Flash-Cards-for-IAS-Prelims-2018-Geo-Day-3
70 Days WAR Plan

Day#3 Static Flash Cards Physical & World Geography [70 Days WAR Plan]

Geysers; International Date Line; Armenia; Core of the Earth; Batholiths; Laccoliths; Lapolith; Phacolith; Oceanic Crust and Continental Crust; Gravitational force; ‘Terrestrial Planet’; Rotation and Revolution of the earth; Shape of earth;
By IT's Core Team
March 25, 2019

 

 

 

Which are the proofs that infer the shape of earth is spherical?

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Answer:

Shape of earth is understood by following evidences: 

  • Circumnavigation of earth
  • Circular horizon
  • Ship visibility
  • Sunrise and sunset
  • Lunar eclipse
  • Planetary bodies are spherical
  • Driving poles on earth do not give perfect horizontal level

 

 

 

Day and night are caused because of the revolution of the earth. Right OR Wrong?

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Answer:

Right Statement:

  • Day and night are caused because of the rotation of the earth.

Rotation and Revolution of the earth:

  • The earth moves in space in two distinct ways. It rotates on its own axis from west to east once in every 24 hours, causing day and night. It also revolves round the sun in an orbit once in every 365 ¼ days causing seasons and year.
  • The rotating earth is inclined at an angle of 23½ along its axis while the revolving earth is inclined at an angle of 66½ to the plane of elliptical.

 

 

 

What is called ‘Terrestrial Planet’? Name terrestrial planets of our solar system.

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Answer:

  • Within the solar system, the terrestrial planets are the inner planets closest to the sun.
  • Terrestrial Planet is also known as Earth- like planet. Only one terrestrial planet, Earth, is known to have an active hydrosphere.
  • A terrestrial planet, telluric planet or rocky planet is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals.
  • Our solar system has four terrestrial planets—Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars.

 

 

 

Are you agree with the fact that the gravitational force is the direct source of information about the interior of the earth?

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Answer:

  • Gravitational force is the indirect source of information about the interior of the earth. This is because of the distance from the centre at the equator being greater than that at the poles.

Key facts about gravitation force:

  • The gravitation force is not the same at different latitudes on the surface. It is greater near the poles and less at the equator.
  • The gravity values also differ according to the mass of material.
  • The uneven distribution of mass of material within the earth influences this value.
  • The reading of the gravity at different places is influenced by many other factors. These readings differ from the expected values.
  • Such a difference is called gravity anomaly. Gravity anomalies give us information about the distribution of mass of the material in the crust of the earth.

Other indirect sources:

  • Some other indirect sources of information about the interior of the earth include gravitation, magnetic field, seismic activity, meteors, analysis of properties of matter and magnetic surveys.

 

 

 

What are the differences between Oceanic Crust and Continental Crust?

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Answer:

  • The oceanic crust is made up of basalt while the continental crust is made up of granite.
  • The oceanic crust is thinner while the continental crust is much thicker.
  • The oceanic crust is denser than the continental crust.
  • The continental crust has greater buoyancy than the oceanic crust.
  • Recycling is present in the oceanic crust while this procedure is absent in the continental crust.
  • The oceanic crust is much younger geologically than the continental crust.

 

 

 

Half of the world’s geysers are found in which place of the world?

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Answer:

  • Half of the world’s geysers are in the Yellowstone National Park, USA.

Key facts about the Geysers:

  • A geyser is a spring characterised by intermittent discharge of water ejected turbulently. The water discharge is accompanied by vapour (or steam) as well.
  • Geysers are temporary geological phenomena. The lifespan of geysers is a few thousand years at most.
  • Generally, all geyser sites are located close to active volcanic areas.
  • There are about a thousand known geysers in the world

 

 

 

The cooled portion of magma chambers are called as (a) Lacoliths OR (b) Batholiths?

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Answer:

Batholiths.

  • Batholiths are large rock masses formed due to cooling down and solidification of hot magma inside the earth.

Enrich Your Learning:

Batholiths

  • They appear on the surface only after the denudation processes remove the overlying materials. These are granitic.
  • Batholiths form the core of huge mountains and may be exposed on surface after erosion.
  • Rocks formed inside the earth’s crust may have large mineral grains if magma is cooled at slow rate.

Laccoliths

  • These are large dome-shaped intrusive bodies connected by a pipe-like conduit from below.
  • These are basically intrusive counterparts of an exposed domelike batholith.
  • The Karnataka plateau is spotted with dome hills of granite rocks. Most of these, now exfoliated, are examples of laccoliths or batholiths.

Lapolith

  • As and when the lava moves upwards, a portion of the same may tend to move in a horizontal direction wherever it finds a weak plane.
  • It may get rested in different forms. In case it develops into a saucer shape, concave to the sky body, it is called Lapolith.

Phacolith

  • A wavy mass of intrusive rocks, at times, is found at the base of synclines or at the top of anticline in folded igneous country.
  • Such wavy materials have a definite conduit to source beneath in the form of magma chambers (subsequently developed as batholiths). These are called the Phacoliths.

 

 

 

The core is made up of very heavy material mostly constituted by nickel and iron. Right OR Wrong?

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Answer:

About the Core of the Earth:

  • Below the mantle of the Earth is the core, which is the very center of the Earth, made mostly of heavy metals mostly constituted by nickel and iron. It is sometimes referred to as the nife layer.
  • The outer core is in the liquid state. The inner core on the other hand is solid and contains at least 90% iron.
  • The only reason the iron in the core doesn’t boil away is due to the incredibly high pressures, holding it together as a solid.
  • The earthquake wave velocities helped in understanding the existence of the core of the earth.
  • The core-mantle boundary is located at the depth of 2,900 km.

 

 

 

Name the countries which share borders with Armenia, a landlocked country in Eurasia.

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Answer:

  • Armenia is a landlocked country in the geopolitical Transcaucasus (South Caucasus) region, that is located in the Southern Caucasus Mountains and their lowlands between the Black Sea and Caspian Sea, and northeast of the Armenian Highlands.
  • Armenia is bordered on the north by Georgia, the east by Azerbaijan; the south by Iran; and the southwest and west by Turkey.

republic-of-armenia-map-vector-1824358

 

 

International Date Line is straight although it passes around some territories and island groups. Right OR Wrong?

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Answer:

Right Statement:

  • The International Date Line (IDL) passes through the middle of the Pacific Ocean, roughly following the 180° line of longitude but deviating to pass around some territories and island groups.

Key facts about International Date Line (IDL)

  • The International Date Line (IDL) is an imaginary line of navigation on the surface of the Earth.
  • It runs from the North Pole to the South Pole and demarcates the change of one calendar day to the next.
  • While the date line generally runs north to south from pole to pole, it zigzags around political borders such as eastern Russia and Alaska’s Aleutian Islands.
  • It is located halfway round the world from the prime meridian—the zero degrees longitude established in Greenwich, England, in 1852.
  • The International Date Line functions as a “line of demarcation” separating two consecutive calendar dates. When you cross the International Date Line from west to east, you subtract a day, and if you cross the line from east to west, you add a day.
  • Despite its name, the International Date Line has no legal international status and countries are free to choose the dates that they observe.
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