Flash Cards

Day#19 Current Affairs Flash Cards [PRELIMS 2020]

International Whaling Commission’ (IWC); Lytein river; Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) regulations; ‘ ‘ISALEX 19’;
By IASToppers
August 15, 2019



Côte d’Ivoire is located in the continent of South America. True or False?

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Côte d’Ivoire is located on the coast of western Africa.

Enrich Your Learning:

Location of ‘Côte d’Ivoire’

  • Côte d’Ivoire is located in the continent of Africa on western coast. It is also known as Ivory Coast.
  • The de facto capital is Abidjan; the administrative capital designate is Yamoussoukro.
  • The official language of the republic is French.
  • Mali, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia are the neighbouring countries of Côte d’Ivoire.

Location of ‘Côte d'Ivoire’



‘ISALEX 19’ is the first joint exercise of which international collaboration?

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ISALEX 19 is the first joint exercise of International Security Alliance. It is hosted by the UAE Ministry of Interior.

Enrich Your Learning:


  • In ISLAEX19, the teams of the ISA countries will operate according to different security theories and strategies in order to test the readiness of the international teams in facing security threats.
  • It was simulated by attacks and security threats in a virtual context.
  • Teams worked in perfect harmony and come up with the most appropriate security practice.



Is India a member country of ‘International Whaling Commission’ (IWC)?

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Yes. India is a member state of the IWC.

Enrich Your Learning:

‘International Whaling Commission’ (IWC)

  • The IWC is the global body charged with the conservation of whales and the management of whaling.
  • It is a decision-making body of International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW).
  • The IWC currently has 88 member countries all over the world.
  • The commission was established in 1946. It banned commercial whaling in 1986.
  • It has a full-time Secretariat with headquarters located in the City of Cambridge, United Kingdom.
  • The IWC meets annually and adopts regulations on catch limits, whaling methods and protected areas.
  • The Chair and Vice-chair are elected from among the Commissioners and usually serve for four years.
  • The last Commission meeting of the IWC was held in Florianopolis, Brazil in 2018.
  • The next meeting of ‘International Whaling Commission’ (IWC) will be held in 2020 at Portorož in Slovenia.


  • To provide for the proper conservation of whale stocks and thus make possible the orderly development of the whaling industry.

Measures under IWC:

  • Catch limits by species and area
  • Designating specified areas as whale sanctuaries
  • Protection of calves and females accompanied by calves
  • Restrictions on hunting methods

Key Fact:

  • Whaling as an industry began around the 11th Century. It was followed first by the Dutch and the British, and later by the Americans, Norwegians and many other nations.



Recently, CAFÉ regulations were in news. What are they meant for?

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Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) regulations aimed at lowering fuel consumption (or improving fuel efficiency) of vehicles by lowering carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.

Enrich Your Learning:

‘CAFE’ or Corporate Average Fuel Efficiency/Economy Regulations

  • The regulations serve the twin purposes of reducing dependence on oil for fuel and controlling pollution.
  • The regulations were passed in 1975 as part of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act backed by energy crisis of United States in 1973.
  • It sets up minimum standard on the fuel economy of vehicles produced by the manufacturer in terms of Miles per Gallon (mpg).
  • The regulations are in force in many advanced as well as developing nations, including India.
  • The norms are applicable for petrol, diesel, LPG and CNG passenger vehicles.

CAFÉ regulations in India:

  • CAFE regulations in India came into force from April 1, 2017.
  • Under this, average corporate CO2 emission must be less than 130 gm per km till 2022 and below 113 gm per km thereafter.
  • That shows cars to be 30% or more fuel efficient from 2022 and 10% or more between 2017 and 2021.
  • The norms are targeted at reducing the carbon footprint of the automobile industry.

National Auto Policy:

  • The National Auto Policy (draft) put out in early 2018.
  • It is for developing a roadmap for reduction in CO2 emissions through CAFE regulations.
  • It defines corporate average CO2 gm per km targets for all passenger vehicle manufacturers from 2020 and aspires to match Indian CO2 reduction targets to those set by developed countries by 2025.
  • The policy also contemplates economic penalties for manufacturers who do not meet corporate average targets.



Lytein river is found in which geographical region of India?

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Lytein river flows in East Jaintia Hills district of Meghalaya.


Enrich Your Learning:

Why in news?

  • 15 workers were trapped in a 320-350 feet-deep coal mine in the East Jaintia Hills in December 2018.
  • The incidence occurred after it was flooded by waters of the nearby Lytein river. It is believed that the miners may have punctured the cave wall allowing the water of ‘Lytein River’ from the river to flood the cave.

What is rat-hole mining?

  • It is a primitive and hazardous method of mining for coal, with tunnels that are only 3-4 feet in diameter (hence, rat-hole), leading to pits ranging from 5-100 sq. meters deep.
  • There are two types of rat-holes:
  • When dug into the ground these are vertical shafts leading to the mines where horizontal tunnels are dug.
  • The second type is where horizontal holes are dug directly in the hillsides to reach coal seams (bed of coal).
  • The National Green Tribunal banned rat-hole mining in Meghalaya in 2014 on a petition saying that acidic discharge from the mines was polluting the Kopili river.
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