Flash-Cards-for-IAS-Prelims-2019-Art-culture-Day-181
70 Days WAR Plan

Day#18 Static Flash Cards Indian Art & Culture [70 Days WAR Plan]

Kalaripayattu; Classical Languages in India; ‘Abhinavabharati’; ‘Aham’ and ‘Puram’; ‘Chaitya-griha’; Sittanavasal Cave; Mesopotamian; Ramabhar Stupa; Kanheri Caves; Lomas Rishi caves; Sattriya dance; Gatka and Lazim; Bhand Pather;
By IT's Core Team
April 08, 2019

 

 

 

It is the traditional theatre form of Kashmir. It is a unique combination of dance, music and acting. Actors are mainly come from the farming community. These mentioned features represent which theatre form?

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Answer:

  • Bhand Pather

Enrich Your Learning:

About Bhand Pather:

  • Bhand Pather, the traditional theatre form of Kashmir, is a unique combination of dance, music and acting.
  • Satire, wit and parody are preferred for inducing laughter.
  • In this theatre form, music is provided with surnai, nagaara and dhol.
  • Since the actors of Bhand Pather are mainly from the farming community, the impact of their way of living, ideals and sensitivity is discernible.

 

 

 

Kalaripayattu, Gatka and Lazim represent which art form?

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Answer:

  • Kalaripayattu, Gatka and Lazim are examples of martial arts.

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Kalaripayattu

  • Kalaripayattu is a martial art, which originated as a style in Kerala, southern India (North Malabar).
  • The word kalari first appears in the Tamil Sangam literature (c. 300 BCE to 300 CE) to describe both a battlefield and combat arena.
  • The word kalari tatt denoted a martial feat, while kalari kozhai meant a coward in war.
  • Each warrior in the Sangam era received regular military training. It is considered to be one of the oldest surviving fighting systems still in existence in the world.
  • It was originally practiced in northern and central parts of Kerala and southern parts of Tamil Nadu.

Gatka

  • Gatka is an ancient martial art which has been thoroughly battle-tested and has existed in northern India for many thousands of years.
  • It is considered to be a spiritual as well as a physical exercise. Both these aspects of the person are developed to a high level during the learning phase in this ancient art.
  • Although it uses the sword as its primary weapon, many other weapons are available to the Gatka master.
  • Today, this art exists exclusively amongst the Sikhs who have passed down the flamboyant techniques through generations, since their sixth Guru, Guru Hargobind wore the two swords of Miri (temporal, worldly) and Piri (spiritual, transcendental).
  • The government of Punjab and School Games Federation of India (SGFI) have also incorporated the Gatka game into the school games.

Lazim:

  • Lezim or Lazim is a folk dance form from Maharashtra.
  • The dance is frequently used as a fitness drill by schools in Maharashtra, militias and other institutions because it involves many calisthenic moves and can be quite strenuous.
  • Lezim dancers carry a small musical instrument with jingling cymbals called the Lezim, after which the dance form is named.

 

 

 

The Sattriya dance form was introduced as a powerful medium for propagation of (a) Shaiva faith OR (b) Vaishnava faith?

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Answer:

  • The Sattriya dance form was introduced as a powerful medium for propagation of the Vaishnava faith.

Enrich Your Learning:

About Sattriya dance:

  • The Sattriya dance form was introduced in the 15th century A.D by the great Vaishnava saint and reformer of Assam, Mahapurusha Sankaradeva.
  • The dance form evolved and expanded as a distinctive style of dance later on.
  • This neo-Vaishnava treasure of Assamese dance and drama has been, for centuries, nurtured and preserved with great commitment by the Sattras i.e. Vaishnava maths or monasteries.
  • Because of its religious character and association with the Sattras, this dance style has been aptly named Sattriya.
  • One-act plays of Sattriya are called Ankiya Nat, which combine the aesthetic and the religious through a ballad, dance and drama.
  • The plays are usually performed in the dance community halls of monastery temples (sattras).
  • The themes played relate to Krishna and Radha, sometimes other Vishnu avatars such as Rama and Sita.
  • Recognized in 2000 as a classical dance by Sangeet Natak Akademi of India, modern Sattriya explores many themes and plays, and its performances staged worldwide.
  • Pat Silk saree is the most popular kind of saree used in this dance, which represents the locality through its various colorful motifs and designs.

 

 

 

In India, where do you find Ramabhar Stupa, Kanheri Caves and Lomas Rishi caves?

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Answer:

  • Ramabhar Stupa in Kushinagar, Uttar Pradesh is one of the most famous Stupas in India.
  • The Kanheri Caves are a group of caves and rock-cut monuments cut into a massive basalt outcrop in the forests of the Sanjay Gandhi National Park, on the island of Salsette in the western outskirts of Mumbai.
  • The Lomas Rishi Cave, also called the Grotto of Lomas Rishi, is one of the man-made Barabar Caves in the Barabar and Nagarjuni hills of Jehanabad district in the Indian state of Bihar.

Enrich Your Learning:

Ramabhar Stupa

  • The Ramabhar Stupa in Kushinagar holds a significant place in the history of Buddhism being the cremation site of Lord Buddha, who is believed to have attained enlightenment and Nirvana on a full moon night.
  • Outside India, Kushinagar is an International Buddhist Pilgrimage Centre.

Kanheri Caves

  • They are a group of caves and rock-cut monuments cut into a massive basalt outcrop.
  • They are located in the forests of the Sanjay Gandhi National Park, on the island of Salsette in the western outskirts of Mumbai.
  • Kanheri comes from the Sanskrit Krishnagiri, which means black mountain.
  • They contain Buddhist sculptures and relief carvings, paintings and inscriptions.
  • Most of the caves were Buddhist viharas, meant for living, studying, and meditating.

Lomas Rishi caves

  • Lomas Rishi is one of the oldest rock-cut chambers in India.
  • The façade of this cave resembles wooden constructions of earlier time. The interiors of the cave consist of rectangular chambers. The glass like polish adds beauty to the cave.
  • The façade of this cave became a constant feature in the later Chaityas and is known as the Chaitya Arch. It also continued as a decorative motif in later temples.
  • The cave contains inscription from later times – 7th – 8th century AD referring to kings Sarddulavarman and his son Anantarvarman, Maukhari dynasty. The inscription mentions, that Anantarvarman placed an image of Lord Krishna in the cave.

 

 

 

Which evidences show the trade and cultural relations existed between Indus civilization and Mesopotamian cities?

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Answer:

  • Trade and cultural contacts existed between these cities and those of Mesopotamia of which the evidence is the occurrence of the seals, as well as similar carnelian beads, knobbed pottery, etc., at both places.

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  • Mesopotamia was a historic region in Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system.
  • In modern days, it roughly corresponding to most of Iraq plus Kuwait, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

 

 

 

Sittanavasal Cave is a rock-cut monastery or temple created by (a) Buddhists OR (b) Jains?

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Answer:

  • Sittanavasal Cave also known as Arivar Koil is a 2nd-century Jain complex of caves in Sittanavasal village of Tamil Nadu. The monument is a rock-cut monastery or temple created by Jains.

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About Sittanavasal Cave:

  • It is a rock cut cave temple of the Arihants.
  • It contains remnants of notable frescoes from the 7th century.
  • The paintings are not only on the walls but also on the ceiling and pillars.
  • The murals have been painted with vegetable and mineral dyes in black, green, yellow, orange, blue, and white. Paintings have been created by applying colours over a thin wet surface of lime plaster.
  • These murals are very akin to Bagh and Ajanta paintings.
  • Eladipattam is the newest joiner of the Sittanavasal cave.
  • Temple-cave was initially dated to Pallava King Mahendravarman I prior to his conversion from Jainism to Hinduism as a Shaivite.
  • However, an inscription attributes its renovation to a Pandyan king probably Maran Sendan or Arikesari Maravarman.

 

 

 

In context of Indian architecture, what does the term ‘chaitya-griha’ refer to?

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Answer:

  • A ‘chaitya-griha’ is a Buddhist shrine, temple or prayer hall with a stupa at one end.

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About ‘chaitya-griha’:

  • The term chaitya-griha is often used to denote an assembly or prayer hall that houses a stupa.
  • Architecturally, chaityas show similarities to ancient Roman architectural concepts of column and arch.
  • About 1200 such cave temples were built throughout India. The most important of these are the Karla Caves, Ajanta Caves, Ellora Caves, Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves, Aurangabad Caves, Bhaja Caves and the Pandavleni Caves.

 

 

 

In context of Indian art & culture, what do the terms ‘Aham’ and ‘Puram’ refer to?

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Answer:

  • Akam is one of two genres of Classical Tamil poetry which concerns with the subject of love, the other (puṟam) concerns the subject of war.

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Aham and Puram

  • Early classical Tamil literature is known as Sangam literature meaning ‘fraternity’, indicating mainly two schools of poets, aham (subjective love poems), and puram (objective, public poetry and heroic).
  • Aham deals purely with the subjective emotions of the lover, and puram with all kinds of emotions, mainly the valour and glory of kings, and about good and evil.

 

 

 

In context of Indian art & culture, what is the ‘Abhinavabharati’ known for?

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Answer:

  • Abhinavabharati is a commentary on ancient Indian author Bharata Muni’s work of dramatic theory, the Natyasastra.

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About Abhinavabharati:

  • It is the oldest commentary available on the treatise.
  • The Abhinavabharati was written by Abhinavagupta, the great Kashmiri Saivite spiritual leader and a yogi.
  • In this monumental work, Abhinavagupta explains the rasasutra of Bharata in consonance with the theory of abhivyakti (expression) propounded in Anandavardhana’s work Dhvanyaloka (“aesthetic suggestion”), as well as the tenets of the Pratyabhijna philosophy of Kashmir.

 

 

 

What are the criteria for selection of any language as Classical Language in India?

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Answer:

Creation of a new category of languages as classical languages based on four norms:

  • High antiquity of its early texts/recorded history over a period of 1500-2000 years;
  • A body of ancient literature/texts, which is considered a valuable heritage by generations of speakers;
  • The literary tradition should be original and not borrowed from another speech community;
  • The classical language and literature being distinct from the modern, there may also be discontinuity between the classical language and its later forms or offshoots.

Enrich Your Learning:

Classical Languages in India:

Till date the status of a “Classical Language in India” has been accorded to following six languages:

  • Tamil (in 2004),
  • Sanskrit (2005),
  • Kannada (2008),
  • Telugu (2008),
  • Malayalam (2013), and
  • Odia (2014).

Key facts:

  • Article 343 gave Hindi the status of official language of the Union.
  • For Sanskrit, there is a special status mentioned in article 351, whereby Sanskrit was given a position of the primary source language for many languages including Hindi.

 

 

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