Flash-Card-for-IAS-Prelims-2019-M-History-Day-30
70 Days WAR Plan

Day#30 Static Flash Cards Modern Indian History [70 Days WAR Plan]

‘Mother of Indian Revolution’; Lord Curzon's tenure in British India; Indian Independence Committee; Indian Sociologist; Shyamaji Krishnavarma; Recommendations of Wood's Despatch of 1854; Quit India Movement; Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms of 1919; "Gagging Act”; Surat; Cabinet Mission Plan of 1946;
By IT's Core Team
April 20, 2019

 

 

 

What were the key recommendations of the Cabinet Mission Plan of 1946?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

  • Cabinet Mission was composed of three Cabinet Ministers of England; Sir Pethick Lawrence, Secretary of State for India, Sir Stafford Cripps, President of the Board of Trade, and Alexander, the First Lord of the Admiralty. The mission arrived on March 24, 1946.

The objective of this mission was to

  • Devise a machinery to draw up the constitution of Independent India.
  • Make arrangements for interim Government.
  • Thus, the mission was like a declaration of India’s independence.

Key recommendations:

  • The cabinet mission plan of 1946 proposed that there shall be a Union of India which was to be empowered to deal with the defense, foreign affairs and communications.
  • The cabinet mission recommended an undivided India and turned down the Muslim league’s demand for a separate Pakistan. The Cabinet mission restricted the Communal representation
  • It provided that all the members of the Interim cabinet would be Indians and there would be minimum interference by the Viceroy.
  • It also provided for formation of the constituent assembly on democratic principle of population.
  • It recognized Indian Right to cede from the Commonwealth.
  • The Cabinet Mission plan proposed a weak Centre.
  • All subjects other than the Union Subjects and all the residuary powers would be vested in the provinces.
  • The Princely states would retain all subjects and all residuary powers.
  • A Constituent Assembly will be formed of the representatives of the Provincial Assemblies and the Princely states. Each province had to be allotted a total number of seats in proportion to the population. The Constituent assembly had to comprise 293 Members from the British Provinces and 93 members from the Princely states.

 

 

 

Why Surat was called Gate of Makka?

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Answer:

  • Surat became gate to Mecca, because many pilgrim ships set sail from here to the holy place.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • Surat was an important commercial town which became an important center of commercial activities. Located near the sea it became the hub of economic activities whereby goods could be traded via sea route
  • Portuguese, English, Dutch has set up their factories in Surat.
  • Surat had a flourishing business of cotton textiles which was exported on a large scale to West Asia, Africa and Europe
  • Surat was famous for its textiles, especially its Zari work, which was in huge demand in Africa, Europe.

 

 

 

During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the “Gagging Act” had been passed. Who passed it?

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Answer:

  • During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the “Gagging Act” had been passed by Lord Canning, which sought to regulate the establishment of printing presses and to restrain the mad of printed mater. All presses had to have a license from the government with distinction between publications in English and other regional languages.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • The Gagging Act also held that no printed material shall impugn the motives of the British Raj, tending to bring it hatred and contempt and exciting unlawful resistance to its orders.
  • When the British Government found that the Gagging Act was not potent enough to repress all nationalist sentiments, it created a more forcible law, designed in part by Sir Alexander John Arbuthnot and Sir Ashley Eden, Lieutenant Governor of Bengal; known as Vernacular Press Act.
  • Lord Lytton brought Vernacular Press Act came in to force in 1878. It was repealed by Lord Ripon in 1882.

 

 

 

Under which Indian Act local self-government was brought under the control of Indian ministers in the provinces?

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Answer:

  • The Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms of 1919, under the proposed scheme of diarchy, made local self-government a “transferred subject”. This meant that local self-government was brought under the control of Indian ministers in the provinces.

Enrich Your Learning:

In India, the concept of local self-government is not new. Throughout the ages until the British rule, the village communities have kept this system alive.

  • When the British came to India, we had our own village government system.
  • Some among them (Charles Metcalf, for example) admired it and called panchayats “Little Republics”.
  • The British had their own representatives in every region.
  • As a result of the British interference, the attitude of the people towards panchayats changed.
  • Progressively, the people began loosing faith in the institution of panchayat.
  • In 1882, the Government of India Resolution on local self-government was announced. Lord Ripon’s Government had sent circulars to the governments in the provinces on the subject of local self-government, as they wanted to find out what the public opinion was.
  • The issues in the circular became the basis for the Government of India Resolution (1882) and later the Local Bodies Act of 1885 came into being. This was the basis for setting up local selfgoverning institutions with a majority of nominated members down to the village level.
  • The Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms of 1919, under the proposed scheme of diarchy, made local self-government a “transferred subject”.
  • The idea was to make the local bodies truly representative bodies by bringing them under the popular control.
  • This, however, did not make the panchayat institutions truly democratic, as there were various other constraints to overcome. Yet many acts were passed by various states for establishing panchayats.

They had few powers given to them and their financial resources were also limited. The situation remained more or less the same till 1947.

 

 

 

President Franklin D. Roosevelt supported Prime Minister Winston Churchill to delay some of the Indian demands. Right OR Wrong?

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Answer:

Right Statement:

  • The only outside support came from the Americans, as President Franklin D. Roosevelt pressured Prime Minister Winston Churchill to give in to some of the Indian demands.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • The Quit India Movement or the India August Movement, was a movement launched at the Bombay session of the All-India Congress Committee by Mahatma Gandhi on 8 August 1942, during World War II, demanding an end to British Rule of India.
  • The Cripps Mission had failed, and on 8 August 1942, Gandhi made a call to Do or Die in his Quit India speech delivered in Bombay at the Gowalia Tank Maidan.
  • The All-India Congress Committee launched a mass protest demanding what Gandhi called “An Orderly British Withdrawal” from India. Even though it was wartime, the British were prepared to act. Almost the entire leadership of the INC was imprisoned without trial within hours of Gandhi’s speech.
  • Most spent the rest of the war in prison and out of contact with the masses. The British had the support of the Viceroy’s Council (which had a majority of Indians), of the All India Muslim League, the princely states, the Indian Imperial Police, the British Indian Army and the Indian Civil Service.
  • Many Indian businessmen profiting from heavy wartime spending did not support the Quit India Movement. Many students paid more attention to Subhas Chandra Bose, who was in exile and supporting the Axis Powers.
  • The only outside support came from the Americans, as President Franklin D. Roosevelt pressured Prime Minister Winston Churchill to give in to some of the Indian demands. The Quit India campaign was effectively crushed. The British refused to grant immediate independence, saying it could happen only after the war had ended.
  • Sporadic small-scale violence took place around the country and the British arrested tens of thousands of leaders, keeping them imprisoned until 1945. In terms of immediate objectives, Quit India failed because of heavy-handed suppression, weak co-ordination and the lack of a clear-cut programme of action.
  • However, the British government realized that India was ungovernable in the long run due to the cost of World War II, and the question for postwar became how to exit gracefully and peacefully.
  • In 1992 Reserve Bank of India issued a 1 Rupee commemorative coin to mark the Golden Jubilee of the Quit India Movement.

Answer:

  • Sir Charles Wood, the President of the Board of Control of the English East India Company, had an important effect on spreading English learning and female education in India when in 1854 he sent a despatch to Lord Dalhousie, the then Governor-General of India.
  • The Despatch for the first time clearly accepted that the responsibility of education in India lies on British Government.

Enrich Your Learning:

Other recommendations:

  • The Despatch defined the aim of education keeping in view the interests of Indians and British rule. Education is to raise intellectual fitness and moral character of Indians. At the same time, it was to prepare them to become supporters of British rule in India.
  • The Despatch recommended that owing to the shortage of books in Indian languages, the medium of instruction should be English. But English should be needed for those people who have proper knowledge and taste for English and are able to understand European knowledge through this language. For others, Indian languages should be used.
  • The Despatch directed that the Department of Education should be established in every province. This department was to inspect schools and to guide teachers. At least one government school should be established in every district.
  • The Despatch recommended the establishment of Universities in Presidency towns of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras, and if necessary at other places also.
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Who is popularly known as ‘Mother of Indian Revolution’?

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Answer:

  • Madame Cama had been popularly described as the Mother of Indian Revolution.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • Madame Cama left India in 1902. She took active part in editing the Indian sociologist and represented India at the Stuttgart conference of socialists in 1907.
  • At the confrence, Madame Cama unfurled for the first time Indian national flag on the foreign soil.
  • Due to her anti-British activities, she was forced to shift her residence from London to Paris.
  • After thirty years of patriotic service in London, Paris and other cities of Europe, her friends succeeded in repatriating her to India in November 1936. She died on 12thAugust 1937.

 

 

 

The Indian Sociologist was edited by which famous Indian freedom fighter?

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Answer:

  • Shyamaji Krishnavarma, founder of the India House organization in Highgate, began to produce and edit The Indian Sociologist in January 1905.
  • The subtitle of The Indian Sociologist was ‘an Organ of Freedom, of Political, Social and Religious Reform’.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • Shyamaji Krishnavarma was a member of Mitramela Abhinav Bharat revolutionary group.
  • He left Bombay in 1897 and went to London. He started a monthly journal, the Indian sociologist; an organ of freedom struggle of India in 1905.
  • Shyamji established the Indian Home Rule society and a hostel for Indian students living in London, popularly known as the Indian House.
  • The most important revolutionaries associated with him were V.D. Savarkar, Madanlal Dhingra, Madame Cama, and Lala Hardyal.
  • In 1907 Shyamji shifted his headquarters to Paris and Savarkar took up the political leadership of the Indian House in London.

 

 

 

What do you know about the Indian Independence Committee set up in Berlin?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

  • After the outbreak of the First World War, Lala Hardyal and other Indians abroad moved to Germany and set up the Indian independence committee at Berlin.
  • The committee planned to bring about a general insurrection in India and for this purpose foreign arms were to be sent to India from abroad; expatriated Indians were to return to mother country, where they were to be joined by Indian soldiers and by the waiting revolutionaries.
  • The policy and activities of the Berlin committee and the Ghadar party had greatly influenced the revolutionaries of Bengal.

 

 

Mention some important events happened during Lord Curzon’s tenure in British India?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

  • Lord Curzon served as Governor General and Viceroy of India from 6 January 1899 to 18 November 1905.
  • His policy resulted in deep discontent and the upsurge of a revolutionary movement in the country, due to which he can be called most unpopular Viceroy of India. His tenure is called Curzonshahi {akin to Nadirshahi}.

Important events during his tenure include

  • Famine of 1899-1900 {Chappania Akal},
  • Appointment of Famine Commission {under Sir Anthony McDonnell},
  • Commission on Irrigation {under Colin Scott Moncrieff},
  • Police Commission {under Andrew Frazer},
  • Education Commission {aka Raleigh Commission},
  • Enactment of Indian Universities Act, 1904,
  • Land Resolution of 1902,
  • Punjab Land Alienation Act 1900,
  • Establishment of Imperial Departments of Agriculture and Commerce, Industry;
  • Indian Coinage and Paper Currency Act, 1899;
  • Establishment of a training college for army officers at Quetta;
  • Calcutta Corporation Act, 1899;
  • Ancient Monuments Protection Act, 1904;
  • Military expedition to Tibet,
  • Occupation of Chumby Valley and the most hated Partition of Bengal.
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