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Day#21 Current Affairs Flash Cards [PRELIMS 2020]

Dugong; Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park; Inner Line Permit (ILP); Kharnaks- a nomadic tribe; Budj Bim; Prosecco Hills; ‘Operation Sudarshan’;
By IASToppers
August 17, 2019

 

 

‘Operation Sudarshan’ was launched by which paramilitary force of Indian army: (a) Indian Coast Guard OR (b) Special Frontier Force (SFF) OR (c) Border Security Force (BSF)?

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Answer:

‘Operation Sudarshan’ was launched by Border Security Force (BSF) of Indian army.

Enrich Your Learning:

‘Operation Sudarshan’

  • ‘Operation Sudarshan’ is a massive exercise to fortify anti-infiltration grid along Pak border in Punjab and Jammu.
  • The exercise is named ‘Sudarshan’ drawing from the legendary and mythological cutting wheel or the ‘sudarshan chakra’ on Lord Krishna’s finger.
  • The operation was launched on July 1, 2019 and will cover the entire over 1,000-kms length of the India-Pakistan International Border.
  • As part of the exercise, a huge assortment of heavy machinery, communication interceptors and mobile bulletproof bunkers have been mobilized.
  • The commanders of BSF will do many activities to strengthen the vigil along the sensitive and infiltration-prone border.
  • Activities under the operation include constructions of watch towers and sentry posts better, strengthen artillery positions, check and plug border fence breaches, detect underground and cross-border tunnels and make all operational and logistical arrangements.

 

 

Recently listed in World Heritage list as cultural landscape, the Budj Bim and Prosecco hills are located in which countries?

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Answer:

The Budj Bim Cultural Landscape is located at south-west Victoria in Australia where the Prosecco hills are located at northeast of Venice in Italy.

Enrich Your Learning:

Budj Bim

  • The Budj Bim Cultural Landscape is an extinct volcano in south-west Victoria, Australia.
  • It became Australia’s first Aboriginal cultural site to receive World Heritage status and 20th World Heritage place of Australia.
  • The site was created about 6,600 years ago by the Gunditjmara Aboriginal people and is considered one of the world’s oldest freshwater aquaculture systems which is developed on the remains of a lava flow.
  • The Budj Bim lava flows provide the basis for the complex system of channels, weirs and dams developed by the Gunditjmara in order to trap, store and harvest kooyang.
  • It features the remnants of about 300 round stone huts that are the only remaining permanent houses built by an indigenous community in Australia.
  • This cultural landscape was added to the UNESCO world heritage list.

Prosecco Hills

  • Prosecco hills is situated at the northeast of Venice in Italy.
  • This coveted designation safeguards the cultural landscape of a small agricultural area in northeast Italy, known principally for its Prosecco wine.
  • The landscape is characterized by ‘hogback’ hills, ciglioni which are small plots of wines on narrow grassy forests.’
  • Since the 17th century, the use of ciglioni has created a particular chequerboard landscape consisting of rows of wines parallel and vertical to the slopes.
  • The Hills of Conegliano and Valdobbiadene are the 55th UNESCO World Heritage site in Italy he 10th site in the world to be registered under the category of “cultural landscape”.

 

 

Kharnaks- a nomadic tribe is known to produce which indigenous product?

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Answer:

  • Kharnaks- a nomadic tribe is known to produce pashmina wool.

Enrich Your Learning:

‘Kharnaks’

  • Kharnaks are one of the four major Changpa tribes that collectively produce over 80% of India’s pashmina wool.
  • The Kharnaks are an ageing tribe, shrinking with every year. It is reduced to just 16 families.
  • A brown yak-wool tent, rebu, is home to the Kharnaks. Their lifestyle is closer to Tibetan nomads than settled Ladakhis.
  • The Kharnaks are devout Buddhists from the Drukpa sect of Tibetan Buddhism.
  • They are not followers of the Dalai Lama but the Gyalwang Drukpa.
  • The Kharnaks are known for raising the finest pedigree of pashmina goats, or Changra.
  • Due to climate change and modernization, about 70% of the Kharnak community has settled in Kharnakling, close to the capital city Leh.

 

 

In the present scenario, Inner Line Permit is operational in which Indian states?

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Answer:

Currently, the Inner Line Permit is operational in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Nagaland.

Enrich Your Learning:

Inner Line Permit (ILP)

  • Inner Line Permit is an official travel document required by Indian citizens residing outside certain “protected” states while entering them.
  • Government of India issues ILP.
  • It is obligatory for all those who reside outside the protected states.
  • With the ILP, the government regulates movement to certain areas located near the international border of India.
  • It can be issued for travel purposes solely. Visitors are not allowed to purchase property in these regions.

Background:

  • ILP originated from the Bengal Eastern Frontier Regulations, 1873 which prohibited “British subjects” or Indians from entering into these protected areas.
  • The regulations were formed as British Crown’s interest in tea, oil and elephant trade.
  • After Independence, in 1950, the word “British subjects” was replaced by Citizens of India.
  • Also, the focus of the ban on free movement was explained as a bid to protect tribal cultures in northeastern India.

 

 

Which species is significant to the Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park?

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Answer:

Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park is a significant habitat for the dugong commonly known as “sea cows”, which is listed as vulnerable in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Enrich Your Learning:

Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park

  • The Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park is a protected area consisting of 21 small islands in the Indian Ocean.
  • In 1986, a group of 21 islets lying off the Tamil Nadu coast between Thoothukudi and Dhanushkodi were declared the Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park.
  • The park and its 10 km buffer zone were declared a Biosphere Reserve in 1989.
  • Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve is the first ever Marine Biosphere in South East Asia.
  • The Biosphere is separated from south eastern part of India by Palk Straits, also known as Rama’s Bridge.
  • 21 islands of Marine National Park are divided into the following groups:
    • Tuticorin group of 4 islands
    • Vembar group of 2 islands
    • Kilakarai group of 7 islands
    • Mandapam group of 4 islands
  • All islands except those of Kurusadai, Musal and Nallathanni islands are uninhabited.
  • The Gulf of Mannar is known to harbour over 3,600 species of flora and fauna.

Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park

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