Flash-Cards-for-IAS-Prelims-2018-I-Geo-Day-20
70 Days WAR Plan

Day#20 Static Flash Cards Indian Geography [70 Days WAR Plan]

Iron Ore; Van Allen belts; North Star; Salt Industry in India; Mahi River; Ladakh; Garhjat hills and; Shiwalik hills; Coal in India; Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas; Moist deciduous forests;
By IT's Core Team
April 11, 2019

 

 

 

In which region of India, the moist deciduous forests are more pronounced?

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Answer:

  • The Moist deciduous forests are more pronounced in the regions which record rainfall between 100-200 cm.
  • These forests are found in the northeastern states along the foothills of Himalayas, eastern slopes of the Western Ghats and Odisha.
  • Teak, sal, shisham, hurra, mahua, amla, semul, kusum, and sandalwood etc. are the main species of these forests.

Enrich Your Learning:

About Tropical Deciduous Forests:

  • These are the most widespread forests in India. They are also called the monsoon forests.
  • They spread over regions which receive rainfall between 70-200 cm.
  • On the basis of the availability of water, these forests are further divided into moist and dry deciduous.
  • Dry deciduous forest covers vast areas of the country, where rainfall ranges between 70 -100 cm. On the wetter margins, it has a transition to the moist deciduous, while on the drier margins to thorn forests. These forests are found in rainier areas of the Peninsula and the plains of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
  • In the higher rainfall regions of the Peninsular plateau and the northern Indian plain, these forests have a parkland landscape with open stretches in which teak and other trees interspersed with patches of grass are common.
  • As the dry season begins, the trees shed their leaves completely and the forest appears like a vast grassland with naked trees all around.

Tendu, palas, amaltas, bel, khair, axlewood, etc. are the common trees of these forests.

 

 

 

Which region of Himalayas is known for fast-flowing river Tista and high mountain peaks like Kanchenjunga and deep valleys?

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Answer:

  • Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas is known for fast-flowing river Tista and High Mountain peaks like Kanchenjunga and deep valleys.

Enrich Your Learning:

About Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas:

  • They are flanked by Nepal Himalayas in the west and Bhutan Himalayas in the east.
  • It is relatively small but is a most significant part of the Himalayas.
  • Known for its fast-flowing rivers such as Tista, it is a region of high mountain peaks like Kanchenjunga (Kanchengiri), and deep valleys.
  • The higher reaches of this region are inhabited by Lepcha tribes while the southern part, particularly the Darjiling Himalayas, has a mixed population of Nepalis, Bengalis and tribals from Central India.
  • The British, taking advantage of the physical conditions such as moderate slope, thick soil cover with high organic content, well distributed rainfall throughout the year and mild winters, introduced tea plantations in this region.
  • As compared to the other sections of the Himalayas, these along with the Arunachal Himalayas are conspicuous by the absence of the Shiwalik formations.
  • In place of the Shiwaliks here, the ‘duar formations’ are important, which have also been used for the development of tea gardens. Sikkim and Darjiling Himalayas are also known for their scenic beauty and rich flora and fauna, particularly various types of orchids.
  • The regions economy is dependent on three `T`s; Tea, Tourism and Timber. With greater concern for the environment, trade in Timber has fallen sharply over the years. Apart from these, the region produces large amount of oranges, cardamom, flowers etc.

 

 

 

What rich components are contained by Gondwana rocks?

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Answer:

  • Gondwana rocks are rich in iron ore, copper, uranium and antimony. 98% of Indian coal is found in Gondwana rocks.

Enrich Your Learning:

About Coal in India:

  • In India coal occurs in rock series of two main geological ages, namely Gondwana, a little over 200 million years in age and in tertiary deposits which are only about 55 million years old.
  • The major resources of Gondwana coal, which are metallurgical coal, are located in Damodar valley (West Bengal-Jharkhand). Jharia, Raniganj, Bokaro are important coalfields. The Godavari, Mahanadi, Son and Wardha valleys also contain coal deposits.
  • Over 97 per cent of coal reserves occur in the valleys of Damodar, Sone, Mahanadi and Godavari.

Tertiary coals occur in the north eastern states of Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.

 

 

 

Find the Location of (i) Garhjat hills and (ii) Shiwalik hills

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Garhjat Hills:

  • The Garhjat Hills is a mountain range formed by a series low lying hills, plateaux, ridges and meadows that stretch into Odisha from the Utkal Plains in the Chotanagpur region of Jharkhand and the Chhattisgarh Plains.
  • Rajmahal hills and Garhjat hills lie at edge of Chhotanagpur plateau in West Bengal and Odisha respectively.

Sivalik Hills:

  • The Sivalik Hills is a mountain range of the outer Himalayas. It is about 2,400 km long enclosing an area that starts almost from the Indus and ends close to the Brahmaputra. Dafla, Abor, Miri and Mishmi hills which lie in Arunachal Pradesh are part of Shivaliks.

 

 

 

Why does Ladakh experience little rainfall though located in Himalayas?

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Answer:

  • As Ladakh lies in the rain shadow of the Himalayas, there is little rainfall, as low as 10 cm every year.

Enrich Your Learning:

About Ladakh Climate:

  • The altitude in Ladakh varies from about 3000 to 8000 m. Due to its high altitude the climate is extremely cold and dry. The air at this altitude is so thin that the heat of the sun can be felt intensely.
  • The day temperatures in summers are just above zero degree and the night temperatures are well below -30°C. It is freezing cold in the winters, with the temperatures remaining below -40°C for most of the time.
  • The area experiences freezing winds and burning hot sunlight.

 

 

 

Which state in India is the largest producer of iron-ore in India?

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Answer:

  • Karnataka is the largest producer and accounts for nearly one-fourth of the total iron ore produced in India.

Enrich Your Learning:

About Iron Ore:

  • Iron is the world’s most commonly used metal, as a key ingredient of steel it represents almost 95% of all metal used each year. It is used primarily in structural engineering applications and in marine products, automobiles, and general industrial machinery.
  • Mining iron ore is a high volume low margin business, as the value of iron is significantly lower than base metals. It is highly capital intensive and requires significant investment in infrastructure such as rail in order to transport the ore from the mine to a freight ship.
  • India is endowed with fairly abundant resources of iron ore. India is rich in good quality iron ores. India is ranked 4th in the production of iron ore.
  • At present, over 99 per cent of India’s iron ore is produced by just five states of Karnataka, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Goa and Jharkhand.
  • Magnetite is the finest iron ore with a very high content of iron up to 70 per cent. It has excellent magnetic qualities, especially valuable in the electrical industry.
  • Hematite ore is the most important industrial iron ore in terms of the quantity used, but has a slightly lower iron content than magnetite. (50-60 per cent).
  • In India we get four types of iron ores, viz. hematite (Fe203), magnetite, limonite (2Fe203.3H20), and siderite (Fe2C03).

 

 

 

Which Indian river crosses the Tropic of Cancer twice?

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Answer:

  • The Mahi River in India crosses the Tropic of Cancer twice.

Enrich Your Learning:

About the Mahi River:

  • Mahi River originates from Vindhyachal Hills, Madhya Pradesh and meets in Bay of Khambhat.
  • Mahi River rises in Madhya Pradesh and, after flowing through the Vagad region of Rajasthan, enters Gujarat and flows into the Arabian Sea.
  • It is one of the many west-flowing rivers in India, along with Tapti River, Sabarmati River, Luni River (Endorheic river) and the Narmada River.
  • Bhadar is right bank tributary & Panam, Kun and Goma are left bank tributories of Mahi river.
  • On Mahi river Kadana dam is situated.
  • The silt brought down by the Mahi has contributed to the shallowing of the Gulf of Khambhat and the abandonment of its once-prosperous ports.

 

 

 

Which is/are the main sources of salt in India? Lake brine OR Sub-soil brine OR Both?

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Answer:

  • Both Lake brine and Sub-soil brine are the main sources of salt in India.

Enrich Your Learning:

About Salt Industry in India:

  • India is the third largest Salt producing Country in the World after China and USA with Global annual production being about 230 million tones.
  • When India attained Independence in 1947, salt was being imported from the United Kingdom & Adens to meet its domestic requirement. But today it has not only achieved self-sufficiency in production of salt to meet its domestic requirement but also in a position of exporting surplus salt to foreign countries.

Sources of Salt:

The main sources of salt in India are

  1. Sea brine
  2. Lake brine
  3. Sub-soil brine and
  4. Rock salt deposits

Major Salt Producing Centers:

  • Sea water is an inexhaustible source of salt. Salt production along the coast is limited by weather and soil conditions.  The major salt producing centres are
  • Marine Salt works along the coast of Gujarat (Jamnagar, Mithapur,Jhakhar, Chira, Bhavnagar, Rajula, Dahej, Gandhidham, Kandla, Maliya, Lavanpur), Tamil Nadu (Tuticorin, Vedaranyam, Covelong), Andhra Pradesh (Chinnaganjam, Iskapalli, Krishnapatnam, Kakinada & Naupada), Maharashtra(Bhandup, Bhayandar, Palghar), Orissa (Ganjam, Sumadi) and West Bengal (Contai)
  • Inland Salt Works in Rajasthan using lake brine and sub-soil brine viz. Sambhar Lake, Nawa, Rajas, Kuchhaman, Sujangarh and Phalodi
  • Salt works in Rann of Kutch using sub-soil brine viz: Kharaghoda, Dhrangadhra; Santalpur
  • Rock Salt Deposits at Mandi in the State of Himachal Pradesh

 

 

 

While travelling to North, what is the status of the North Star when viewed?

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Answer:

  • If travelled to the north, the North Star climbs progressively higher the farther north travelled. When headed south, the star drops lower and ultimately disappears once you cross the equator and head into the Southern Hemisphere.

Enrich Your Learning:

Enrich Your Learning:

About Using the North Star as a guide:

  • Exactly where you see Polaris in your northern sky depends on your latitude. From New York it stands 41 degrees above the northern horizon, which also corresponds to the latitude of New York.
  • Since 10 degrees is roughly equal to your clenched fist held at arm’s length, from New York Polaris would appear to stand about “four fists” above the northern horizon. At the North Pole, you would find it overhead.
  • At the equator, Polaris would appear to sit right on the horizon. So if you travel to the north, the North Star climbs progressively higher the farther north you go.  When you head south, the star drops lower and ultimately disappears once you cross the equator and head into the Southern Hemisphere.
  • And always keep this fact in mind: Polaris is more accurate than any compass. A compass is subject to periodic variations and can only show you the direction of the lines of the strongest magnetic force for a particular spot and for a particular time. But even Polaris isn’t positioned exactly due north. 
  • Only about 0.7 degree separates Polaris from the pivot point directly in the north – called the North Celestial Pole – around which the stars go daily. In case you’re wondering, 0.7 degree amounts to less than the apparent width of 1½ full moons.

 

 

 

They are a collection of charged particles, gathered in place by Earth’s magnetic field. They can wax and wane in response to incoming energy from the sun, sometimes swelling up enough to expose satellites in low-Earth orbit to damaging radiation. What are they known as?

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Answer:

  • Van Allen belts.

Enrich Your Learning:

About Van Allen belts:

  • The Earth has Van Allen belts and sometimes others may be temporarily created.
  • Earth’s two main belts extend from an altitude of about 500 to 58,000 kilometers above the surface in which region radiation levels vary.
  • Most of the particles that form the belts are thought to come from solar wind and other particles by cosmic rays. By trapping the solar wind, the magnetic field deflects those energetic particles and protects the Earth’s atmosphere from destruction.
  • The Van Allen belts were the first discovery of the space age, measured with the launch of a US satellite, Explorer 1, in 1958.
  • In the decades since, scientists have learned that the size of the two belts can change – or merge, or even separate into three belts occasionally. But generally the inner belt stretches from 400 to 6,000 miles above Earth’s surface and the outer belt stretches from 8,400 to 36,000 miles above Earth’s surface.
  • The magnetic field of the Earth is generated by a dynamo effect that involves its rotation. If the Earth stopped rotating, it’s magnetic field would no longer be regenerated and it would decay away to some low, residual value due to the very small component which is ‘fossilized’ in its iron-rich rocks.
  • There would be no more ‘northern lights’ and the Van Allen radiation belts would probably vanish, as would our protection from cosmic rays and other high-energy particles. This is a significant biohazard.
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