Flash Cards

Day#20 Current Affairs Flash Cards [PRELIMS 2020]

‘Invest India’; ‘RO Desalination’ or Reverse Osmosis Desalination; Koovagam festival; ‘Prasnottara Ratna Malika’; ‘Working on a Warmer Planet: The Impact of Heat Stress on Labour Productivity and Decent Work’;
By IASToppers
August 16, 2019



‘Working on a Warmer Planet: The Impact of Heat Stress on Labour Productivity and Decent Work’ is a report released by which International organization?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

‘Working on a Warmer Planet: The Impact of Heat Stress on Labour Productivity and Decent Work’

  • It is a report released by International Labour Organisation (ILO).
  • The report stated that by 2030, the equivalent of more than two per cent of total working hours worldwide is projected to be lost every year.
  • This is either because it is too hot to work or because workers have to work at a slower
  • This projected loss will be equivalent to 80 million full-time job and this loss is expected to reach USD 2,400 billion by 2030.
  • The projections are based on a global temperature rise of 1.50C by the end of the 21st century.
  • Southern Asian and western African States will be the most affected suffer to up to 5.3 per cent of total working hours (the equivalent of 43 million full-time jobs), which is at least two per cent losses will faced by two-thirds of Southern Asian countries.

Effect of increased temperature on work efficiency:

  • Heat stress is defined as generally occurring at above 35 degrees Celsius, in places where there is high humidity. It affects all outdoor workers.
  • Excess heat at work is an occupational health risk and in extreme cases can lead to heatstroke, which can be fatal.
  • Above 390C, temperature can kill. Also such temperatures can leave many people unable to work or able to work only at a reduced rate.
  • Older workers have lower physiological resistance to high levels of heat.

Sectors to be affected:

  • Farmers are set to be worst hit by rising temperatures and the agriculture sector will be responsible for 60 per cent of global working hours lost by 2030.
  • Other at-risk sectors include refuse collection, emergency services, transport, tourism and sports.

Effects in India:

  • The report said that the country most affected by heat stress is India.
  • India lost 4.3 per cent of working hours in 1995 and is projected to lose 8 per cent of working hours in 2030.
  • India is expected to lose the equivalent of 34 million full-time jobs in 2030 in productivity because of its large population.
  • And the most impact will be felt in the agricultural sector and in the construction sector as major population is associated with these sectors in India.



‘Prasnottara Ratna Malika’ is a book of which Indian philosopher?

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  • Adi Shankaracharya

Enrich Your Learning:

  • Prasnottara Ratna Malika of Adi Shankaracharya is a collection of 67 verses comprising of questions and answers pertaining to both spiritual and temporal living.
  • ‘Prasnottara Ratna Malika’ literally means “The Necklace of Gem-like Questions”.







Koovagam festival is celebrated in which part of India?

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  • Koovagam festival is celebrated at Koothandavar Temple in Koovagam village of Tamil Nadu.

Enrich Your Learning:

‘Koovagam festival’

  • Kovagam festival is one of the unique transgender festivals which happens in Tamil Nadu.
  • It is celebrated Koothandavar Temple in Koovagam village in Villupuram, Tamil Nadu.
  • The festival is celebrated in the month of Chaitra (April-May) according to the Tamil calendar.
  • This transgender festival goes on for 18 days with the worship of Aravan as Koothandavar. Aravan is the son of Arjuna and the Naga princess Ulupi of the epic Mahabharatha.
  • The festival consists of various cultural events leading up to its climax on a full moon day.
  • On the 14th day of the Koovagam festival, transgender women dressed as Mohini (female avatar of Lord Krishna) gather from daybreak at the Kuttantavar temple.
  • One day after the marriage, they all become widows mourning at ‘mourning ground’ known as azhukalam.
  • Widowed transgenders wear white sarees like widows and serve the people for ten days.



Is there any plant of ‘Reverse Osmosis desalination’ in India which is currently in operation?

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Yes, two desalination plants were set up in Chennai and the city of Chennai is already using the desalinated water.

The government of Gujarat has announced plans of setting up a 100 MLD RO plant at the Jodiya coast in Jamnagar district.

Enrich Your Learning:

‘RO Desalination’ or Reverse Osmosis Desalination

  • RO Desalination is one of the technique used to desalinate the brackish or salty water.
  • RO is the most prevalent technology to convert salt water into freshwater.
  • In this technology, a plant pumps in salty or brackish water, filters separate the salt from the water, and the salty water is returned to the sea.


  • In a reverse osmosis system, an external pressure is applied to reverse the natural flow of solvent (which is from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration).
  • Seawater or brackish water is pressurized against one surface of the membrane.
  • The pressure allows salt-depleted water to move across the membrane, releasing clean water from the low-pressure side.


Key Facts:

  • Seawater has Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) close to 35,000 parts per million (ppm) which is equivalent to 35g of salt per one liter/kg of water.

TDS level as per WHO in drinking water:

  • Excellent, less than 300 mg/litre
  • Good, between 300 and 600 mg/litre
  • Fair, between 600 and 900 mg/litre
  • Poor, between 900 and 1200 mg/litre
  • Unacceptable, greater than 1200 mg/litre; extremely low concentrations of TDS



Make in India campaign/ programme is managed by Invest India. True or False?

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Enrich Your Learning:

‘Invest India’

  • Invest India is a National Investment Promotion and Facilitation Agency of India. It acts as the first point of reference for investors in India.
  • Invest India was set up in 2009. It is a non-profit venture under the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade, Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India.


  • Invest India is envisaged as a one stop shop specially created to attract and retain high quality investments into India.
  • It is intended to become the first reference point for the global investment community – both domestic and foreign.
How it works?
  • It focuses on sector-specific investor targeting and development of new partnerships to enable sustainable investments in India.
  • It partners with substantial investment promotion agencies and multilateral organizations.
  • To build capacity as well as bring in global best practices in investment targeting, promotion and facilitation areas, it works with Indian states as well.
  • It facilitates and empowers all investors under the ‘Make in India’ initiative to establish, operate and expand their businesses in India.
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