Flash Cards

Day#33 Current Affairs Flash Cards [PRELIMS 2020]

IRNSS 1-G satellite; Doubly landlocked countries in the world; Atal Bimit Vyakti Kalyan Yojana; ‘Kihoto Hollohan case’; Tenth Schedule; Ploonet;
By IASToppers
August 31, 2019



With the launch of which satellite did India get its positioning system?

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  • India got its system positioning system with the launch of the IRNSS 1-G satellite. It is the seventh member of the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS).

Enrich Your Learning:

Global Positioning System (GPS) to be substituted with Indian version of satellite navigation

  • Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro) will substitute the existing Global Positioning System (GPS) with the Indian version of satellite navigation.
  • The Indian positioning system is called Navigation with Indian Constellation (NavIC).


  • The IRNSS can provide Standard Positioning Service (SPS) to all users, and an encrypted Restricted Service (RS) to authorised users.
  • The IRNSS has a position accuracy better than 20 metres in the primary service area.
  • The regional navigation satellite system can provide accurate position information service to users in India and the region, extending up to 1,500 km from its boundary, which is its Primary Service Area.
  • Beyond that lies an Extended Service Area, that can extend up to the edges of the area enclosed by the rectangle imagined by latitudes 30 degrees South and 50 degrees North, and longitudes 30 degrees East and 130 degrees East.


  • It can help in terrestrial, aerial and marine navigation; disaster management;
  • Vehicle tracking and fleet management;
  • Integration with mobile phones; precise timing;
  • Mapping and geodetic data capture;
  • Terrestrial navigation aid for hikers and travellers;
  • Visual and voice navigation for drivers.

Other nations with positioning system

  • The GPS is a satellite-based radio navigation system that is owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.
  • Russia has GLONASS, Galileo of the European Union and BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (or BDS) of China are other positioning system in the world.



What is the meaning of Ploonet?

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  • Ploonet is the new word the scientific community has come up with to describe a moon that becomes a planet.

Enrich Your Learning:

What does Ploonet mean?

  • Ploonet a sort-of cross between a moon and a planet.
  • There are none of these planets in our solar system.
  • But they might exist in other star systems. There, some moons might escape their parent planets’ gravity and start orbiting their parent stars instead.
  • A moon can become a planet if it leaves the orbit of its parent planet and takes up residence in a stable orbit around its star, at this point, this orbiting rock is neither a moon nor a planet, hence the term, ploonet.



By which amendment act was the Tenth Schedule known as the “anti-defection law” inserted in the constitution?

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  • The Tenth Schedule was inserted in the Constitution by the Fifty-Second Amendment Act, 1985.

Enrich Your Learning:

‘Kihoto Hollohan case’

  • A constitutional challenge to the Tenth Schedule was settled by the apex court in Kihoto Hollohan.
  • The law covering the disqualification of legislators and the powers of the Speaker in deciding such matters became part of the statute book in 1985 when the Tenth Schedule to the Constitution was adopted.
  • The Schedule’s provisions were “salutory and intended to strengthen the fabric of Indian Parliamentary democracy by curbing unprincipled and unethical political defections.”

What does the Tenth Schedule say?

  • The Tenth Schedule provides for the disqualification of Members of Parliament and state legislatures who defect.
  • It was inserted in the Constitution by the Constitution (Fifty-Second Amendment) Act, 1985, popularly known as the “anti-defection law”.

What is the extent of the Speaker’s powers?

  • Paragraph 6(1) of the Tenth Schedule describes the Speaker’s sweeping discretionary powers: “If any question arises as to whether a member of a House has become subject to disqualification under this Schedule, the question shall be referred for the decision of the Chairman or, as the case may be, the Speaker of such House and his decision shall be final.”

What was the principal question before the Supreme Court in the case?

  • The principal question before the Supreme Court in the case was whether the powerful role given to the Speaker violated the doctrine of Basic Structure of the constitution.
  • Basic Structure of the constitution is the judicial principle that certain basic features of the Constitution cannot be altered by amendments by Parliament, laid down in the landmark judgment in Kesavananda Bharati vs State of Kerala (1973).



Which body has launched the Atal Bimit Vyakti Kalyan Yojana?

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  • Employees’ State Insurance Corporation has launched the Atal Bimit Vyakti Kalyan Yojana.

Enrich Your Learning:

Atal Bimit Vyakti Kalyan Yojana

  • As per the ‘Atal Bimit Vyakti Kalyan Yojana’ (ABVKY), in case the Insured Person (IP) is rendered unemployed, provides relief to the extent of 25% of the average per day earning during the previous four contribution periods.
  • It is to be paid up to maximum 90 days of unemployment once in lifetime of the Insured person.

The eligibility conditions and other features of the scheme are as under:

  • The Insured Person should have been in insurable employment for a minimum period of two years.
  • The Insured Person should have contributed not less than 78 days during each of the preceding four contribution periods.
  • The contribution in respect of him should have been paid or payable by the employer.
  • The contingency of the unemployment should not have been as a result of any punishment for misconduct or superannuation or voluntary retirement.
  • Aadhar and Bank Account of the Insured Person should be linked with insured person data base.
  • In case the IP is working for more than one employers and is covered under the ESI scheme he will be considered unemployed only in case he is rendered unemployed with all employers.
  • An IP who is in receipt of Relief under ABVKY shall not be entitled to receive any similar benefit admissible under the provisions of any other enactment.
  • The IP will be eligible for Medical benefit as provided under the Act for the period he is availing this relief.



Apart from Uzbekistan, which is the second only doubly landlocked country in the world?

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  • Liechtenstein and Uzbekistan are the two doubly landed locked countries in the world.


Enrich Your Learning:

Doubly landlocked countries in the world

  • A doubly landlocked state refers to a landlocked nation that is surrounded by other landlocked countries.
  • Out of the forty landlocked states in the world, there are only two doubly landlocked countries namely Uzbekistan and Liechtenstein.


  • Liechtenstein is a German-speaking mini-state in Central Europe.
  • Liechtenstein is a doubly landlocked state that is surrounded by Austria and Switzerland.
  • Rhine river flows into the North Sea and it forms most of the country’s border with Switzerland.




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