Flash Cards

Day#26 Current Affairs Flash Cards [PRELIMS 2020]

‘Pashu Aadhaar’ or Animal UID; Idukki dam; Srisailam dam; ‘Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) telescope’; ‘Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary’; Litchi; Area and Production of Horticulture Crops in India;
By IASToppers
August 23, 2019



India is the largest producer of litchi in the World. Right OR Wrong?

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Right Statement:

  • India is the second largest producer of litchi in the World after China.

Enrich Your Learning:


  • The lychee is an important sub-tropical evergreen fruit crop belonging to family Sapindaceae.
  • It is believed to have originated in China and in India, lychee was introduced in the 18th century through Burma.
  • India is the second largest producer of litchi in the World after China.
  • Bihar is the top litchi producing state in India and its contribution in the production of litchi is about 40 percent.
  • Bihar, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Uttarakhand are the major litchi growing states of the country.
  • Among fruit crops, litchi ranks seventh in area and ninth in production but is sixth in terms of value in India.
  • The national average productivity of litchi is 6.1 t/ha, which is much lower than the realizable yield of the crop under well managed condition.
  • The litchi requires specific climate for flowering and fruiting, Bedana and China have very thick skin and Rose Scented and Shahi have very thin skin.

Prominent types of Litchi:

  • Shahi, Ajhauli, China, Bedana, Bombai, Dehra Dun, Gulabi, Ellaichi, Longia, Kasba, Kaselia and Swarna Roopa.

Area and Production of Horticulture Crops – All India 2016-17(Final) and 2017-18

Area and Production of Horticulture Crops

Area and Production of Horticulture Crops 1



The Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary is located close to which port city in Andhra Pradesh?

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  • Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary is 18 km from the port city of Kakinada.

Enrich Your Learning:

‘Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary’

  • Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary is located in Andhra Pradesh.
  • It is situated about 70 kilometres from Rajahmundry, close to River Godavari.
  • Its main wildlife attractions are Golden Jackal, Sea turtle, Fishing cat, Estuarine Crocodile, Small Blue Kingfisher, Cattle Egret.
  • It is the second largest stretch of mangrove forests in India and has 24 mangrove tree species and more than 120 bird species.
  • The sanctuary is a part of the Godavari estuary and has extensive mangrove and dry deciduous tropical forest.
  • Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary is nestling on the deltaic branches of Gouthami and Godavari Rivers at Kakinada Bay.
  • Endangered species such as long billed vulture and spot billed pelican, white ibis and other birds are nesting in the sanctuary.
  • It is home to the critically endangered white-backed vulture and the long billed vulture.

Why is it news?

  • The government has begun the process to get UNESCO’s World Heritage Site status for Godavari Mangroves at Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary.



What is the aim of Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG)?

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  • SRG aims to detect up to three million supermassive black holes many of which are unknown and X-rays from as many as 700,000 stars in the Milky Way.

Enrich Your Learning:

‘Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) telescope’

  • Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) is a space telescope, it is being launched by a joint team of German-Russian scientists.
  • It will create a three-dimensional (3D) X-ray map of the universe and unveil unknown supermassive black holes, dark energy and stars.
  • It will be launched into space on a Russian-built Proton-M rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on June 21, 2019.
  • The telescope is the first to be sensitive to high-energy ‘hard’ X-rays and map the entire sky.
  • The SRG will also find how dark matter the main engine of galaxy formation is spread in the universe.
  • SRG will not detect gamma radiation.
  • SRG was first proposed in 1987, by Russian astrophysicists.

SRG will carry two independent X-ray telescopes:

  • A German-built eROSITA (Extended Roentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array)
  • A Russian-built ART-XC (Astronomical Roentgen Telescope — X-ray Concentrator)

Key fact:

  • Germany’s ROSAT mission in the 1990s was sensitive only to ‘soft’ X-rays, with energies of about 2 keV.
  • Existing missions, such as NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory and NuSTAR, can see high-energy radiation and resolve tiny details of cosmic structures.



Which authority is responsible for developing the Information Network for Animal Productivity and Health (INAPH)?

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  • The Information Network for Animal Productivity and Health (INAPH) is being developed by the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB).

Enrich Your Learning:

‘Pashu Aadhaar’ or Animal UID

  • A numerical database just like Aadhaar cards, which carry a 12-digit number that establishes the unique identity of every citizen of India, will now be available for animals.
  • This unique identification number will track the population of livestock.
  • It will assign a unique identification number to each animal, alongside a host of other related data that will help in managing the country’s livestock resources.
  • The INAPH is being touted as the world’s largest existing database of animals.


  • To enable proper identification of animals and traceability of their products like milk and meat.


  • INAPH assigns a unique random identification number to each animal, while capturing a host of data and information useful for the effective and scientific management of India’s livestock resources.
  • Each animal will be provided a thermoplastic polyurethane ear tag bearing its 12-digit UID.
  • It includes the data of species, breed and pedigree of the particular animal.
  • Also information relating to its calving, milk production, artificial insemination (AI), vaccination and feeding/nutrition history.


  • INAPH is conducted in two phases:
  • In the first phase, the country’s 94 million-odd productive “in milk” female cow and buffalo population- all indigenous, nondescript, crossbred as well as exotic milk animals would be covered.
  • In the second phase, all bovines, including males, calves and heifers, old and stray animals will subsequently be covered.

Benefits of Pashu Aadhaar:

  • Farmers, processors, animal husbandry department officials and healthcare professionals can devise appropriate strategies for livestock management.
  • Animal identification and traceability mechanisms will help in diagnosis of zoonotic diseases and challenges in addressing them.
  • In order to meet internationally-accepted sanitary and phytosanitary standards, a robust and comprehensive animal information system that allows traceability of products to their source is essential for Indian dairy and livestock industry.



Idukki Dam and Srisailam Dam are built in which states?

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  • The Idukki Dam is a tall arch dam located in Kerala, India.
  • The Srisailam Dam is constructed across the Krishna River in Kurnool district, Andhra Pradesh.

Enrich Your Learning:

Idukki dam

  • The dam stands between the two mountains – Kuravanmala (839) m and Kurathimala (925) m. It is one of the highest arch dams in Asia and third tallest arch dam with 168.91 m height.
  • It was constructed and is owned by the Kerala State Electricity Board. It supports a 780 MW hydroelectric power station.
  • It is built on Periyar river. Technically, the dam type is a concrete double curvature parabolic, thin arc dam.
  • Together with two other dams at Cheruthoni and Kulamavu, an artificial lake is created.

Idukki dam

Srisailam dam

  • The dam lies on the border between Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.
  • The dam was constructed in a deep gorge in the Nallamala Hills in between Kurnool and Mahabubnagar districts. The Dam took 20 years to be completed.
  • It is the 3rd largest hydroelectric power project in India.
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