Flash-Cards-for-IAS-Prelims-2018-I-Geo-Day-2211
70 Days WAR Plan

Day#22 Static Flash Cards Indian Geography [70 Days WAR Plan]

Mundra Port; Annual rates of natural population growth; Code on Wages Bill 2017; Urban Flooding; Kallanai Dam; Polavaram Project; Bheemgarh dam; ‘Manchester of South India’; Irulas; Commercial grain farming; Heavy Mineral Sand deposits; Limestones;
By IT's Core Team
April 12, 2019

 

 

 

What are the conditions of the landforms and the regions made up of Limestones?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

  • Limestone is a sedimentary rock.
  • It is composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
  • Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
  • It can also be a chemical sedimentary rock formed by the precipitation of calcium carbonate from lake or ocean water.
  • Limestone neutralizes the natural acidity of the soil.
  • About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones.
  • It is usually an organic sedimentary rock that forms from the accumulation of shell, coral, algal, and fecal debris.

Conditions of the regions created by Limestone:

  • Limestone can also form through evaporation, Stalactites, stalagmites, and other cave formations (often called “speleothems”).
  • This is known as Karst topography.
  • The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes.
  • In such landscape the water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years.
  • Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock.
  • Limestone dominated areas have little agricultural activities and are sparsely populated.
  • Solubility of limestone makes it ineffective to grow major crops.
  • Moreover, the landforms made by limestone make an area difficult as a habitat for humans.
  • Limestone is very common in architecture, especially in Europe and North America.

 

 

 

What are the Heavy Mineral Sand deposits? And what is its condition in India?

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Answer:

The Heavy Mineral Sand deposits:

  • Heavy mineral sands are a class of ore deposit which is an important source of zirconium, titanium, thorium, tungsten, rare-earth elements, the industrial minerals diamond, sapphire, garnet, and occasionally precious metals or gemstones.
  • Favourable geomorphologic, geological, climatic and hydrodynamic conditions have resulted in the formation of heavy mineral deposits of varied dimensions and concentration.
  • The concentration depends on the hydrodynamic conditions like sediment influx from the hinterland, wave energy and its velocity, long-shore current and wind speed, which control the littoral transport, sorting and deposition of placer minerals in suitable locales.
  • Heavy mineral sands are placer deposits formed most usually in beach environments by concentration due to the specific gravity of the mineral grains.
  • It is equally likely that some concentrations of heavy minerals (aside from the usual gold placers) exist within streambeds, but most are of a low grade and are relatively small.

Heavy Mineral sand in India:

  • India ranks 4th globally in terms of iron ore production. In FY17, production of iron ore stood at 192 million tonnes. India has around8 per cent of world’s deposit of iron ore.
  • Kerala in India is endowed with a number of occurrences/deposits of minerals such as:
  • Heavy Mineral Sands (Ilmenite, Rutile, Zircon, Monazite, Sillimanite), Gold, Iron ore, Bauxite, Graphite, China Clay, Fire Clay, Tile and Brick Clay, Silica Sand, Lignite, Limestone, Limeshell, Dimension Stone (Granite), Gemstones, Magnesite, Steatite etc.
  • However, mining activities on large scale are confined mainly to a few minerals – Heavy Mineral Sands, China Clay and to a lesser extent Limestone/Lime shell, Silica Sand and Granite.
  • In fact, Heavy mineral sand and China Clay contribute more than 90% of the total value of mineral production in the State.

 

 

 

What is Commercial grain farming all about?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

  • Commercial grain farming is an extensive and mechanised form of agriculture.
  • This is a development in the continental lands of the mid-latitudes, which were once roamed by nomadic herdsmen.
  • The continental position, well away from maritime influence, and the low precipitation (between 305 and 660 mm/12 and 26 inches) make crop cultivation a calculated risk.
  • It was the invention of farm machinery which enabled farmers to cultivate grain on a large scale, and there is a marked specialisation in wheat monoculture in many areas.
  • In commercial grain farming crops are grown for commercial purpose. Wheat and maize are common commercially grown grains.
  • Major areas where commercial grain farming is pracised are temperate grasslands of North America, Europe and Asia. These areas are sparsely populated with large farms spreading over hundreds of hectares. Severe winters restrict the growing season and only a single crop can be grown.

 

 

 

It is an aboriginal ethnic group of India. They inhabit the area of the Nilgiri mountains, in the states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala, India. A scheduled tribe, their population in this region is estimated at 25,000 people. Which is this tribe? Jarawas OR Chakmas OR Irula?

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Answer:

  • Irula

Enrich Your Learning:

  • Traditionally, the main occupation of the Irulas has been snake and rat catching. They also work as labourers (coolies) in the fields of the landlords during the sowing and harvesting seasons or in the rice mills. Fishing is also a major occupation.

 

 

 

Which south Indian city is known as ‘Manchester of South India’ because of its large number of textile industries?

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Answer:

  • Coimbatore is one of the major centres for the textile and engineering industry and known as the ‘Manchester of South India’ because of its large number of textile industries.

Enrich Your Learning:

About Industry and City affiliated:

  • The rich black soil of the region has contributed to Coimbatore’s flourishing agriculture industry and, it is in fact the successful growth of cotton that served as a foundation for the establishment of its famous textile industry.

Additional Information:

  • Punjab leads all other states in manufacturing woollen goods. There are currently 257 big and small mills and the state possesses about half of the total spindleage installed capacity. Dhariwal is the largest centre. The other centres are Amritsar, Ludhiana and Kharar. The industry enjoys the benefit of hydroelectricity from Bhakhra Nangal Dam and wool from Kashmir and Kumaon regions.
  • Currently, the silk industry employs an estimated 6.5 million people spread over 59,000 villages in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal and Jammu & Kashmir – states which account for 99 per cent of the mulberry raw silk produced in the country Mysore is famous for its silk textile.
  • Titagarh in West Bengal is famous for its Jute textile mills. Titagarh in West Bengal is famous for its Jute textile mills. Over 80% of jute goods production of India comes from West Bengal.

 

 

 

Give brief information about these Dams: (i) Kallanai, (ii) Polavaram and (iii) Bheemgarh

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Kallanai Dam:

  • It is an ancient dam, which is built across the Kaveri river in Tiruchirapalli in the state of Tamil Nadu in India.
  • The dam was originally constructed by the Chola king Karikalan in 2nd century AD.
  • It is the fourth-oldest water-diversion or water-regulator structures in the world and the oldest in India which is still in use.

Polavaram Project:

  • It is a multi-purpose irrigation project which has been accorded national project status by the union government.
  • This dam is built across the Godavari River is under construction located in West Godavari District and East Godavari District in Andhra Pradesh state.
  • Its reservoir spreads in parts of Chhattisgarh and Odisha States also.

Bheemgarh dam:

  • It is also known as Sanjay Sarovar Bandh and Upper Wainganga dam.
  • It is built across the Wainganga river in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.
  • It is known as the biggest Mud / Earthen dam of Asia.
  • It is bounded by mountains from all sides.

 

 

 

What is the significance of Mundra Port?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

  • Mundra Port is the largest private port of India.
  • It is located on the north shores of the Gulf of Kutch near Mundra, Kutch district, Gujarat.
  • It is a deep draft, all-weather port that is today the largest commercial port of India.
  • It also became India’s biggest port by cargo handled.
  • it is the only port in the country with handling and storage facilities for crude oil, containers, dry bulk, break bulk, automobiles and liquid cargo.
  • Mundra can berth the largest post panamax vessel and can handle four million TEUs or Twenty feet Equivalent Unit.
  • It enjoys logistical advantage in reaching the North-West hinterland of India.
  • In the past it was operated by Mundra Port and Special Economic Zone Limited (MPSEZ) owned by Adani Group.
  • Later it was expanded into Adani Ports & SEZ Limited (APSEZ) that is managing several ports.

 

 

 

Name three major factors responsible for Urban Flooding?

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Answer:

Urban flooding is caused by three main factors which are meteorological, hydrological and human factors.

Enrich Your Learning:

About Urban Flooding:

Urban flooding is caused by three main factors – meteorological, hydrological and human factors.

  • Meteorological factors include heavy rainfall, cyclonic storms and thunderstorms.
  • Hydrological factors include presence or absence of overbank flow channel networks and occurrence of high tides impeding the drainage in coastal cities.
  • Human factors include land use changes, surface sealing due to urbanization (which increases run-off), occupation of flood plains and obstruction of flood flows, urban heat island effect (which has increased the rainfall in and around urban areas), sudden release of water from dams located upstream of citizen towns and the failure to release water from dams resulting in backwater effect. The indiscriminate disposal of solid waste into urban water drains and channels is a major impediment to water flow during the monsoon season.

 

 

 

The provisions of the Minimum Wages Act and the Payment of Wages Act cover almost all the number of workers; including informal and formal sector. Do you agree?

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Answer:

  • The provisions of the Minimum Wages Act and the Payment of Wages Act do not cover substantial number of workers. Therefore, Code on Wages Bill 2017 is introduced to ensure minimum wages to one and all.

Enrich your learning:

About the Code on Wages Bill 2017:

  • At present, the provisions of the Minimum Wages Act and the Payment of Wages Act do not cover substantial number of workers, as the applicability of both these Acts is restricted to the Scheduled Employments / Establishments. However, the new Code on Wages will ensure minimum wages to one and all and timely payment of wages to all employees irrespective of the sector of employment without any wage ceiling.
  • A concept of statutory National Minimum Wage for different geographical areas has been introduced. It will ensure that no State Government fixes the minimum wage below the National Minimum Wages for that particular area as notified by the Central Government.
  • The proposed payment of wages through cheque or digital/ electronic mode would not only promote digitization but also extend wage and social security to the worker. Provision of an Appellate Authority has been made between the Claim Authority and the Judicial Forum which will lead to speedy, cheaper and efficient redressal of grievances and settlement of claim.
  • Further, the Code on Wages Bill 2017 clearly states that the Central Government, before fixing the national minimum wage, may obtain the advice of the Central Advisory Board, having representatives from employers and employees. Therefore the Code provide for a consultative mechanism before determining the national minimum wage.

 

 

 

Which continent has the highest annual rate of natural increase in population growth?

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Answer:

  • Africa has the largest highest annual rate of natural increase in population growth.

Enrich your learning:

Annual rates of natural population growth:

DAY#21 Static Flash Cards indian Geography

  • The rate of natural increase refers to the difference between the crude birth rate and the crude death rate of a given population.
  • Crude birth rate refers to the total number of live births annually among a population of 1,000 mid-year population.
  • Crude death rate, on the other hand, relates to the total number of mortalities who die for whatever reasons per 1,000 persons.
  • When calculating the rate of natural increase, it is recommended to exclude both the out-migration and the in-migration.
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) obtains all the calculated values for each country worldwide to help them plan on how to aid various countries.
  • The alarming increase in Sub-Saharan African populations due to slow infrastructural development affects their rate of natural increase.
  • WHO uses the values of the rate of natural increase to evaluate what monetary, human resources, and technical assistance they can provide to such countries.

The rate of natural increase equals;

{Crude Birth Rate-Crude Death Rate}/10

The values of the rates of birth and death are for every 1000 people and the solution of the calculation is in percentage form.

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