Flash-Cards-for-IAS-Prelims-2018-M-HisDay-17
70 Days WAR Plan

Day#17 Static Flash Cards Modern Indian History [70 Days WAR Plan]

Nij system of cultivation; Ramosi Peasant Force; Pabna Peasant Uprising; Rise of extremism or militant nationalism in India; Resolution of Swadeshi; Annulment of the Partition of Bengal; ‘Nirbal Sewak’ and ‘Prem’; Doctrine of Lapse; Censorship of Press Act, 1799; etc.
By IT's Core Team
April 08, 2019

 

 

 

What were the main features of the Nij system of cultivation? How was it different from ryoti system?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

  • In the nij system of indigo cultivation the planter produced indigo in lands that he directly owned. He either bought the land or rented it from other zamindars and produced indigo by directly employing hired labourers.

Difference between nij and ryoti system:

  • In NIJ cultivation, the planter themselves produce indigo while under Ryot system, planter get indigo produced by ryot.
  • In NIJ cultivation planter directly employ hired labour to produce indigo while in ryot system, planter force the ryot to sign an agreement to produce indigo.
  • In NIJ cultivation less than 25 percent of land should be under indigo cultivation while in ryot system, at least 25 percent of land should be under indigo cultivation.
  • Under NIJ cultivation it is very difficult to find labour while in ryot system, planter sometimes forces the village head on behalf of ryot to sign the agreement to produce indigo.
  • Under ryot system planter give loan to ryot to produce indigo, this is not applied in case of NIJ cultivation.

 

 

 

Who brought the Censorship of Press Act, 1799 in India?

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Answer:

  • Lord Wellesley brought the Censorship of Press Act, 1799.

Enrich Your Learning:

About the Censorship of Press Act, 1799:

  • The idea was to stop the French from publishing anything which could harm British in any way.
  • This act brought all the newspapers under the Government scrutiny before their publication.
  • It imposed almost wartime press restrictions including pre-censorship.
  • This act was later extended in 1807 and covered all kinds of Press Publications newspapers, magazine, books and Pamphlets.
  • These restrictions were relaxed under Lord Hastings, who had progressive views, and in 1818, pre-censorship was dispensed with.

 

 

 

Which states were annexed under the Doctrine of Lapse by Lord Dalhousie?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

  • In 1824, before the time of Dalhousie, the princely state of Kittur was acquired by the East India Company by this doctrine.
  • Other states were also annexed in 1830’s and 1840’s through this doctrine.

After Dalhousie became the Governor-General, in 1848, Satara was acquired as per this doctrine. Other major states annexed by the British as per the Doctrine of Lapse:

  1. Jaipur – 1849
  2. Sambhalpur – 1849
  3. Udaipur – 1852
  4. Jhansi – 1853
  5. Nagpur – 1854

The company took over the princely states of Satara (1848), Jaitpur and Sambalpur (1849), Nagpur and Jhansi (1854), Tanjore and Arcot (1855) and Udaipur (Chhattisgarh) under the terms of the doctrine of lapse.

Oudh (1856) is widely believed to have been annexed under the Doctrine of Lapse. However, it was annexed by Lord Dalhousie under the pretext of mis-governance.

 

 

 

‘Nirbal Sewak’ and ‘Prem’ were two newspapers published by which Indian prince?

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Answer:

  • Raja Mahendra Pratap published two newspapers- “Prem” in Hindi and “Nirbal Sewak” in Hindi and Urdu.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • Raja Mahendra Pratap the only Indian prince who actively participated in the Revolutionary Movement within and outside India.
  • In 1915, he formed the first government outside India in Afghanistan.
  • He returned to India after 32 years of exile and became the member of the second Lok Sabha in 1957-1962.
  • He was president of Indian Freedom Fighters’ Association and the president of All India Jat Mahasabha.

 

 

 

Which Viceroy of India is remembered for the annulment of the Partition of Bengal in 1911?

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Answer:

  • Lord Hardinge, the Viceroy of India (1910- 1916), is remembered for the annulment of the Partition of Bengal in 1911.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • Benaras Session of 1905 under the Presidentship of Gopal Krishna Gokhale was convened to condemn the Partition of Bengal and the reactionary policies of Curzon and support the anti-Partition and Swadeshi Movement of Bengal.
  • Due to these political protests, the two parts of Bengal were reunited on 12 December 1911.
  • A new partition which divided the province on linguistic, rather than religious grounds followed, with the Hindi, Oriya and Assamese areas separated to form separate administrative units: Bihar and Orissa Province was created to the west, and Assam Province to the east.
  • The administrative capital of British India was moved from Calcutta to New Delhi as well.

 

 

 

The resolution of Swadeshi was adopted in which session of Indian National Congress?

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Answer:

  • The resolution of Swadeshi was adopted in 1906 Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • This session was headed by Dada Bhai Naoroji. Prior to this, in Banaras 1905 session, a resolution of boycott of British goods was put forward.
  • However, it was 1906 session at Calcutta in which four resolutions on self-government, boycott movement, Swadeshi and national education were passed by the Congress.
  • Swadeshi and boycott are two sides of same coin. Swadeshi means adopting indigenous products. When we say Boycott, it means we reject foreign made products.
  • The initial protest was as Boycott and later it became Swadeshi.
  • During the Swadeshi movement, traditional folk theatre forms such as Jatra’s were used to reach to masses and National schools were setup across the country.
  • It was actually a tool of political purpose for Congress to turn the wave into a popular agitation.

 

 

 

What were the major factors which contributed to the rise of extremism or militant nationalism in India?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Extremism or militant nationalism became a predominant philosophy of Indian nationalism or Indian national movement from 1905 to 1917. Many factors contributed to the rise of extremism or militant nationalism.

  • One such factor was the opposition of certain early nationalists in the strategy and technique adopted by the moderates’ expression of faith in the fairness of the British, mendicancy and appealing to the British government.
  • The failure of the Indian Council Act of 1892 in satisfying the aspirations of the Indians is another important cause. Further, the callous attitude exhibited by the British towards the sufferings of the people due to the famine of 1897 was also one of the causes.
  • The outbreak of the Bubonic plague in Bombay presidency and the means followed by the government created strong resentment in the minds of the people which led to the murder of Rand, the Plague Commissioner of Poona by the Chapekar brothers.
  • In revolutionary associations overemphasis on religion were there which kept Muslims aloof from revolutionary terrorism.
  • Another factor was the exclusion of educated Indians from the public services also which led to the dissatisfaction for the moderate methods and the view of Lord Curzon, the Viceroy of India, “the highest ranks of civil employment must be a general rule, as held by Englishmen” made the blood of the Indians boil and think of resorting to violent means to redeem their honour.
  • Lord Curzon’s high-handed mission, commission and omissions – the Calcutta Corporation Act of 1899, and Calcutta University Act of 1904, along with the partition of Bengal in 1905 accelerated the extremist movement.
  • Revolutionary terrorist groups in India opted to follow in the footsteps of Russian Nihilists or Irish nationalists.

 

 

 

What do you know about the Pabna Peasant Uprising?

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Answer:

  • Pabna Peasant Uprising (1873-76) was a resistance movement by the peasants (“Ryots”) against the lords of the lands in Bengal (“zamindars”) in the Yusufshahi pargana (now the Sirajganj District, Bangladesh) in Pabna.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • The Pabna rebellion was different from most contemporary peasant rebellions. This movement began as the peasants organised an agrarian league in May 1873 to resist the demands of the zamindars.
  • Pabna (now in Bangladesh) was a jute production and trading centre and was relatively prosperous. Here half of the cultivators had managed to win occupancy rights because of the Bengal Tenancy Act, 1859. But the zamindari rents had increased multiple times. The zamindars tried to stop the peasants to get occupancy right and this was a reason of revolt there.
  • The peasants were much more organised than in other revolts via meetings, appeals and marches. They moved to the court and challenged the zamindars, raised funds to pay for legal expenses, to meet the cost of legal battle.
  • The movement was nonviolent to some extent but Zamindars were killed at some places and violence did happen.

 

 

 

During the colonial rule in India, Ramosi Peasant Force was formed to get rid off the Britishers from the country by instigating an armed revolt. Who instituted this force?

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Answer:

  • Vasudev Balwant Phadke

Enrich Your Learning:

About Vasudev Balwant Phadke:

  • Vasudev Balwant Phadke, also known as the father of the Indian Armed Rebellion was born on 4th November 1845 in Panvel, Raigad district, Maharashtra.
  • He formed the Ramosi Peasant Force which aimed to get rid off the Britishers from the country by instigating an armed revolt.
  • The Ramosi Peasant Force was the group of Ramoshis, Kolis, Bhils and Dhangars communities in Maharashtra and the actually the “organized political dacoits”.
  • Since the elite classes didn’t support his cause, he gathered people from backward communities and raided government treasury to collect money for the benefit of famine-stricken villagers.
  • The first raid he ever did was at the house of the local businessman at Dhamari in Shirur Taluka, Pune where he took the money which was collected as income tax from Indians by British.
  • His inspiring speeches at Pune brought people out in great numbers, who would listen to him ardently.
  • Phadke wanted a well-organized revolutionary machine to create the most impact, so he made four groups.
  • He was captured and imprisoned in 1879 and died in 1883.

 

 

In context of manufacturing, India could not develop a sound industrial base under the colonial rule. Why?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

In manufacturing, India could not develop a sound industrial base under the colonial rule. Even as the country’s world famous handicraft industries declined, no corresponding modern industrial base was allowed to come up to take pride of place so long enjoyed by the former. The primary motive of the colonial government behind this policy of systematically deindustrialising India was two-fold.

  • The intention was, first, to reduce India to the status of a mere exporter of important raw materials for the upcoming modern industries in Britain and, second, to turn India into a sprawling market for the finished products of those industries so that their continued expansion could be ensured to the maximum advantage of their home country — Britain.
  • In the unfolding economic scenario, the decline of the indigenous handicraft industries created not only massive unemployment in India but also a new demand in the Indian consumer market, which was now deprived of the supply of locally made goods.
  • This demand was profitably met by the increasing imports of cheap manufactured goods from Britain. During the second half of the nineteenth century, modern industry began to take root in India but its progress remained very slow. Initially, this development was confined to the setting up of cotton and jute textile mills.
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