He had mastery in many languages including Marathi, Sanskrit, English and Hindi. Apart from that he also had a good grasp of Greek, Latin, French, Gujarati and Bengali.
  • He was one of those social activists who made continuous effort in generating useful and healthy consciousness amongst the common masses and attempted to educate the uneducated.

 

 

 

Indian High Courts Act of 1861 authorized the Crown to create High Courts in the Indian colony. Right OR Wrong?

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Answer:

Enrich Your Learning:

Indian High Courts Act 1861:

  • Indian High Courts Act 1861 was an act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom to authorize the Crown to create High Courts in the Indian colony.
  • The Act was passed after the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and consolidated the parallel legal system of the Crown and the East India Company.
  • The objective of this act was to amalgamate the Supreme Courts and the Sadar Adalats in the three Presidencies
  • The jurisdiction and powers exercised by these courts was to be assumed by the High Courts.
  • It vested in Queen of England the power to issue letters patent to erect and establish High Courts of Calcutta, Madras and Bombay.
  • The High Courts of Calcutta, Madras and Bombay were established by Indian High Courts Act 1861.
  • It did not by itself create and establish the High Courts in India. 
  • The Act abolished the Supreme Courts at Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay; the Sadar Diwani Adalat and the Sadar Nizamat Adalat at Calcutta; Sadar Adalat and Faujdari Adalat at Madras; Sadar Diwani Adala and Faujdari Adalat at Bombay.
  • These High Courts became the precursors to the High Courts in the modern-day India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh.

Composition of the High Court’s:

  • The Indian High Courts Act 1861 had also spelled the composition of the High Court.
  • Each High Court was to consist of a Chief Justice and NOT more than 15 regular judges.
  • The chief Justice and minimum of one third regular judges had to be barristers and minimum one third regular judges were to be from the “covenanted Civil Service”.
  • All Judges were the be in the office on the pleasure of the Crown.
  • The High Courts had an Original as well as an Appellate Jurisdiction the former derived from the Supreme Court, and the latter from the Sudder Diwani and Sudder Foujdari Adalats, which were merged in the High Court.

 

 

 

The Partition of Bengal of 1905 was solely on the religious ground in the name of administrative difficulty. Right OR Wrong?

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Answer:

Right Statement:

  • The Partition of Bengal of 1905 was based on language as well as religious ground.

Enrich Your Learning:

Partition of Bengal 1905:

  • The Partition of Bengal 1905 was carried out by the British viceroy in India, Lord Curzon, despite strong Indian nationalist opposition.
  • The partition took place on 16 October 1905 and separated the largely Muslim eastern areas from the largely Hindu western areas.
  • During that time the provincial state of Bengal, comprised West Bengal with a Hindu majority and East Bengal and Assam with a Muslim majority, the Hindi-speaking regions of Bihar, the Odia-speaking regions of Odisha as well as the Assamese-speaking region of Assam, making it a huge administrative entity.
  • With the growing efforts of the Indian freedom fighters to secure the independence of India, Lord Curzon decided to address both these problems by partitioning Bengal into two entities, which would result in a Muslim-majority in the eastern half, and a Hindu-majority in the western half.
  • The Hindus of West Bengal who dominated Bengal’s business and rural life complained that the division would make them a minority in a province that would incorporate the province of Bihar and Orissa.
  • Hindus were outraged at what they recognised as a “divide and rule” policy, where the colonisers turned the native population against itself to rule.
  • The partition animated the Muslims to form their own national organization on communal lines.
  • In order to appease Bengali sentiment, Bengal was reunited by Lord Hardinge in 1911, in response to the Swadeshi movement’s riots in protest against the policy and the growing belief among Hindus that east Bengal would have its own courts and policies.
  • The partition left a significant impact on the people of Bengal as well as the political scene of the Indian subcontinent. This event also created a sense of political awareness among the Muslims of East Bengal. 
  • In 1947, Bengal was partitioned for the second time, solely on religious grounds, as part of the Partition of India following the formation of the nation’s India and Pakistan.
  • In 1947, East Bengal became East Pakistan, and in 1971 became the independent state of Bangladesh after a successful war of independence with West Pakistan.

 

 

 

Queen’s proclamation of 1858 was read by Lord Dalhousie at grand Darbar of Allahabad. Right OR Wrong?

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Answer:

Right Statement:

  • Queen’s proclamation of 1858 was read by Lord Canning at grand Darbar of Allahabad.

Enrich Your Learning:

Queen’s proclamation of 1858:

  • A proclamation was issued by Queen Victoria on 1st November 1858, following the 1857 revolt.
  • It was read at the grand Darbar held at Allahabad by Lord Canning, who was the last Governor General and the first Viceroy of India.
  • It unveiled a new British policy of perpetual support for “native princes” and non-intervention in matters of religious belief or worship within British India.
  • It resulted into the Government of India Act 1858.
  • It declared that thereafter India would be governed by and in the name of the British Monarch through a Secretary of State.
  • The Act laid down that henceforth India shall be governed by and in the name of the Queen. Thus, the Company’s territories in India were to be vested in the Queen, the Company ceasing to exercise its power and control over these territories.
  • It abolished the Board of Control and the Court of Directors. The post of a Secretary of State was created. He was to be assisted by a Council of India which was to consist of fifteen members.
  • The Doctrine of Lapse was cancelled, and the British stopped the policy of annexation.
  • A general amnesty (pardon) was granted to the rebels except those who were directly involved in killing the British subjects.
  • The office of the Governor General was changed to that of Viceroy of India.
  • The Crown was empowered to appoint a Governor-General and the Governors of the Presidencies.
  • An Indian Civil Service was to be created under the control of the Secretary of State.
  • Hereto all the property and other assets of the East India Company were transferred to the Crown. The Crown also assumed the responsibilities of the Company as they related to treaties, contracts, and so forth.
  • The Act ushered in a new period of Indian history, bringing about the end of Company rule in India.

 

 

 

What was the causative factor which lead to the formation of ‘Passive Resistance Association’ by Mahatma Gandhi?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

  • Mahatma Gandhi first formed the Passive Resistance Association to conduct the campaigns against the introduction of Certificate of Registration in South Africa in 1906.
  • The campaign was prompted by the introduction of the Asiatic Law Amendment Ordinance in Transvaal by the Transvaal Assembly. The law required that every Indian, including children over eight years, had to register with a government official, the Registrar of Asiatic.
  • The Registrar would take their fingerprints and issue them with a registration certificate, which they had to produce on demand.
  • Indians who could not produce a certificate could be fined and sent to prison. The Transvaal Indian Congress (TIC) requested Gandhi to come to the Transvaal to help interpret and oppose the Act. A mass meeting was held at the Empire Theatre in Johannesburg, attended by thousands of people who vowed not to observe the law.
  • This marked the beginning of the eight-year-long Satyagraha Passive Resistance Campaign emulated by other similar campaigns such as the 1946 Passive Resistance Campaign, the 1952 Defiance Campaign and 1960 Sharpeville Massacre.
  • Gandhi began to clarify his concept of passive resistance, outlining its rationale. He disliked the notion of passivity and called for people to come up with an appropriate name for the new mode of resistance. When his nephew made a suggestion, Sadagraha (firmness in a good cause), Gandhi adapted the idea and coined the word ‘Satyagraha’, which means ‘truth force’.
  • The intention is to convince the opponent and not to crush him, to convert the opponent, who must be ‘weaned from error by patience and sympathy’.
  • Other movements also used these ideas. The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament cited Gandhi as an influence in its struggle to urge nations to reject the use of nuclear weapons. Environmental movements such as Greenpeace have used non-violence as a method to fight their battles against nuclear proliferation and ecological destruction.

 

 

 

Who wrote the book ‘The Arctic Home in the Vedas’ in which he argued that the Vedas could only have been composed in the Arctic’s?

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Answer:

  • Bal Gangadhar Tilak wrote the book ‘The Arctic Home in the Vedas’.

Enrich Your Learning:

Books written by Balgangadhar Tilak

  • In 1903, he wrote the book The Arctic Home in the Vedas. In it, he argued that the Vedas could only have been composed in the Arctic’s, and the Aryan bards brought them south after the onset of the last ice age. He proposed a new way to determine the exact time of the Vedas.
  • In “The Orion”, he tried to calculate the time of Vedas by using the position of different Nakshatras. Positions of Nakshtras were described in different Vedas.
  • Tilak authored “Shrimadh Bhagvad Gita Rahasya” in prison at Mandalay – the analysis of ‘Karma Yoga’ in the Bhagavad Gita, which is known to be gift of the Vedas and the Upanishads.

 

 

 

‘Subhash Chandra Bose’ was elected as the President of Indian National congress at the Tripuri Session. What was the demand of Bose?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Tripuri Session of the Indian National Congress (1939)

  • In March 1939, Congress met at annual session at Tripuri near Jabalpur.
  • The Resolution on the “National Demand” must be considered a definite political advance. This resolution calls for a “nation-wide struggle,” and demands that the Congress organisations and also the Congress Governments should take steps to prepare for this.
  • Subhash Chandra Bose was re-elected the President of INC at the Tripuri Session in 1939 by defeating the Gandhiji’s Candidate Pattabhai Sitaramaiyya.
  • He demanded that the Congress should deliver a six-months’ ultimatum to Britain and in the event of its rejection a country-wide struggle for ‘Poorna Swaraj’ should be launched.
  • His warning and advice went unheeded, his powers as President were sought to be curtailed. He, therefore, resigned in April 1939, and announced, in May 1939, the formation of the Forward Bloc within the Congress.

 

 

 

Who announced ‘Tilak Swaraj Fund’ which was aimed at collecting Rs 1 crore to aid India’s freedom struggle and resistance to the British rule?

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Answer:

  • Mahatma Gandhi

Enrich Your Learning:

Tilak Swaraj Fund:

  • A year into the Non-Cooperation Movement, Mahatma Gandhi announced the Tilak Swaraj Fund to finance the movement.
  • The Fund, a homage to Bal Gangadhar Tilak on his first death anniversary, aimed at collecting Rs 1 crore to aid India’s freedom struggle and resistance to the British rule.
  • A massive amount at the time, the sceptical were proved wrong when the money came in by the set deadline of June 30.
  • Of the collected amount, Rs 37.5 lakh was donated by Bombay, which led him to refer to the city as “Bombay the Beautiful”.

 

 

 

What are the reasons/factors that led the ‘non-cooperation movement’ by Mahatma Gandhi?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

  • Economic hardships due to World War I: India’s indirect participation in the war caused a lot of economic hardships to the people. Prices of goods began to soar which affected the common man leding to resentment against the government.
  • The Rowlatt Act and the Jallianwala Bagh massacre: After The repressive Rowlatt Act and the brutal massacre at Jallianwala Bagh, faith in the British system of justice was broken and the whole country rallied behind its leaders who were pitching for a more aggressive stance against the government.
  • The Khilafat Movement: During the First World War, Turkey, which was a German ally, had fought against the British. After Turkey’s defeat, the Ottoman caliphate was proposed to be dissolved. The Khilafat movement was launched by Muslims in India to persuade the British government not to abolish the caliphate. The leaders of this movement accepted the non-cooperation movement of Gandhiji and led a joint protest against the British.

 

 

Lord Cornwallis reformed the civil services in order to strengthen the British rule in India. What was the fundamental principle behind this reform?

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Answer:

  • The fundamental principle behind this reform was the separation of revenue administration from the judicial administration.

Enrich Your Learning:

Lord Cornwallis as Father of Indian Civil Services

  • Lord Cornwallis is known as the Father of Civil Services in India. He introduced Covenant Civil Services (Higher Civil Services) which were different from the Un-covenanted Civil Services (Lower Civil Services).
  • The Former was created by the Law of the Company, while later was not created by the law of the company”.
  • In order to consolidate the British rule in India, the civil services were reformed, modernised and rationalised by him.
  • The basic principle was the separation of revenue administration from the judicial administration.
  • The Collector was deprived of judicial and magisterial powers, he became only the head of revenue administration. The posts of district judges were created to look after judicial administration.
  • He reserved all the covenanted services for Britishers and excluded Indians from superior posts. Due to doubtfulness about the integrity and ability of Indians, he introduced this policy.
  • After the revolt of 1857, there were many reforms in India which transferred all powers to crown.
  • There were reforms in civil services appointments as well, which were done to increase support for British government in India among elites and educated population.
  • Charter Act of 1853 abolished the patronage system and introduced the system of open Competition as the basis of selection of Civil Services.
  • Indian Civil Services Act of 1861 provided the reservation of certain principal posts for the members of the covenanted services.
  • According to the act, “any Indian or European may be appointed to any of the office, provided that he had resided in India for last 7 years”.
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