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70 Days WAR Plan

Day#19 Static Flash Cards Indian Art & Culture [70 Days WAR Plan]

Maheshmurti; Makaravilakku festival; Bomkai Saree, Pochampally Saree and Ilkal Saree; Chalcolithic paintings; Jaiminiya Dance and Kausitaki dance; Kalighat paintings; Malinithan temple; ‘Ankia Nat’; Tolkappiyam; Madhubani paintings;
By IT's Core Team
April 09, 2019

 

 

 

Madhubani paintings gives (a) two dimensional effect OR (b) three dimensional effect?

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Answer:

  • Madhubani painting does not have shading so it gives the two dimensional effects to paintings.

Enrich Your Learning:

Madhubani paintings:

  • Traditionally done by the women of villages around Madhubani town, it is also called Mithila paintings.
  • Mithila painting is folk painting practiced in Mithila region of India (especially Bihar) and Nepal.
  • The art extends to the adjoining parts of Terai region in Nepal.
  • The paintings have a common theme and are usually drawn from religious motifs of the Hindus, including Krishna, Rama, Durga, Lakshmi and Shiva.
  • The figures in the painting are symbolic, for example, fish depicts good luck and fertility.
  • The paintings are also made depicting auspicious occasions like birth, marriage and festivals. Flowers, trees, animals, etc. are used to fill any gaps in the painting.
  • Traditionally, these were painted on walls using rice paste and vegetable colours on a base of cow dung and mud.
  • With time, the base changed to handmade paper, clothes and canvas, still the natural colours were used.
  • Since there is no shading, the paintings are two-dimensional.
  • Some of the common features of these paintings include double line border, bold use of colours, ornate floral patterns and exaggerated facial features.
  • The origin of Madhubani paintings is believed to be during the period of Ramayana.
  • The people believed that doing so should please the Gods.
  • Mostly women have passed on the skill of Madhubani painting from generations and generations.
  • In 1970, this art got recognition, when the President of India honoured Jagdamba Devi of Jitbarpur village with an award.

Since the art has remained confined to a specific geographical area, it has been given GI (geographical indication) status.

 

 

 

 

Tolkappiyam is associate with which Sangam Period?

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Answer:

  • Tolkappiyam is associate with second Sangam Period.

Enrich Your Learning:

Tolkappiyam:

  • Tolkappiyam is a textbook on Tamil grammar giving the inflection and syntax of words and sentences and also includes classification of habitats, animals, plants and human beings.
  • Around 2,000 poems were collected and compiled into Tolkappiyam.
  • It is written in the form of noorpaa or short formulaic compositions.
  • It comprises three books – the Ezhuttadikaram, the Solladikaram and the Poruladikaram. Each of these books is further divided into nine chapters each. While the exact date of the work is not known, based on linguistic and other evidence, it has been dated variously between the 5th century BCE and the 2nd century.
  • The Tholkappiyam classifies the Tamil language into sentamil and koduntamil. The former refers to the classical Tamil used almost exclusively in literary works and the latter refers to the dialectal Tamil, spoken by the people in the various regions of ancient Tamilagam.

 

 

 

With context to culture of Assam, what is ‘Ankia Nat’?

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Answer:

  • ‘Ankia Nat’ is the form of drama that originated from Lord Krishna.

Enrich Your Learning:

Ankia Nat:

  • Ankia Nat is a drama that originated in the wake of neo-Vaishnavite movement during the 16th century in the Indian state of Assam is called Ankia Nat.
  • Ankiya Nat is a form of religious theatre dance drama created by Shankaradeva.
  • ‘Ankiya’ means ‘act’ or ‘episode’ and ‘Nat’ means ‘drama’. Therefore, ‘Ankiya Nat’ means a ‘one-act drama’.
  • Ankiya Nat is Vaisnavite in content and character.
  • These plays were written in an artificial Assamese-Maithili mixed language called Brajavali and are primarily centered on Krishna.
  • A particular presentation of an Ankia Naat is called a Bhaona.
  • The plays usually combine live instruments and singers, dance and elaborate costumes in production.
  • This operatic one act play that depicts the legend of Lord Krishna in all its beauty and grandeur is structurally an attractive synthesis of folk and classical tradition of the region.
  • It was actually developed by renowned Vaishnavite saint of Assam Srimanta Sankardeva during the 15th century and was directed at the illiterate masses of Assam and the tribal population of Bihar and West Bengal.
  • It is enacted in four various sequences: playing of “Dhamali”, benediction, introduction and the presentation of the “Nat” or story and the moral instruction or “Mukti-Mangal Bhatima”.
  • This type of play mainly starts with playing the drum accompanied by big cymbals and small cymbals known as “Khuli Tal”, by the musician-singer (Gayen Bayen) in a group.
  • The musical instruments are usually played in various movements in two paces known as “Bar Dhemali” and “Saru Dhemali”.
  • Masks happen to be an important ingredient of Bhaona, generally made of bamboo, paper and textile and are also designed to give special facial expressions to many characters.

 

 

 

Where is the famous Malinithan temple located?

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Answer:

  • Malinithan temple is located at Northern bank of the Brahmaputra River, in Arunachal Pradesh.

Enrich Your Learning:

Malinithan temple:

  • Malinithan is an archaeological site which consists of ruins of a Hindu temple of the early medieval period.
  • This temple is dedicated to Deity Durga in her Shakti form which is built by Chutiya king Lakshminarayan during 14-15th century.
  • The archaeological excavations revealed that it was built with granite stones.
  • It has a very well designed and carved plinth of a temple of 8 feet (2.4 m) height, sculptures of deities and animals, designs of flowers, damaged columns and panels.
  • Four sculptures of lions on two elephants were found at the four corners of the ruins of the temple.
  • Among the sculptures found at Malinthan, five notable ones carved out of granite stone are of Indrariding his mount Airavata, Kartikeya riding a peacock, Surya (Sun) riding a chariot, and Ganesha mounted over a mouse, and a large Nandi bull. 
  • On the basis of the erotic Maithunasculptures found here in different postures it is believed that tantricism prevailed here as a fertility rite of the primitive tribal people who held the “mother principal as the procreative power of nature”.
  • The temple is carved entirely out of stone, a type of temple known as Asmamayai.
  • Iron dowels discovered in the ruins of the stone temple which resemble the ones found in the Tamreswari temple of Sadiya shows that it was built by the same people.

 

 

 

What are the features of Kalighat paintings?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Kalighat paintings:

  • The Kalighat Paintings are watercolor paintings done on mill-made paper by the scroll painters-cum-potters that migrated from rural Bengal to the city of Calcutta in the nineteenth century.
  • A product of the changing urban society of Calcutta (now Kolkata) in 19th century, Kalighat paintings were done by the rural migrants who settled around the Kalighat temple in the then British capital (Calcutta).
  • These paintings are produced by a group of artists called ‘Patuas’.
  • The painted figures have a plaque-like effect on neutral background given the shaded contours and articulated movements.
  • Originally, the paintings depicted religious note, especially Hindu Gods and Goddesses.
  • Over time, these paintings were used to express social sentiments.
  • Kalighat paintings are considered first of its kind in the country to express subaltern sentiments and address customers directly.
  • In the more recent works one can see changing roles of women and men, romantic depictions of women and satirical paintings indicating the hypocrisies of newly rich.
  • Some believe that these paintings have been influenced by the distinctive painting style of the British, while the others focus on the importance of social context and local technique playing a major role in the style of the paintings.
  • This legacy of painting was long ignored by scholars, however it gained importance and appreciation in the 20th century.
  • There are two types of Kalighat paintings that one can witness:
    • Oriental: It depict gods, goddesses, mythological characters as well as scenes from religious Hindu texts.
    • Occidental: It depict secular and civil themes like crime, women bathing, the evolving role of men and women in the society since the emphasis on women’s education, the hypocritical lives of the quasi-bourgeois, depictions of the freedom struggle.

 

 

 

Jaiminiya and Kausitaki dance and music are mentioned together in (a) Aranyakas OR (b) Brahmanas?

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Answer:

  • Brahmanas

Enrich Your Learning:

Jaiminiya Dance and Kausitaki dance:

  • In the Brahmanas, Jaiminiya and Kausitaki dance and music are mentioned together. The Epics are full of references to dances on earth and heaven.
  • The jaiminiya speaks of dance and music jointly and Kausitaki puts dance and vocal and instrumental music together as an art.
  • Dance is closely associated with in Jaiminiya Brahmanas.

 

 

 

What were the characteristic features of Chalcolithic period?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Chalcolithic paintings:

  • The paintings of this period showed an interaction between cave dwellers with settled agricultural communities.
  • Motifs like cross-hatched squares and lattices along with pottery and metals is seen depicted.
  • More of animal figures were depicted in this period.
  • Colours like white and red were used more than any other.
  • During this period, there is increase in the number of paintings using the green and yellow colour.
  • Most of the paintings concentrate on depicting battle scenes. There are many paintings of men riding horses and elephants. Some of them even carry bow and arrow which might indicate preparedness for skirmishes.
  • Paintings from this period also have depictions of musical instruments like the harp.
  • Some of the paintings have complex geometrical shapes like the spiral, rhomboid and circle.

Location:

  • Remains of Chalcolithic paintings are found at Ashokan and Gupta Brahmi scripts. The other set of paintings from this period are at Narsinghgarh in Madhya Pradesh.
  • Some of the paintings from the later period can be seen in the Jogimara caves in the Ramgarh hills in Surguja district of Chhattisgarh. These are dated to be painted around 1000 BCE.
  • Chhattisgarh is also home to the variety of caves in the district of Kanker like the shelter of Udkuda, Garagodi, Khairkheda, Gotitola, Kulgaon, etc. These shelters depict the human figurines, animals, palm prints, bullock carts, etc. which show a higher and sedentary type of living.
  • Similar paintings can be seen in the Ghodsar and Kohabaur rock art sites in the district of Koriya.
  • Another interesting site is in Chitwa Dongri (Durg district) where we find a Chinese figure riding a donkey, pictures of dragons and agricultural sceneries.

Several interesting rock paintings have also been found in Limdariha in Bastar district and Oogdi, Sitalekhni in Sarguja district.

 

 

 

 

Which are the major production centres of the Bomkai Saree, Pochampally Saree and Ilkal Saree?

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Answer:

  • Major production centres of Bomkai saree, Pochampally Saree and Ilkal saree are Orissa, Telangana and Karnataka respectively.

Enrich Your Learning:

Bomkai Saree:

  • Bomkai, which is also known as Sonepuri, is an extraordinary fabric that results from the confluence of two extremely popular components of the Orissa textile industry.
  • It is an outcome of Ikat and embroidery interwoven into each other.
  • A significant part of the finishing in Bomkai sarees can be attributed to the borders or pallavs.
  • Bomkai sarees are available in cotton and silk fabrics.
  • Some of the most popular varieties include Sonepuri, Pasapali, Barpali, and Bapta saris.
  • A Bomkai saree is largely worn by Kathak dancers around the world.

Pochampalli saree:

  • Pochampally Saree is a traditional garment made in Bhoodan Pochampally, Nalgonda district, Telangana.
  • These sarees are distinguished by their characteristic Ikat prints.
  • Most Ikat designs are totally abstract and do not use a specific set of motifs and prints.
  • The intricate geometric designs find their way into sarees and dress materials.
  • Pochampally saree received Intellectual Property Rights Protection or Geographical Indication (GI) status in 2005.

Ilkal saree:

  • It is a traditional form of saree which is a common feminine wear in India.
  • Ilkal saree takes its name from the town of Ilkal in the Bagalkot district of Karnataka state.
  • Ilkal sarees are woven using cotton warp on the body and art silk warp for border and art silk warp for pallu portion of the saree.
  • The uniqueness of saree is joining of the body warp with pallu warp with a series of loops locally called as TOPE TENI technique.
  • In some cases instead of art silk, pure silk is also used.
  • It is use as kasuti embroidery with chariot and elephant as common motifs.
  • Ilkal saree has been accorded Geographical Indication (GI) Status.

 

 

 

Where is the famous Makaravilakku festival celebrated?

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Answer:

  • The famous Makaravilakku festival celebrated in Kerala at the shrine of Sabarimala.

Enrich Your Learning:

Makaravilakku festival:

  • Makaravilakku festival is the 7 days festival and the most important event in the two-month-long annual festival season.
  • Makara jyothi is a star that appears in the sky on Makara Samkramam when the Sun moves from dhanu rasi (Sagittarius) to Makaram rasi (Capricorn) on the first day of the Malayalam month of Makaram, 14 January.
  • Makara vilakku is a light lit at Ponnambalamedu, a plateau across the Sabarimala shrine.
  • The light, believed to have celestial origins, is shown three times by the chief priest of Pamba temple. Pamba is the base station of Sabarimala.
  • The light is dubbed as Makara vilakku. This ritual is done after the Sirius star appears in the sky.
  • This ritual had been done by Malaya araya tribals in the past. When the Travancore Devaswom Board took over the administration of the temple in the early 1950s, the tribal community lost that right.

 

 

 

“Maheshmurti” is considered the most important sculpture of (a) Ajanta Caves OR (b) Elephanta Caves?

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Answer:

  • Elephanta Caves

Enrich Your Learning:

Maheshmurti at Elephanta Caves:

  • The Elephanta Caves are located in Western India on Elephanta Island (otherwise known as the Island of Gharapuri), which features two hillocks separated by a narrow valley.
  • Elephanta Caves, also known as the ‘City of Caves’, on an island in the Sea of Oman close to Bombay, contains a collection of rock art linked to the cult of Shiva.
  • The 7-metre-high masterpiece “Maheshmurti” dominates the entrance to Cave 1.
  • It is considered the most important sculpture of Elephanta and is described as a ‘masterpiece of Gupta-Chalukyan art’.
  • It is placed at the back of the cave facing the entrance, on the north-south axis and is also known as Maheshmurti or Trimurti Sadashiva.
  • The three-headed image of Shiva is of a height of 20 ft and represents Panchamukha Shiva.
  • This sculpture represents three aspects of Shiva: the Creator, the Preserver, and the Destroyer, identified, respectively, with Aghora or Bhairava (left half), Taptapurusha or Mahadeva (central full face), and Vamadeva or Uma (right half).
  • The right half-face (west face) shows him holding a lotus bud, depicting the promise of life and creativity. This face is symbolism for Brahma.
  • The left half-face (east face) is that of a moustached young man. This is Shiva as the terrifying Aghora or Bhairava, the chaos creator and destroyer.
  • This sculpture also known as Sadashiva and Trimurti.
  • This is the Shiva form as the “master of positive and negative principles of existence and preserver of their harmony”.
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