Flash-Card-for-IAS-Prelims-2019-M-History-Day-29
70 Days WAR Plan

Day#29 Static Flash Cards Modern Indian History [70 Days WAR Plan]

Breakdown Plan; Hindustan Republican Association (HRA); Raja Mahendra Pratap; Federal Court of India; Desai – Liaqat pact; Congress Socialist Party; 1906 Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress; Pabna Peasant Uprising; Non-Cooperation movement; Moplah Or Malabar Revolt;
By IT's Core Team
April 19, 2019

 

 

 

What do you know about the Moplah Or Malabar Revolt?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

  • The Mappilas were the Muslim tenants inhabiting the Malabar region where most of the landlords were Hindus.
  • Their grievances centred around lack of security of tenure, high rents, renewal fees and other oppressive exactions.
  • The Mappila tenants were particularly encouraged by the demand of the local Congress body for a government legislation regulating tenant – landlord relations. Soon, the Mappila movement merged with the ongoing Khilafat agitation.
  • The leaders of the Khilafat and Non-cooperation Movement like Gandhi, Shaukat Ali and Maulana Azad addressed Mappila meetings. After the arrest of national leaders, the leadership passed into the hands of local Mappila leaders.
  • Things took a turn for the worse in August 1921 when the arrest of a respected priest leader, Ali Musaliar, sparked off large-scale riots.
  • Initially, the symbols of British authority:courts, police stations, treasuries and offices and unpopular landlords (who were mostly Hindus) were the targets. What began as an anti-government and anti-landlord affair acquired communal overtones.
  • The communalization of the rebellion completed the isolation of the Mappilas from the Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movement. By December 1921, all resistance had come to a stop.

 

 

 

Which were the factors that led to Non-Cooperation movement?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

  • The Non-cooperation movement was a reaction to the oppressive policies of the British Indian government such as the Rowlatt Act and the Jallianwala Bagh massacre.
  • A meeting of civilians held at Jallianwala Bagh near the Golden Temple in Amritsar was fired upon by soldiers under the command of Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer, killing 379 protesters and injuring thousands. The outcry generated by the massacre led to thousands of unrests and more deaths at the hands of the police. The massacre became the most infamous event of British rule in India.
  • Gandhi was horrified. He lost all faith in the goodness of the British government and declared that it would be a “sin” to cooperate with the “satanic” government.
  • Indians who had participated in the Khilafat movement to restore the status of the Caliph gave their support to the non-cooperation movement. In response to the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre and other violence in Punjab, the movement sought to secure Swaraj, independence for India.
  • Gandhi promised Swaraj in one year if his Non-Cooperation programme was fully implemented.
  • The other reason to start the non-cooperation movement was that Gandhi lost faith in constitutional methods and turned from cooperator of British rule to non-cooperator.
  • Other causes include: economic hardships to the common man, the ruin of Indian artisans due to British factory-made goods replacing handmade goods, and resentment with the British government over Indian soldiers dying in World War I while fighting as part of the British Army.

 

 

 

What do you know about the Pabna Peasant Uprising?

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Answer:

  • Pabna Peasant Uprising (1873-76) was a resistance movement by the peasants (“Ryots”) against the lords of the lands in Bengal (“zamindars”) in the Yusufshahi pargana (now the Sirajganj District, Bangladesh) in Pabna.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • The Pabna rebellion was different from most contemporary peasant rebellions. This movement began as the peasants organised an agrarian league in May 1873 to resist the demands of the zamindars.
  • Pabna (now in Bangladesh) was a jute production and trading centre and was relatively prosperous. Here half of the cultivators had managed to win occupancy rights because of the Bengal Tenancy Act, 1859. But the zamindari rents had increased multiple times.
  • The zamindars tried to stop the peasants to get occupancy right and this was a reason of revolt there.
  • The peasants were much more organised than in other revolts via meetings, appeals and marches. They moved to the court and challenged the zamindars, raised funds to pay for legal expenses, to meet the cost of legal battle.
  • The movement was nonviolent to some extent but Zamindars were killed at some places and violence did happen.

 

 

 

Resolution of swadeshi movement was passed in which session of Congress?

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Answer:

  • The resolution of Swadeshi was adopted in 1906 Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • This session was headed by Dada Bhai Naoroji. Prior to this, in Banaras 1905 session, a resolution of boycott of British goods was put forward.
  • However, it was 1906 session at Calcutta in which four resolutions on self-government, boycott movement, Swadeshi and national education were passed by the Congress.
  • Swadeshi and boycott are two sides of same coin.
  • Swadeshi means adopting indigenous products. When we say Boycott, it means we reject foreign made products.
  • The initial protest was as Boycott and later it became Swadeshi.
  • During the Swadeshi movement, traditional folk theatre forms such as Jatra’s were used to reach to masses and National schools were setup across the country.
  • It was actually a tool of political purpose for Congress to turn the wave into a popular agitation.

 

 

 

Congress Socialist Party rejected the ideas of Gandhi as they were influenced by Marxism-Leninism. Right OR Wrong?

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Answer:

Enrich Your Learning:

The Congress Socialist Party (CSP) was founded by radical and young Congressmen who during their long terms of imprisonment in the Civil Disobedience Movement came into contact with Marxist ideas.

  • They had their reservation about Gandhi’s constructive programme.
  • In April 1934, at Banaras, Sampurnananda published a pamphlet in which he stressed the need for the formation of an All India Socialist Party as a wing of the Congress.
  • CSP was not a rival political organization but was launched “to work within the Congress, to strengthen it, to mould and shape its policies”.
  • The Congress Socialists belonged to the westernized middle class. They were influenced by the ideas of Marx, Gandhi and the Social Democracy of the West. They practiced Marxian Socialism, Congress Nationalism and liberal democracy of the West.
  • These leaders rejected the idea of Gandhi (which they saw as anti-rational). Though, they remained active in the workers and peasants movement, they rejected the sectarian attitude of the Communist Party of India.
  • They were influenced by Marxism-Leninism. The members ranged from the advocates of arms struggle to nonviolent resistance.
  • Congress Socialist Party preferred unity in national movement before its socialist inclination.

 

 

 

What do you know about the Desai – Liaqat pact?

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Answer:

  • Desai – Liaqat pact was an effort towards formation of interim government. It was proposed by Bhulabhai Desai of congress and Liaqat Ali Khan of muslim league.

Enrich Your Learning:

After Desai’s declaration, Liaquat Ali published the list of an agreement which given below:

  • Equal number of persons would be nominated by the congress and league in the central legislature and the muslim league would drop its demand for Pakistan.
  • Representation of the minorities in particular of the Schedule caste and the Sikhs.
  • The government was to be formed and was to function with the framework of the existing Government of India Act, 1935.
  • K Gandhi’s attempt to resolve the political deadlock by persuading Bhulabhai Jivanji Desai to make an attempt to appease the league leaders, but the proposal was not formally endorsed either by the Congress or the League.
  • Desai – Liaquat pact of 1945 was a controversy which filled the vacuum in Indian politics at a time when all the eminent political leaders were in the jail after the Quit India Movement.

 

 

 

Federal Court of India was established by which act?

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Answer:

  • The Federal Court of India was established in Delhi by the Government of India Act, 1935.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • The Federal Court of India was to act as an intermediate appellant between the High Courts and the Privy Council in regard to matters involving the interpretation of the Indian constitution.
  • In addition to this appellate jurisdiction, the Federal Court had advisory as well as original jurisdiction in certain other matters.
  • Originally it was empowered to hear appeals from the High Courts of the provinces in the cases which involved the interpretation of any Section of the Government of India Act, 1935.
  • This court continued to function until 26 January 1950, the day the independent India’s constitution came into force.

 

 

 

Raja Mahendra Pratap was the only Indian prince to actively participate in the Revolutionary Movement. Right OR Wrong?

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Answer:

Enrich Your Learning:

  • Raja Mahendra Pratap started two newspapers- “Prem” in Hindi and “Nirbal Sewak” in Hindi and Urdu.
  • In 1915, he formed the first government outside India in Afghanistan.
  • He returned to India after 32 years of exile and became the member of the second Lok Sabha in 1957-1962.
  • He was president of Indian Freedom Fighters’ Association and the president of All India Jat Mahasabha.

 

 

 

Who founded the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA)?

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Answer:

  • Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) was a revolutionary organization of India established in 1924 at village Bholachang in East Bengal by Sachindra Nath Sanyal, Narendra Mohan Sen and Pratul Ganguly as an offshoot of Anushilan Samiti.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • The HRA was also socialist in its attitude and was inspired by Bolshevik Russia.
  • Their manifesto stated the railways and other means of transportation and communication, the mines and other kinds of very great industries shall be nationalised.
  • Instead of private and unorganised business enterprise, the Party prefers co-operative unions.”
  • Amongst other goals stated by the manifesto are universal suffrage, supremacy of the legislature and religious freedom.

Objective and Tactics:

  • The Objective of the HRA was to establish “Federated Republic of the United States of India” through an organized armed revolution”.
  • The tactics of HRA were killing the officials; organize political dacoties to raise funds, terrorism among the British and British loyalists and strikes against the raj.
  • The idea attracted the young champions; some immediately joined the organization were Bhagat Singh, ChandraShekhar Azad, Sukhdev, Ram Prasad Bismil, Roshan Singh, Ashfaqulla Khan, Rajendra Lahiri and many others.
  • The first organized ‘crime’ of this group was the Kakori Train Conspiracy.

 

 

In context of Modern Indian History, what do you know about the Breakdown Plan?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

  • Wavell Plan is also known as Breakdown Plan and was not accepted by the British, for whom, leaving without a universally agreed agreement was dishonourable.
  • It also said that in case of a disagreement, the British should withdraw to the 6 Pakistan Provinces, and leaving the Congress to deal with rest of India.
  • While the plan proposed immediate changes to the composition of the Executive Council it did not contain any guarantee of Indian independence, nor did it contain any mention of a future constituent assembly or any proposals for the division of power between the various parties of India.
  • Congress objected the plan as an attempt to reduce the congress to the status of a purely caste hindu party and insisted on its right to include members of all communities among its nominees.
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