Flash-Cards-for-IAS-Prelims-2018-CA-Day-33
70 Days WAR Plan

Day#33 Current Affairs Flash Cards [70 Days WAR Plan]

Hog Deer; Rights of Persons with Disabilities Bill Act, 2016; Tribal Circuit; Financial Intelligence Unit, India (FIU-IND); Ideate for India; Colistin Antibiotics; Shahpurkandi Dam; Know India Programme; Exercise Hand-in-Hand; Namdapha National Park;
By IT's Core Team
April 23, 2019

 

 

 

It is the fourth largest national park in India in terms of area. It is recognized as one of the richest areas in biodiversity in India. It is the only park in India to have four big cat species, like leopard, tiger, clouded leopard and snow leopard. What is the name of this National Park?

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Answer:

  • Namdapha National Park

Enrich Your Learning:

  • Namdapha National Park is the largest protected area in the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot and is located in Arunachal Pradesh in Northeast India.
  • It is also the fourth largest national park in India in terms of area (1985 sq. km).
  • It is located in the Eastern Himalayan sub-region and is recognized as one of the richest areas in biodiversity in India.
  • The park harbours the northernmost lowland evergreen rainforests in the world at 27°N latitude.
  • The area is also known for extensive Dipterocarp forests.
  • Because of many different vegetation zones, the park is home to a great diversity of mammal species.

Flora & Fauna:

  • Four big cat species occur in the park: snow leopards, clouded leopards, common leopards and tigers. Other large predators are dholes, wolves, and Asiatic black bears.
  • Smaller carnivores include red panda, red fox, yellow-throated marten, Eurasian otter, Oriental small-clawed otter, spotted linsang, binturong, common palm civet, small indian civet, large indian civet, masked palm civet, marbled cat, fishing cat, Asiatic golden cat, and two species of mongoose.
  • Large herbivores are represented by elephant’s wild boar, forest musk deer, indian muntjac, hog deer, sambar, gaur, common goral, mainland serow, takin and bharal. Seven species of non-human primates including Stump-tailed macaque and Slow Loris, Hoolock Gibbons, Capped Langurs, Assamese Macaques and Rhesus Macaques.
  • The park has about 425 bird species with many more to be recorded from work in the higher areas. There are five species of Hornbills recorded from the area.
  • Several species of rare wren-babblers have been recorded in Namdapha.
  • Other bird groups include laughing thrushes, parrotbills, fulvettas, shrike babblers and scimitar babblers. The Snowy throated Babbler is a rare species of Babbler found only in the Patkai and Mishmi hills and nearby areas in Northern Myanmar, is found in Namdapha.

History:

  • The reserve area of Namdapha first came into existence and notice to the international importance during the Second World War due to its rich biodiversity.
  • The latter half of the war was witnessed here with several pilots being crushing at this site as a result of multiple air turbulence over the area.
  • The Assam Rifle conducted its forts scouting in the Vijaynagar area and then in the year 1972, Namdapha was established as a wildlife sanctuary. And the renovation work was still carried on making the routes in a motorable condition.
  • Further, in 1983, the park was declared a Tiger Reserve and National Park.
  • The area of Namdapha also proved to be the refugee camps for many immigrants and till today the Chakma, refugees from Bangladesh, are the recent immigrants to the area, being settled by the Indian government in the 1960s in the areas between the town of Miao and the western edge of Namdapha.
  • Interestingly today, the Namdapha Reserve is among one of the prime attractions topping the list, while touring Itanagar.

 

 

 

Annually, an India China Joint Military Training Exercise is held. This exercise is popularly known as –

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Answer:

  • Exercise Hand-in-Hand

Enrich Your Learning:

  • Exercise Hand-in-Hand is the India China Joint Military Training Exercise that is held annually.
  • The 7th Sino-India joint exercise Hand-in-Hand 2018 recently took place in December 2018 that was held at Chengdu, China.
  • Company size contingents of 11 SIKHLI from Indian Army and a regiment from Tibetan Military District of People’s Liberation Army participated in the exercise.
  • The exercise will consist of a balance of indoor classes and outdoor training activities.
  • The aim of the exercise is to build and promote close relations between armies of both the countries and to enhance ability of the joint exercise commander to take military contingents of both nations under command.
  • The exercise will involve tactical level operations in an international counter insurgency/ counter terrorism environment under UN mandate.
  • The 13-day schedule is focused upon training on crossing of obstacles, special heliborne operations, firing of various weapons, handling & neutralisation of improvised explosive devices and conduct of cordon & search operations in insurgency and terrorism environment.

 

 

 

It is one of the endangered species under IUCN Red list. It gets its name from the manner in which it runs through the forests with its head hung low so that it can duck under obstacles instead of leaping over them. It has a stout build with relatively short legs. These characteristics resemble to which species?

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Answer:

  • Hog Deer

Enrich Your Learning:

  • ‘Hog Deer’ is a small deer whose habitat ranges from Pakistan, through northern India, to mainland southeast Asia, which inhabits much of the Indo-Gangetic Plains of Pakistan, northern India, Nepal, Bangladesh, southwestern Yunnan Province in China, all the way to western Thailand.
  • It is also known as Indian Hog Deer, and endangered species under IUCN Red list.
  • Its Introduced populations also exist in Australia and Sri Lanka.
  • It gets its name from the hog-like manner in which it runs through the forests with its head hung low so that it can duck under obstacles instead of leaping over them like most other deer.
  • Hog deer have a stout build with relatively short legs and raised hindquarters. Males are heavier than females and have much thicker necks.
  • Cover is taken as soon as it is feasible. During flight, the tail is held erect, showing the white underside.
  • This species resembles the closely-related Calamian deer (Axis calamianensis) and Bawean deer (Axis kuhlii), but hog deer tend to be larger and are easily distinguished by distribution.
  • Hunting (primarily for bushmeat), habitat loss due to settlement and agriculture and the subsequent fragmentation of populations are the threats faced by it.

 

 

 

On the occasion of Pravasi Bharatiya Divas in New Delhi, an initiative was launched with an aim to familiarizing Indian-origin youth to the country of their origin. By what name is this initiative launched?

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Answer:

  • Know India Programme

Enrich Your Learning:

  • Know India Programme (KIP) is a government initiative by the Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India.
  • It was launched on January 8, 2014, on the occasion of Pravasi Bharatiya Divas in New Delhi.
  • KIP is a flagship initiative for Diaspora engagement which familiarizes Indian-origin youth (18-30 years) with their Indian roots and contemporary India, through a three-week orientation programme organised by the Ministry.
  • It provides them an exposure to the country of their origin.
  • It promotes awareness on different facets of life in India and the progress made by the country in various fields e.g. economic, industrial, education, science & technology, communication & information Technology, culture.
  • KIP provide a unique forum for students & young professionals of Indian origin to visit India, share their views, expectations & experiences and to develop closer bonds with the contemporary India.
  • In 2016, the scheme was revamped to increase duration from 21 to 25 days, with a 10-day visit to one or two States and preference given to PIOs from Girmitiya countries.
  • Since 2016, six KIPs are being organised in a year. For the first time, four KIP groups (37-40th edition) participated in the Youth Pravasi Bharatiya Divas and the 14th Pravasi Bharatiya Divas Convention from 7 to 9 January 2017 in Bengaluru.
  • In the financial year 2017-18 four editions of Know India Programme (41st-44th) have already been organised with the total participation of 160 PIO youths, 40 in each group.
  • Two more editions (45th & 46th) are scheduled to be organised from 29 January – 22 February 2018 and 12 February – 08 March 2018.
  • So far, a total number of 1460 of PIO youths have participated in this programme, till 44th KIP.

 

 

 

Shahpurkandi Dam is located on which river of India?

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Answer:

  • Shahpurkandi Dam is located on river Ravi.

sahakargarh

Enrich Your Learning:

Shahpurkandi Dam project:

  • The Shahpurkandi Dam project is located on the Ravi River in Pathankot district, Punjab, India.
  • Shahpurkandi Dam Project comprising of 55.5 high concrete Dam, 7.70 Km long Hydel Channel.
  • On completion, the project has an irrigation potential of 5,000 hectares in Punjab and 32,173 hectares in Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Punjab would also be able to generate 206 MW of hydro-power, the statement added. The project would be implemented by the Punjab government and would be completed by June 2022.
  • Power Houses of total 206 MW capacity are being constructed on River Ravi to provide a balancing reservoir to have uniform water releases for Upper Bari Doab Canal, Kashmir canal off taking from Madhopur Head Works and high level Ravi Canal (J&K) which will off take from right side of Shahpurkandi Dam Project and to ensure optimum power generation during peaking hours from Ranjit Sagar Dam Project.
  • Jammu & Kashmir (J&K) will get 20% of power generated from this project at bus bar rates.
  • Shahpurkandi Dam Project has been declared as ‘National Project’ by Ministry of Water Resources, Govt. of India during February 2008. 
  • Planning Commission Government of India has accorded investment clearance for Rs. 2285.81 Cr at April 2008 price level during February 2010 and the cost apportionment between Irrigation and Power component is 28.61% and 71.39% respectively.
  • As per the guidelines of the National Project, Govt. of India shall provide 90% of the cost of Irrigation component as Central Assistance and 10% shall be provided by Punjab Govt.
  • Funds for power component shall be provided by Punjab State Power Corporation Ltd for which REC has sanctioned the loan amounting to Rs. 1468 Crore.

Benefits of shahpurkandi dam project

  • To act as balancing reservoir for optimum utilization of releases from Ranjit Sagar Dam Project.
  • Shall regulate and ensure uniform supplies to downstream Canal System.
  • Increased and intensive irrigation benefits for 3.48 lac hectares in Punjab.
  • Shall provide Irrigation facility to 5000 hectares in Punjab & 32173 hectares in J&K.
  • Shall produce 1042 MU of electricity annually.
  • Complete water of River Ravi will be utilized for irrigation as well as for power generation on downstream Hydel Projects.
  • Shall provide silt free water to existing and proposed Power Houses.
  • Development of tourism, recreational facilities and fisheries.
  • Overall socio-economic development of area.

 

 

 

It is an antibiotic produced by certain strains of the bacteria Paenibacillus polymyxa. It is used to treat certain bacterial infections. It is effective against infections of the stomach and the intestine caused by sensitive gram-negative bacteria. Which antibiotics resembles to the above characteristics?

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Answer:

  • Colistin Antibiotics

Enrich Your Learning:

  • Colistin, also known as polymyxin E, is an antibiotic produced by certain strains of the bacteria Paenibacillus polymyxa.
  • Colistin is a mixture of the cyclic polypeptides colistin A and B and belongs to the class of polypeptide antibiotics known as polymyxins.
  • Colistin is effective against most Gram-negative bacilli.
  • It is used to treat certain bacterial infections. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.
  • It is a decades-old drug that fell out of favour in human medicine due to its kidney toxicity.
  • It remains one of the last-resort antibiotics for multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Acinetobacter.
  • NDM-1 metallo-β-lactamase multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae have also shown susceptibility to colistin.
  • Resistance to colistin in human pathogens is rare.
  • The first colistin-resistance gene in a plasmid which can be transferred between bacterial strains was found in 2011 in China and became publicly known in November 2015. The presence of this plasmid-borne mcr-1 gene was confirmed starting December 2015 in South-East Asia, several European countries and the United States.
  • Two forms of colistin are available commercially: colistin sulphate and colistin methate sodium (colistin methane sulfonate sodium, colistin sulfomethate sodium).
  • Colistin sulphate is cationic; colistin methate sodium is anionic. Colistin sulphate is stable, but colistimethate sodium is readily hydrolysed to a variety of methane sulfonated derivatives.
  • Colistin sulphate and colistimethate sodium are eliminated from the body by different routes. With respect to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, colistin methate is the inactive prodrug of colistin.
  • The main toxicities described with intravenous treatment are nephrotoxicity (damage to the kidneys) and neurotoxicity (damage to the nerves), but this may reflect the very high doses given, which are much higher than the doses currently recommended by any manufacturer and for which no adjustment was made for renal disease. Neuro- and nephrotoxic effects appear to be transient and subside on discontinuation of therapy or reduction in dose.

 

 

 

National challenge for youths was launched with a view to encourage, empower and enable students to change from being ‘users’ to ‘creators’ of new indigenous technologies to solve local problems in their community by re-imagining solutions to work out critical local issues. This challenge is known by –

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Answer:

  • Ideate for India

Enrich Your Learning:

National Challenge for Youths, “Ideate for India – Creative Solutions using Technology”:

  • The Hon’ble Minister for Electronics & IT, Law & Justice launched a National Challenge for Youths, “Ideate for India – Creative Solutions using Technology”, at New Delhi in December 2018.
  • The aim of this National Challenge is to give school students across the country a platform and opportunity to become solution creators for the problems they see around them and their communities.
  • “Ideate for India” will empower and enable these students to transition from being ‘users’ of technology to become ‘creators’ of new indigenous technologies to solve local problems in their community by re-imagining solutions to work out critical local issues.
  • This initiative will allow the participants to gain a basic understanding on ‘Skills of the Future’ such as design thinking, ideation – idea generation, making, do-it-yourself concepts, collaboration etc.
  • The objective of this National Challenge is to empower youth and enable them to create a difference in their community-
    • By skilling them to reimagine solutions to solve local critical issues
    • By inspiring them to become future technology creators and innovators by developing indigenous solutions
  • The Challenge has been designed and launched by the National e-Governance Division, Ministry of Electronics & IT in collaboration with Intel India, with support from the Department of School Education and Literacy (DoSE&L), Ministry of Human Resource Development.
  • The DoSE&L will help reach out to State Education Departments, NVS, KVS and CBSE authorities to propagate the National Challenge amongst schools across the country.
  • The National Challenge is open to students of classes 6 -12 all across the country – all 29 States and 7 Union Territories and aims to reach out to at least 1 million youth over the next 3 months.
  • There are 11 core theme areas on which students can share their ideas- healthcare services, education services, digital services, environment, women safety, traffic, infrastructure, agriculture, social welfare, disability and tourism.
  • The Challenge requires students to access online videos and understand how to identify problems and share a 90 second video explaining the problem and their proposed solution.
  • “Ideate for India” National Challenge will help inculcate innovation skills in youth and equip all students to utilise technology for the betterment of their communities and the society at large. Simultaneously, this will prepare them to contribute towards the realization of Digital India goals.
  • The challenge aims to make the young students understand the importance of technology and give them a platform, where they can be innovation creators.
  • In brief, the challenge urges students to identify problems in and around them and then create solutions using technology. In this process, students will be supported with online learning content, face to face boot camps and mentoring by tech experts etc.

 

 

 

What are the functions of Financial Intelligence Unit, India (FIU-IND)?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

  • The Financial Intelligence Unit, India (FIU-IND) was set by the Government of India in 2004 as the central national agency responsible for receiving, processing, analysing and disseminating information relating to suspect financial transactions.
  • FIU-IND is an independent body reporting directly to the Economic Intelligence Council (EIC) headed by the Finance Minister.
  • It is a multidisciplinary body with a sanctioned strength of 74 members from various government departments.
  • The members are inducted from organizations including Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT), Central Board of Excise and Customs (CBEC), Reserve Bank of India (RBI), Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI), Department of Legal Affairs and Intelligence agencies.
  • It is responsible for coordinating and strengthening efforts of national and international intelligence, investigation and enforcement agencies in pursuing the global efforts against money laundering and related crimes.
  • It aims to provide quality financial intelligence for safeguarding the financial system from the abuses of money laundering, terrorism financing and other economic offences.

The functions of FIU-IND are:

  • The function of FIU-IND is to receive cash/suspicious transaction reports, analyse them and, as appropriate, disseminate valuable financial information to intelligence/enforcement agencies and regulatory authorities.
  • Collection of Information: Act as the central reception point for receiving Cash Transaction reports (CTRs), Cross Border Wire Transfer Reports (CBWTRs), Reports on Purchase or Sale of Immovable Property (IPRs) and Suspicious Transaction Reports (STRs) from various reporting entities.
  • Analysis of Information: Analyse received information to uncover patterns of transactions suggesting suspicion of money laundering and related crimes.
  • Sharing of Information: Sharing information with national intelligence/law enforcement agencies, national regulatory authorities and foreign Financial Intelligence Units.
  • Act as Central Repository: Establish and maintain national data base on cash transactions and suspicious transactions on the basis of reports received from reporting entities.
  • Coordination: Coordinate and strengthen collection and sharing of financial intelligence through an effective national, regional and global network to combat money laundering and related crimes.

 

 

 

Tribal Circuit is one of the fifteen thematic circuits identified for development. Under which Ministry is this project in development?

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Answer:

  • Ministry of Tourism

Enrich Your Learning:

  • Tribal Circuit is one of the fifteen thematic circuits identified for development under Swadesh Darshan Scheme of Government of India’s Ministry of Tourism.
  • Under Swadesh Darshan Scheme, Ministry aims to develop tourism infrastructure in the country in a planned and prioritised manner on the principles of high tourist value, competitiveness, sustainability, enriching tourist experience and creation of livelihood opportunities at local level.
  • The tribal circuits aim to give the “Modern Traveller” a close and personal glimpse into the world of India’s vibrant tribal traditions, culture, festivals, craftsmanship, art, rituals etc.
  • There are three such tribal circuit namely: Nagaland, Chhattisgarh and Telangana.
  • Out of the four projects for development of Tribal Circuit sanctioned, two are in Nagaland: Peren- Kohima- Wokha and Mokokchung-Tuensang-Mon. One circuit is in Chattisgarh: Jashpur-Kunkuri-Mainpat- Ambikapur-Maheshpur-Ratanpur-Kurdar-Sarodadadar-Gangrel- Kondagaon-Nathyanawagaon-Jagdalpur- Chitrakoot-Tirthgarh and another integrated development of Tribal Circuit in Telangana: Mulugu-Laknavaram-Medavaram-Tadvai- Damaravi- Mallur-Bogatha Waterfalls.
  • Recently in September 2018, the first tribal circuit project was inaugurated in Chhattisgarh.
  • The project covers thirteen sites in Chhattisgarh i.e. Jashpur, Kunkuri, Mainpat, Kamleshpur, Maheshpur, Kurdar, Sarodadadar, Gangrel, Kondagaon, Nathiya Nawagaon, Jagdalpur, Chitrakoot, Tirthgarh.
  • This is the second project under the Swadesh Darshan Scheme being inaugurated in the country.

Significance:

  • The project will develop tourism infrastructure in the country.
  • The Ministry of Tourism undertakes several promotional activities in the domestic and international markets for promotion of the varied tourism products and destinations of the country including tribal areas.
  • The Ministry produces publicity material and collaterals in English and foreign languages; media campaigns are undertaken in the print and electronic media; familiarisation tours for trade, media and opinion makers are undertaken from overseas to India under the Hospitality Scheme.
  • To carry out an array of activities for development and promotion of tourism in the tribal region.
  • To acknowledge the sovereignty of tribes, promote the rich and diverse primitive assets in the states.
  • Major components sanctioned include eco log huts, craft haats, souvenir shops/ kiosk, tourist reception & facilitation centres, open amphitheatre, tribal interpretation centres, workshop centres, tourist amenities centres, last mile connectivity, wayside amenities, viewpoints, nature trails, solar illuminations, signages solid waste management etc.
  • These components are perceived to improve existing tourist facilities and enhance the overall tourist experience, therefore, help in getting more visitors which in return will increase job opportunities in the area.
  • This will also help improve the economic opportunities for the state, attract visitors and generate revenue.

 

 

With reference to Right of Persons with Disabilities Bill Act, 2016, which types of disabilities have been added for the first time?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Rights of Persons with Disabilities Bill Act, 2016:

  • “The Rights of Persons with Disabilities Bill – 2016” was passed by the Lok Sabha that replaced the existing PwD Act, 1995.
  • The New Act will bring the law in line with the United National Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD), to which India is a signatory.
  • The United Nations General Assembly adopted its Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities on the 13th day of December 2006.
  • This will fulfil the obligations on the part of India in terms of UNCRPD.
  • The new law will not only enhance the Rights and Entitlements of Divyangjan but also provide effective mechanism for ensuring their empowerment and true inclusion into the Society in a satisfactory manner.
  • Principles stated to be implemented for empowerment of persons with disabilities (PWD) are respect for inherent dignity, individual autonomy including the freedom to make one’s own choices, and independence of persons.
  • The Act lays stress on non-discrimination, full and effective participation and inclusion in society, respect for difference and acceptance of disabilities as part of human diversity and humanity, equality of opportunity, accessibility, equality between men and women, respect for the evolving capacities of children with disabilities, and respect for the right of children with disabilities to preserve their identities.
  • The principle reflects a paradigm shift in thinking about disability from a social welfare concern to a human rights issue.

Salient features of the bill:

  • Disability has been defined based on an evolving and dynamic concept.
  • The types of disabilities have been increased from existing 7 to 21 and the Central Government will have the power to add more types of disabilities.
  • Speech and Language Disability and Specific Learning Disability have been added for the first time. Acid Attack Victims have been included. Dwarfism, muscular dystrophy has been indicated as separate class of specified disability. The New categories of disabilities also included three blood disorders, Thalassemia, Hemophilia and Sickle Cell disease.
  • The Government has been authorized to notify any other category of specified disability.
  • Responsibility has been cast upon the appropriate governments to take effective measures to ensure that the persons with disabilities enjoy their rights equally with others.
  • Additional benefits such as reservation in higher education, government jobs, reservation in allocation of land, poverty alleviation schemes etc. have been provided for persons with benchmark disabilities and those with high support needs.
  • Every child with benchmark disability between the age group of 6 and 18 years shall have the right to free education.
  • Government funded educational institutions as well as the government recognized institutions will have to provide inclusive education to the children with disabilities.
  • For strengthening the Prime Minister’s Accessible India Campaign, stress has been given to ensure accessibility in public buildings (both Government and private) in a prescribed time-frame.
  • Reservation in vacancies in government establishments has been increased from 3% to 4% for certain persons or class of persons with benchmark disability.
  • The Bill provides for grant of guardianship by District Court under which there will be joint decision – making between the guardian and the persons with disabilities.
  • Broad based Central & State Advisory Boards on Disability are to be set up to serve as apex policy making bodies at the Central and State level.
  • Office of Chief Commissioner of Persons with Disabilities has been strengthened who will now be assisted by 2 Commissioners and an Advisory Committee comprising of not more than 11 members drawn from experts in various disabilities.
  • Similarly, the office of State Commissioners of Disabilities has been strengthened who will be assisted by an Advisory Committee comprising of not more than 5 members drawn from experts in various disabilities.
  • The Chief Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities and the State Commissioners will act as regulatory bodies and Grievance Redressal agencies and also monitor implementation of the Act.
  • District level committees will be constituted by the State Governments to address local concerns of PwDs. Details of their constitution and the functions of such committees would be prescribed by the State Governments in the rules.
  • Creation of National and State Fund will be created to provide financial support to the persons with disabilities. The existing National Fund for Persons with Disabilities and the Trust Fund for Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities will be subsumed with the National Fund.
  • The Bill provides for penalties for offences committed against persons with disabilities and also violation of the provisions of the new law.
  • Special Courts will be designated in each district to handle cases concerning violation of rights of PwDs.

21 disabilities are:

  • Blindness
  • Low-vision
  • Leprosy Cured persons
  • Hearing Impairment (deaf and hard of hearing)
  • Locomotor Disability
  • Dwarfism
  • Intellectual Disability
  • Mental Illness
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • Cerebral Palsy
  • Muscular Dystrophy
  • Chronic Neurological conditions
  • Specific Learning Disabilities
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Speech and Language disability
  • Thalassemia
  • Hemophilia
  • Sickle Cell disease
  • Multiple Disabilities including deaf blindness
  • Acid Attack victim
  • Parkinson’s disease
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