Flash-Cards-for-IAS-Prelims-2018-revision-Day-25
70 Days WAR Plan

Day#25 Static Flash Cards [Revision Static]

Willingdon Island; Lombok Strait; Bab-el-Mandeb; Strait of Malacca; Battle of Plassey; Kunwar Singh; Fundamental Duties; Writs in India; Soil Health Card Scheme; Public Debt; Global Snow Leopard Forum (GSLF), 2013; Bishkek Declaration; World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF);
By IT's Core Team
April 15, 2019

 

 

 

What do you know about World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)?

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  • The World-Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961.
  • It is working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment.
  • Its headquarter is located at Gland, Switzerland.
  • It is world’s largest conservation organization.
  • It was formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in Canada and the United States.
  • The Living Planet Report is published every two years by WWF since 1998.
  • This report is based on a Living Planet Index and ecological footprint calculation.
  • It is supporting around 1,300 conservation and environmental projects.
  • Their mission is to conserve nature and reduce the most pressing threats to the diversity on earth.
  • Their work is organized around these six areas: food, climate, freshwater, wildlife, forests, and oceans.

Objectives:

  • Conserving the world’s biological diversity.
  • Protect and restore species and their habitats, strengthen local communities’ ability to conserve the natural resources.
  • Ensuring that the use of renewable natural resources is sustainable.
  • Promoting the reduction of pollution and wasteful consumption.
  • Reduce the impact of the production and consumption of commodities.

Reports & programmes: 

Living Planet Report:

  • It is published every two years by WWF since 1998; it is based on a Living Planet Index and ecological footprint calculation

Earth hour:

  • It is a worldwide movement organized by the World-Wide Fund for Nature (WWF).
  • The event is held annually encouraging individuals, communities, and businesses to turn off non-essential electric lights for one hour, from 8:30 to 9:30 pm on a specific day towards the end of March, as a symbol of commitment to the planet.

Debt-for-nature swaps:

  • It is a financial transaction in which a portion of a developing nation’s foreign debt is forgiven in exchange for local investments in environmental conservation measures.

Marine Stewardship Council(MSC):

  • It is an independent non-profit organization which sets a standard for sustainable fishing.

Healthy Grown Potato:

  • It is an eco-brand that provides high-quality, sustainably grown, packaged, and shipped potatoes to consumers by leveraging integrated pest management(IPM) farming practices on large scale farms.

 

 

 

What is Global Snow Leopard Forum (GSLF), 2013 known for? What is Bishkek Declaration? And what are the threats to Snow leopards?

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Snow leopard:

  • The snow leopard or ounce (Panthera uncia) is a large cat native to the mountain ranges of Central and South Asia.
  • It is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  • The global population is estimated to number less than 10,000 mature individuals and decline about 10% in the next 23 years.
  • As of 2016, the global population was estimated at 4,500 to 8,745 mature individuals.
  • It is the State animal of Himachal Pradesh, India.
  • In India it can be found in Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, and Arunachal Pradesh.
  • 2015 is declared as International Year of the Snow Leopard as part of the GSLEPP’s work.

Global Snow Leopard Forum (GSLF), 2013:

  • In 2013, government leaders and officials from all 12 countries encompassing the snow leopard’s range (Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan) came together at the Global Snow Leopard Forum (GSLF).
  • It was initiated by the President Almazbek Atambayev of the Kyrgyz Republic, and the State Agency on Environmental Protection and Forestry under the government of the Kyrgyz Republic.
  • The meeting was held in Bishkek, the capital of the Kyrgyz Republic, and all countries agreed that the snow leopard and the high mountain habitat it lives in need trans-boundary support to ensure a viable future for snow leopard populations, as well as to safeguard their fragile environment.

Other agencies supporting the initiative were:

  • the Snow Leopard Network,
  • the World Bank’s Global Tiger Initiative,
  • the United Nations Development Programme,
  • the World Wild Fund for Nature,
  • the United States Agency for International Development, and
  • Global Environment Facility.

Bishkek Declaration:

  • At the GSLF meeting, the 12 range countries signed the Bishkek Declaration.
  • It acknowledged that the snow leopard is an irreplaceable symbol of their nations’ natural and cultural heritage and an indicator of the health and sustainability of mountain ecosystems.
  • It recognized that mountain ecosystems inhabited by snow leopards provide essential ecosystem services, including storing and releasing water from the origins of river systems benefitting one-third of the world’s human population; sustaining the pastoral and agricultural livelihoods of local communities which depend on biodiversity for food, fuel, fodder, and medicine; and offering inspiration, recreation, and economic opportunities.

Global Snow Leopard and Eco-system Protection Program (GSLEP):

  • The Global Snow Leopard and Eco-system Protection Program (GSLEP) is a cooperative support effort.
  • It is a joint initiative of range country governments, international agencies, civil society, and the private sector.
  • Its goal is to secure the long-term survival of the snow leopard in its natural ecosystem.

 

 

 

What is Public Debt? and what includes Public Debt in India?

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Answer & Enrich your learning:

What is Public Debt?

  • Public debt receipts and public debt disbursals are borrowings and repayments during the year, respectively, by the government.
  • The difference between receipts and disbursals is the net accretion to the public debt.
  • Public debt can be split into internal (money borrowed within the country) and external (funds borrowed from non-Indian sources).

Public Debt in India:

  • Public Debt in India includes only Internal and External Debt incurred by the Central Government.
  • Internal Debt includes liabilities incurred by resident units in the Indian economy to other resident units, while External Debt includes liabilities incurred by residents to non-residents.
  • The major instruments covered under Internal Debt are as follows:
  • Dated Securities, Treasury-Bills, 14 Day Treasury Bills, Securities issued to International Financial Institutions viz. IMF, IBRD, IDA for India‘s contributions to these institutions etc, Securities issued against Small Savings‘, Market loans etc.
  • External Debt includes Loans from Foreign countries, Loans from Multilateral Agencies and other Institutions etc.

 

 

 

What is Soil Health Card Scheme? How does it help the farmers?

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Answer & Enrich your learning:

In February 2015, Prime Minister Narendra Modi had launched the Soil Health Card Scheme.Health Card Scheme

  • It is a scheme to provide every farmer a Soil Health Card in a Mission mode.
  • It is a scheme under which the Central Government provides assistance to State Governments for setting up Soil Testing Laboratories for issuing Soil Health Cards to farmers.
  • The scheme will be implemented in all states to promote soil testing services, issue of soil health cards and development of nutrient management practices.
  • Under the scheme, State Governments should adopt innovative practices like involvement of agricultural students, NGOs and private sector in soil testing, determining average soil health of villages, etc., to issue Soil Health Cards.
  • Under the scheme, the state governments are also required to prepare yearly action plan on the issue and the cost will be shared in the ratio of 75:25 between the Centre and states.

What is soil health card?

The soil health card studies and reviews the health of soil or rather we can say a complete evaluation of the quality of soil right from its functional characteristics, to water and nutrients content and other biological properties. It will also contain corrective measures that a farmer should adopt to obtain a better yield.

How does it help the farmers?Health Card Scheme 11

  • With the issue of the card, the farmers will get a well-monitored report of the soil which is chosen for cultivation of crops.
  • The monitoring will be done on a regular basis.
  • The farmers will be guided by experts to come up with solutions to improve the quality of the soil.
  • Regular monitoring will help the farmers to get a long-term soil health record and accordingly can study and evaluate the results of different soil management practices.
  • This card can become most helpful and effective when filled out regularly by the same person over a period of time.
  • The idea is not to compare the varied soil types but to find out methods to improve soil fertility, to access the different types of soil and their ability to support crop production in spite of their limitations and as per their abilities.
  • The soil card will help the farmers to get an idea on the crop-wise recommendations of nutrients and fertilizers required in each type of soil. This can help in increasing the crop yield.

 

 

 

Writ jurisdiction is exercised only by the Supreme Court of India as well as the High courts. What does writ jurisdiction refer to?

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Answer:

  • In common law, a writ is a formal written order issued by a body with administrative or judicial jurisdiction; in modern usage, this body is generally a court. Warrants, prerogative writs, and subpoenas are common types of writ, but many forms exist and have existed.
  • To ensure the ‘rule of law’ in all governmental activities, the judicial review of governmental actions called the writ jurisdiction exists.
  • Anything that is issued under an authority is a writ. Orders, warrants, directions etc. issued under authority are examples of writs.

Enrich your learning:

Writs in India:

  • The writ of prohibition is issued by a higher court to a lower court prohibiting it from taking up a case because it falls outside the jurisdiction of the lower court. Thus, the higher court transfers the case to itself.
  • The writ of habeas corpus is issued to a detaining authority, ordering the detainer to produce the detained person in the issuing court, along with the cause of his or her detention. If the detention is found to be illegal, the court issues an order to set the person free.
  • The writ of certiorari is issued to a lower court directing that the record of a case be sent up for review, together with all supporting files, evidence and documents, usually with the intention of overruling the judgement of the lower court. It is one of the mechanisms by which the fundamental rights of the citizens are upheld.
  • The writ of mandamus is issued to a subordinate court, an officer of government, or a corporation or other institution commanding the performance of certain acts or duties.
  • The writ of quo warranto is issued against a person who claims or usurps a public office. Through this writ the court inquires ‘by what authority’ the person supports his or her claim.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Which committee recommended inclusion of Fundamental Duties in Indian Constitution?

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Answer:

  • Swaran Singh Committee recommended the inclusion of Fundamental Duties in Indian Constitution.

Enrich your learning:

About Fundamental Duties:

  • The original Constitution enforced on 26th January, 1950 did not mention anything about the duties of the citizen.
  • It was expected that the citizens of free India would perform their duties willingly. But things did not go as expected.
  • Therefore, ten Fundamental Duties were added in Part-IV of the Constitution under Article 51-A in the year 1976 through the 42nd Constitutional Amendment.
  • However, whereas Fundamental Rights are justiciable, the Fundamental Duties are nonjusticiable.
  • It means that the violation of fundamental duties, i.e. the non-performance of these duties by citizens is not punishable.

The following ten duties have been listed in the Constitution of India:

  1. To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag, National Anthem;
  2. To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;
  3. To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;
  4. To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do;
  5. To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India and to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;
  6. To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;
  7. To protect and improve the natural environments including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife;
  8. To develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform;
  9. To safeguard public property and not to use violence; and
  10. To serve towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity.

Besides, a new duty has been added after the passage of Right to Education Act, 2009. “A parent or guardian has to provide opportunities for the education of his child/ward between the age of six and fourteen years.

 

 

 

Kunwar Singh was a notable leader of Revolt of 1857. He belonged to which region of India?

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Answer:

  • Kunwar Singh was a notable leader of Revolt of 1857 from Bihar.

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About Kunwar Singh:

  • Kunwar Singh (1777 – 26 April 1858) was a notable leader during the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
  • He belonged to a royal Ujjainiya (Panwar) Rajput house of Jagdispur, currently a part of Bhojpur district, Bihar, India.
  • Singh led the Indian Rebellion of 1857 in Bihar.

 

 

 

Who led the East India’s Company Army against Sirajuddaulah at Plassey?

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Answer:

  • In 1757 Robert Clive led the Company’s army against Sirajuddaulah at Plassey.

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About the Battle of Plassey:

  • When Alivardi Khan died in 1756, Sirajuddaulah became the nawab of Bengal.
  • The Company was worried about his power and keen on a puppet ruler who would willingly give trade concessions and other privileges.
  • So it tried, though without success, to help one of Sirajuddaulah’s rivals become the nawab.
  • An infuriated Sirajuddaulah asked the Company to stop meddling in the political affairs of his dominion, stop fortification, and pay the revenues.
  • After negotiations failed, the Nawab marched with 30,000 soldiers to the English factory at Kassimbazar, captured the Company officials, locked the warehouse, disarmed all Englishmen, and blockaded English ships.
  • Then he marched to Calcutta to establish control over the Company’s fort there.
  • On hearing the news of the fall of Calcutta, Company officials in Madras sent forces under the command of Robert Clive, reinforced by naval fleets.
  • Prolonged negotiations with the Nawab followed. Finally, in 1757, Robert Clive led the Company’s army against Sirajuddaulah at Plassey.
  • One of the main reasons for the defeat of the Nawab was that the forces led by Mir Jafar, one of Sirajuddaulah’s commanders, never fought the battle.
  • Clive had managed to secure his support by promising to make him nawab after crushing Sirajuddaulah.
  • The Battle of Plassey became famous because it was the first major victory the Company won in India.

 

 

 

Which is a strait that connects the Java Sea to the Indian Ocean: Mandeb Strait OR Lombok Strait OR Strait of Malacca?

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Answer:

  • Lombok Strait is a strait connecting the Java Sea to the Indian Ocean.

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About Bab-el-Mandeb:About Bab-el-Mandeb

  • The Bab-el-Mandeb or Mandeb Strait is a strait located between Yemen on the Arabian Peninsula, and Djibouti and Eritrea in the Horn of Africa. It connects the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aden. The Bab-el-Mandeb acts as a strategic link between the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea via the Red Sea and the Suez Canal.

About Lombok Strait:About Bab-el-Mandeb 11

  • The Lombok Strait is a strait connecting the Java Sea to the Indian Ocean, and is located between the islands of Bali and Lombok in Indonesia. The Gili Islands are on the Lombok side.

About Strait of Malacca:

  • The Strait of Malacca or Straits of Malacca is a narrow, 550 mi (890 km) stretch of water between the Malay Peninsula (Peninsular Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. From an economic and strategic perspective, the Strait of Malacca is one of the most important shipping lanes in the world.
  • The strait is the main shipping channel between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, linking major Asian economies such as India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, China, Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea.

 

 

 

Willingdon Island is located in which area?

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Answer:

  • Willingdon Island is among the most beautiful locations in the Kochi area.

Enrich Your Learning:

About Willingdon Island:

  • This man-made island, named after a former Viceroy, is among the biggest of its kind in India. It is a major commercial centre and has some of the best hotels in the city. The indication of evolving a new port in Kochi was first felt by Sir Robert Bristow. He was appointed by Lord Willingdon, then-the Governor of Madras Presidency, to generate a new modern port on the West coast of India at Kochi.
  • The island was formed during the creation of modern port in 1936, with the soil scoured out while expanding the Vembanad Lake to accommodate the new port.
  • It is also home to the Kochi Naval Base of the Indian Navy, the Central Institute of Fisheries Technology and the Port of Kochi. It handles millions of tonnes of freight every year. The island is connected to the mainland by the Venduruthy Bridge.
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