Flash Cards

Day#18 Current Affairs Flash Cards [PRELIMS 2020]

‘Proton Therapy’; Advantages of Proton therapy over X-ray therapy; ‘United Nations Convention against Corruption’ (UNCAC); ‘Cirrochroa thais’; SWEEKAR (SwachalitKiraya: Automatic Fare Collection System); SWAGAT (Swachalit Gate); Register of Indigenous Inhabitants of Nagaland (RIIN);
By IASToppers
August 14, 2019



After Assam, which Indian state announced to prepare a ‘Register of Indigenous Inhabitants’?

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After Assam, Nagaland government announced to set up a register of indigenous inhabitants.

Enrich Your Learning:

Register of Indigenous Inhabitants of Nagaland (RIIN)

  • The Nagaland government will prepare a register of all the indigenous inhabitants of the state.
  • The aim to prepare RIIN is to prevent fake indigenous inhabitants’ certificates. It will prevent issuance of indigenous inhabitant certificates to ineligible persons.
  • Only those persons who names will figure in the RIIN will be issued indigenous inhabitant certificate.
  • The preparation of RIIN was started from July 10, 2019 to be completed in 60 days.
  • The RIIN will be the master list of all indigenous inhabitants of the state.
  • The database will note each family’s original residence, current residence as well as the concerned Aadhaar numbers.
  • The provisional lists prepared would be published in the villages and wards, as well as on the website of the district and the state government on September 11.
  • After finalization, each indigenous inhabitant will be given a unique ID.
  • All indigenous inhabitants of the state would be issued a barcoded and numbered Indigenous Inhabitant Certificate.
  • The process will be conducted across Nagaland and will be done as part of the online system of Inner Line Permit (ILP), currently in force in Nagaland.
  • In case anyone who is left out of the RIIN, he/she will need to file an application before Home Commissioner who will get the matter verified and take necessary action for updating the RIIN if needed.



The terms ‘SWEEKAR’ and ‘SWAGAT’ were recently in news. What are they?

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  • India’s first Indigenously Developed Payment system for transport consisting of NCMC Card, SWEEKAR (SwachalitKiraya: Automatic Fare Collection System) and SWAGAT (Swachalit Gate).

Enrich Your Learning:

  • One Nation, One Card for transport mobility was launched by Prime Minister of India.
  • It is based on National Common Mobility Card (NCMC) which is first Indigenous Automatic Fare Collection System in India.

SWEEKAR (SwachalitKiraya: Automatic Fare Collection System)

  • It is one of system developed under National Common Mobility Card.
  • It is a card issued as Debit/Credit/Prepaid cards by banks.
  • The customer may use this single card for payments across all segments including metro, bus, suburban railways, toll, parking, smart city and retail.

SWAGAT (Swachalit Gate)

  • SWAGAT is an Automatic Fare Collection Gating System.
  • SWAGAT is compliant with the National Common Mobility Card (NCMC) ecosystem for hassle-free commute across India.
  • The fare collection system is the first indigenous system and the first ever outside the developed world. It can operate across all cities and all modes of transport to make ‘One Nation – One Card’ a reality.
  • SWAGAT is an initiative steered by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) in collaboration with BEL (Bharat Electronics Limited) and Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (CDAC).

Salient features

  • Mobility cum debit / credit card.
  • In a phased manner, SWAGAT will be implemented across all modes of transport, be it Metro, Trains or Buses.
  • Will work across all cities.
  • Benefits for transport operators
  • Fare collection made simple, automatic, cashless and easy.
  • Improves the efficiency of fare collection.



‘Cirrochroa thais’ is declared as state butterfly of which state of India?

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  • Yeoman (Cirrochroa thais) butterfly species endemic to Western Ghats has been declared the state butterfly of Tamil Nadu.

Enrich Your Learning:

‘Cirrochroa thais’

  • Cirrochroa thais is commonly called yeomen, is a genus of butterflies from the family Nymphalidae found in southeast Asia.
  • It is uniformly orange in colour with a dark brown outer ring.
  • It is a common butterfly in evergreen forests and on the plateau.

Key Facts:

  • Maharashtra was the first to declare Blue Mormon as its state butterfly, followed by Uttarakhand (Common peacock), Karnataka (Southern bird wings) and Kerala (Malabar banded peacock).
  • Tamil Nadu is fifth in the country to do so.



Enlist the areas covered under ‘United Nations Convention against Corruption’ (UNCAC)?

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The Convention covers five main areas:

  • Preventive measures
  • Criminalization and law enforcement
  • International cooperation
  • Asset recovery
  • Technical assistance and information exchange

Enrich Your Learning:

‘United Nations Convention against Corruption’ (UNCAC)

  • The United Nations Convention against Corruption is the only legally binding universal anti-corruption instrument.
  • The text of the convention was negotiated during seven sessions of the Ad Hoc Committee for the Negotiation of the Convention against Corruption, held between 2002-03.
  • The convention was entered in force from 14th December 2005.
  • The UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) in Vienna serves as Secretariat for the UNCAC.
  • It covers many forms of corruption, such as bribery, trading in influence, abuse of functions, and various acts of corruption in the private sector.
  • UNCAC has a limited capacity to influence the domestic legal systems of its States Parties because of its inclusion of a large number of non-mandatory criminalization provisions.

India & UNCAC:

  • India is a signatory of the convention since 2011.
  • The Government of India does not consider itself bound by paragraph 2 of Article 66 of the Convention.



What is Proton therapy? What are the advantages of Proton therapy over X-ray therapy for cancerous tumour?

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Enrich Your Learning:

‘Proton Therapy’

  • Proton therapy, also called proton beam therapy, is a type of radiation therapy. It uses protons rather than x-rays to treat cancer.
  • Proton therapy is the most technologically advanced method to deliver radiation treatments to cancerous tumour.
  • A proton is a positively charged particle. At high energy, protons can destroy cancer cells.
  • It may use alone or combine with x-ray radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy, and/or immunotherapy.
  • The therapy painlessly delivers radiation through the skin from a machine outside the body.

Proton iastoppers


Advantages of Proton therapy over X-ray therapy:

Advantages of Proton iastoppers


  • Proton therapy delivers radiation to tumour tissue in a much more confined way than conventional photon therapy (X-ray therapy).
  • This therapy allows to use a greater dose while still minimizing side effects.
  • The therapy controls where the proton releases the bulk of its cancer-fighting energy, in X-ray therapy there is no such features.
  • A proton beam conforms to the shape and depth of a tumour, while sparing healthy tissues and organs.
  • Protons stop after depositing the radiation dose in the tumour which prevents unnecessary radiation to healthy tissues and organs while x-rays continue traveling through the body resulting in damage to the healthy cells.




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