Flash-Cards-for-IAS-Prelims-2018-I-Geo-Day-21
70 Days WAR Plan

Day#21 Static Flash Cards Indian Geography [70 Days WAR Plan]

Cotton textile industry in India; National Highway 1A; Leh–Manali Highway; Gaddi Tribes; Antecedent Drainage; Superimposed Drainage; Satluj river; More Rainfall in Western Ghats compared to Eastern Ghats; River Banas; Chambal River; Indian Peninsular drainage; Montane Forests; Ten Degree Channel; etc.
By IT's Core Team
April 11, 2019

 

 

 

The Eleven Degree Channel separates the two islands of Andaman and Nicobar. Do you agree?

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Answer:

  • No, it is the Ten Degree Channel that separates the two islands of Andaman and Nicobar.

Enrich Your Learning:

About island groups in India:

There are two major island groups in India – one in the Bay of Bengal and the other in the Arabian Sea.

  • The Bay of Bengal island groups consist of about 572 islands/islets. These are situated roughly between 6°N-14°N and 92°E -94°E.
  • The two principal groups of islets include the Ritchie’s archipelago and the Labrynth island. The entire group of island is divided into two broad categories – the Andaman in the north and the Nicobar in the south. They are separated by a water body which is called the Ten degree channel. It is believed that these islands are an elevated portion of submarine mountains.
    • However, some smaller islands are volcanic in origin. Barren island, the only active volcano in India is also situated in the Nicobar Islands. The coastal line has some coral deposits, and beautiful beaches. These islands receive convectional rainfall and have an equatorial type of vegetation.
    • The islands of the Arabian sea include Lakshadweep and Minicoy. These are scattered between 8°N-12°N and 71°E -74°E longitude.
  • These islands are located at a distance of 280 km-480 km off the Kerala coast. The entire island group is built of coral deposits. There are approximately 36 islands of which 11 are inhabited. Minicoy is the largest island with an area of 453 sq. km.
  • The entire group of islands is broadly divided by the Eleventh degree channel, north of which is the Amini Island and to the south of the Canannore Island.

The Islands of this archipelago have storm beaches consisting of unconsolidated pebbles, shingles, cobbles and boulders on the eastern seaboard.

 

 

 

Why do southern slopes of the Himalayas carry a thicker vegetation cover?

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Answer:

  • The southern slopes of the Himalayas carry a thicker vegetation cover because of relatively higher precipitation than the drier north-facing slopes.

Enrich Your Learning:

About Montane Forests:

  • The Himalayan ranges show a succession of vegetation from the tropical to the tundra, which change in with the altitude. Deciduous forests are found in the foothills of the Himalayas.
  • It is succeeded by the wet temperate type of forests between an altitudes of 1,000-2,000 m.
  • In the higher hill ranges of northeastern India, hilly areas of West Bengal and Uttaranchal, evergreen broad leaf trees such as oak and chestnut are predominant.
  • Between 1,500-1,750 m, pine forests are also well-developed in this zone, with Chir Pine as a very useful commercial tree.
  • Deodar, a highly valued endemic species grows mainly in the western part of the Himalayan range. Deodar is a durable wood mainly used in construction activity.
  • Similarly, the chinar and the walnut, which sustain the famous Kashmir handicrafts, belong to this zone.
  • Blue pine and spruce appear at altitudes of 2,225-3,048 m. At many places in this zone, temperate grasslands are also found.

But in the higher reaches there is a transition to Alpine forests and pastures. Silver firs, junipers, pines, birch and rhododendrons, etc. occur between 3,000- 4,000 m. However, these pastures are used extensively for transhumance by tribes like the Gujjars, the Bakarwals, the Bhotiyas and the Gaddis.

 

 

 

Which are the basic factors for the development of cotton textile industry in India?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

  • The cotton textile industry is one of the traditional industries of India. In the ancient and the medieval times, it used to be only a cottage industry.
  • India was famous worldwide for the production of muslin, a very fine variety of cotton cloth, calicos, chintz and other different varieties of fine cotton cloth.
  • The development of this industry in India was due to several factors. One, it is a tropical country and cotton is the most comfortable fabric for a hot and humid climate.
  • Second, large quantity of cotton was grown in India. Abundant skilled labour required for this industry was available in this country. In fact, in some areas the people were producing cotton textiles for generations and transferred the skill from one generation to the other and in the process perfected their skills.

 

 

 

Which geological events are responsible for the present shape of Indian Peninsular drainage?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Three major geological events in the distant past have shaped the present drainage systems of Peninsular India:

  • Subsidence of the western flank of the Peninsula leading to its submergence below the sea during the early tertiary period. Generally, it has disturbed the symmetrical plan of the river on either side of the original watershed.
  • Upheaval of the Himalayas when the northern flank of the peninsular block was subjected to subsidence and the consequent trough faulting. The Narmada and The Tapi flow in trough faults and fill the original cracks with their detritus materials. Hence, there is a lack of alluvial and deltaic deposits in these rivers.

Slight tilting of the Peninsular block from northwest to the south-eastern direction gave orientation to the entire drainage system towards the Bay of Bengal.

 

 

 

Which is the only significant tributary of the river Chambal that originates from the Aravalli in the west?

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Answer:

  • Banas is the only significant tributary of the river Chambal that originates from the Aravalli in the west.

Enrich Your Learning:

About river Banas:

  • Banas River originates from Aravalli Hills, Rajasthan and meets into little rann of kuchchh.
  • The Banas river lies entirely within the state of Rajasthan in western India.
  • It is a tributary of the Chambal River, itself a tributary of the Yamuna, which in turn merges into the Ganga.
  • The river drains the eastern slope of the central portion of Aravalli Range.
  • Sipu is right bank’s main tributary and Khari is left bank’s main tributary of Banas.
  • Sukli, Balaram, Suket, Sevaran and Batriya are another tributaries of Banas on left bank.
  • There is Dantiwada Dam on Banas river.

About Chambal River:

  • The Chambal River is located in northern India and flows through three Indian states: Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh.
  • The Chambal also forms part of the Rajasthan-Madhya Pradesh boundary.
  • It rises in the old Vindhya Range and flows in northeastern direction. There, it becomes the second biggest tributary of the Yamuna River, which is the largest tributary of the Ganges.
  • The Chambal River’s passage across the Madhya Bharat Patar plateau is marked by a series of gorges and by the Chambal ravine system below its junction with the Banas River.
  • The main tributaries of Chambal include the Banas and Mej rivers on the left and the Parbati, Kali Sindh and Shipra rivers on the right.

The Gandhi Sagar dam lies on the Chambal River in the Neemuch district of Madhya Pradesh.

 

 

 

Why does the Western Ghats receive more rainfall compered to Eastern Ghats?

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Answer:

  • Western Ghats as compared to the Eastern Ghats are continuous hills, which provide a better barrier to monsoon winds. This causes the monsoon winds to ascend and cause heavy rainfall in the windward side.
  • Also, the Arabian Sea branch hits the Western Ghats in perpendicular direction. On the other hand, Bay of Bengal branch remains parallel to Eastern Ghats in Tamil Nadu which does not receive much rainfall from south west monsoon.

Enrich Your Learning:

About More Rainfall in Western Ghats compared to Eastern Ghats:

There are several reasons for this.

  • First, the mountain topography in Karnataka is broader than the narrow topography of the Ghats in Maharashtra. Due to the greater width of the mountains, the rain bearing winds have to necessarily travel a longer distance and have more time for the drops to coalesce and precipitate as rainfall, resulting in higher rainfall. In contrast, the narrow width of the Ghats in Maharashtra allows the rain-bearing wind to cross over to the leeward side rapidly before precipitation can occur. As for Kerala, the Ghats there are in the form of isolated mountains, where the rain-bearing winds can easily cross over to the leeward side through the gaps in between without precipitation occurring.
  • Second, the slope of the mountain has a direct bearing on the possibility of precipitation. This is borne out by the Ghats of Karnataka where the mountains are gently sloping, compared to the steep slopes of the Ghats in Maharashtra and Kerala. The air parcel will retain its energy and speed for a longer time when the slope is gradual. This will provide sufficient vertical motion to cloud droplets to grow by collision–coalescence process and hence form precipitation.
  • Third, the gentle slope provides a greater area for sunlight absorption and heating leading to greater convection when compared with an abrupt slope i.e. less Ghat area such as that of the Maharashtra and Kerala Ghats.

Fourth, the continuous mountain range presents a greater barrier to rain-bearing winds than a range comprising isolated mountains with gaps in between where the winds can easily pass to the leeward side. Unlike in the case of Kerala, the Ghats in Maharashtra and Karnataka are continuous.

 

 

 

Satluj is which type of river- (a) Antecedent OR (b) Superimposed?

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Answer:

  • Satluj is an antecedent river.

Enrich Your Learning:

Antecedent Drainage:

  • The Rivers that existed before the upheaval of the Himalayas and cut their courses southward by making gorges in the mountains are known as the antecedent rivers.
  • Examples: The Indus, Satluj, Ganga, Sarju (Kali), Arun (a tributary of Kosi), Tista and Brahmaputra are some of the important antecedent rivers, originating from beyond the Greater Himalayas.

Superimposed Drainage

  • It is formed when a stream with a course originally established on a cover of rock now removed by erosion, so that the stream or drainage system is independent of the newly exposed rocks and structures.
  • Examples: The Damodar, the Subarnarekha, the Chambal, the Banas and the rivers flowing at the Rewa Plateau present some good examples of superimposed drainage.

About Satluj river:

  • The Satluj originates in the Rakas lake near Mansarovar at an altitude of 4,555 m in Tibet where it is known as Langchen Khambab.
  • It flows almost parallel to the Indus for about 400 km before entering India, and comes out of a gorge at Rupar.
  • It passes through the Shipki La on the Himalayan ranges and enters the Punjab plains.
  • It is a very important tributary as it feeds the canal system of the Bhakra Nangal project

 

 

 

In which State of India would you find the Gaddi Tribes?

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Answer:

  • Gaddi Tribes are found in the Himachal Pradesh.

Enrich Your Learning:

About Gaddi Tribes

  • Gaddi Tribes constitute a sizeable population of tribes habitating in Himachal Pradesh.
  • These tribes mainly dwell around Dhauladhar mountain range, Chamba, Bharmaur and the areas near to Dharamshala.
  • It is believed that these people migrated to the foothills of Himalayas from Central Asia, Rajasthan and Gujarat.
  • It is also believed that some castes of Gaddi tribes ran away and took shelter in hills because of the threat of Mughal ruler Aurangzeb in 17th century.
  • The main occupation of Gaddi tribes is shepherding and they make their livelihood by rearing and selling sheeps, goats, mules and horses.
  • Though these tribes were more nomadic in older days but now they have made their settlements in the villages and make seasonal movements with their livestock to pastures in upper hills during summer season and to the foothills in chilly winters.

In fact, the Gaddis are believers of both Hinduism and Islam.

 

 

 

Which mountains passes are located on Leh–Manali Highway?

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Answer:

  • Rohtang la, Baralacha la, Lungalacha la and Tanglang la are the passes located on Leh–Manali Highway.

Enrich Your Learning:

About Leh–Manali Highway:

  • The Leh–Manali Highway is a 490 km (300 mi) long highway in northernmost India connecting Leh in Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir state and Manali in Himachal Pradesh state.
  • It is open for only about four and a half months in a year in summer between May or June, when the snow is cleared, and mid-October when snowfall again blocks the high passes.

It connects Manali valley to Lahaul and Spiti valleys and Zanskar valley in Ladakh.

 

 

 

The famous Jawahar Tunnel that connects Jammu with the Kashmir Valley across the Pir Panjal Range is located on which national highway?

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Answer:

  • The famous Jawahar Tunnel that connects Jammu with the Kashmir Valley across the Pir Panjal Range is located on National Highway 1A (NH 1A).

Enrich Your Learning:

About National Highway 1A:

  • National Highway 1A (NH 1A) was a National Highway in North India that connected the Kashmir valley to Jammu and the rest of India. The northern terminal was in Uri in Jammu & Kashmir and the southern terminal was in Jalandhar.
  • Stretches of old NH 1A ran through some extremely treacherous terrain and shut-offs because of avalanches or landslides common in Winter months.

The famous Jawahar Tunnel that connects Jammu with the Kashmir Valley across the Pir Panjal Range falls en route. The total length of NH 1A was 663 km.

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