Answer &Enrich Your Learning:
Hornbill species found in India:
- Hornbills are large and wide-ranging birds and most species are dependent on tropical forest habitats that contain large and tall trees.
- India has nine hornbill species, of which four are found in the Western Ghats: Indian Grey Hornbill (endemic to India), the Malabar Grey Hornbill (endemic to the Western Ghats), Malabar Pied Hornbill (endemic to India and Sri Lanka) and the widely distributed but endangered Great Hornbill.
- India also has one species that has one of the smallest ranges of any hornbill: the Narcondam Hornbill, found only on the island of Narcondam.
Great Hornbill: Near threatened on the IUCN Red List
- They are found in a few forest areas in the Western Ghats and in the forests along the Himalayas.
- Their habitat is dense old growth (unlogged) forests in hilly regions.
- They appear to be dependent on large stretches of forest.
Rufous-necked Hornbill: Vulnerable
- This species has the northern-most extent, ranging from north-eastern India to the Mahananda Wildlife Sanctuary in West Bengal.
Wreathed Hornbill: Least Concern
- found in forests from far north-eastern India.
Narcondam Hornbill: Endangered
- It is endemic to the Indian island of Narcondam in the Andamans.
- The Narcondam hornbill has the smallest home range out of all the species of Asian hornbills.
Malabar Pied Hornbill: Near Threatened
- The Malabar pied hornbill is a common resident breeder in India and Sri Lanka. Its habitat is evergreen and moist deciduous forests, often near human settlements.
Oriental Pied Hornbill: Least Concern
- It has the largest distribution in the genus and is found in the Indian Subcontinent and throughout Southeast Asia.
- Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.
White-throated Brown Hornbill: Near Threatened
- found in forests from north-eastern India. In India, the best place to see this species is the Namdapha National Park, Changlang District, Arunachal Pradesh.
Malabar Grey Hornbill: Least Concern
- The Malabar grey hornbill is a common resident breeder in the Western Ghats and associated hills of southern India.
- They are found mainly in dense forest habitats; the thinner dry forest habitat of the plains.
Indian Grey Hornbill: Least Concern
- The species is found mainly on the plains up to about 2000 feet.
- It is found from the foothills of the Himalayas southwards, bounded to the west by the Indus system and to the east by the Ganges Delta.
- It may make local movements in the drier western region.
- It is found even in cities that have old avenue trees.
- It is found mainly on the plains up to about 1400 metres.
- The species has been observed in Dharamsala town (Himachal Pradesh) at about 1500 to 1600 masl during summer.