FC-for-IAS-Prelims-2018-revision-Day-39
70 Days WAR Plan

Day#39 Static Flash Cards Revision [70 Days WAR Plan]

Constitutional provision for removal of Election Commissioner; Dashavatar theatre; ‘Sulvasutras’, ‘Srautasutras’, ‘Grihyasutras’, Battle of Kharda, Battle of Chillianwala, Battle of Buxar, Battle of Wandiwash; Charter Act 1833; 8th Round of Wage Negotiations for workmen in CPSEs; League of Nations (LoN); Fiscal deficit; Depreciation; Thuggee activity;
By IT's Core Team
April 29, 2019

 

 

 

Which is best known for his work suppressing Thuggee activity: David Price OR James Abbott OR William Henry Sleeman?

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Answer:

  • Captain William Sleeman was appointed by Lord William Bentick to suppress the thuggee activities in India.

Enrich your learning:

  • During the 1830s, the Thugs were targeted for eradication by Governor-General of India, William Bentinck and his chief captain, William Henry Sleeman.
  • The Thugs were suspended by the British rulers of India during the 1830s.
  • The initiative was due largely to the efforts of civil servant William Henry Sleeman, who captured “Feringhea” (also known as Syeed Amir Ali)

 

 

 

All fixed assets are good example of ‘depreciation’. Do you agree?

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Answer:

  • No. Not all fixed assets are examples of deprecation. For example-Land, which gets appreciated over long period of time.

Depreciation

  • Depreciation is a decrease in an asset’s value which may be caused by a number of other factors as well such as unfavourable market conditions, etc.
  • Examples of fixed assets that can be depreciated are buildings, furniture, leasehold improvements, and office equipment. The only exception is land, which is not depreciated (since land is not depleted over time, with the exception of natural resources).
  • Opposite of depreciation is appreciation which is increase in the value of an asset over a period of time.
  • Accounting estimates the decrease in value using the information regarding the useful life of the asset. This is useful for estimation of property value for taxation purposes like property tax etc.
  • Most business assets are depreciated, because they decrease in value over time, either through use or through obsolescence. When an asset becomes obsolete, it may be from technology passing it by or from physical wear and tear.

Types of Depreciation

  1. Straight Line Method
  2. Diminishing Value Method
  3. Annuity method
  4. Machine hour rate method
  5. Revaluation method
  6. Sum-of-the-years’ digit method

 

 

 

Why borrowing is considered as better source of financing the fiscal deficit as compared to printing of new currency?

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Answer:

  • Borrowings are considered a better source as they do not increase the money supply which is regarded as the main cause of inflation.

Fiscal deficit:

  • A fiscal deficit occurs when a government’s total expenditures exceed the revenue that it generates, excluding money from borrowings. Deficit differs from debt, which is an accumulation of yearly deficits.
  • Generally fiscal deficit takes place either due to revenue deficit or a major hike in capital expenditure. Capital expenditure is incurred to create long-term assets such as factories, buildings and other development.

Government has to look out for different options to finance the fiscal deficit. The main two sources are:

Borrowings:

  • Fiscal deficit can be met by borrowings from the internal sources (public, commercial banks etc.) or the external sources (foreign governments, international organisations etc.).

Deficit Financing (Printing of new currency):

  • Government may borrow from Central Bank (like RBI) against its securities to meet the fiscal deficit. RBI issues new currency for this purpose. This process is known as deficit financing.
  • Borrowings are considered a better source as they do not increase the money supply which is regarded as the main cause of inflation. On the other hand, deficit financing may lead to inflationary trends in the economy due to more money supply.

 

 

 

What is the constitutional provision regarding the removal of an Election Commissioner?

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Answer:

Constitutional provision for removal of Election Commissioner:

  • The Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) and the Election Commissioners have a tenure of six years, or up to the age   of 65, whichever is earlier, and enjoy the same status and receive salary and perks as available to Supreme Court judges.
  • They can resign at any time or can also be removed before the expiry of their term.
  • The CEC and the Election Commissioners enjoy the same decision-making powers which is suggestive of the fact that their powers are at par with each other.
  • He cannot be removed from his office except in same manner and on the same grounds as a judge of the Supreme Court.
  • They can be removed from office only through impeachment by Parliament.
  • CEC can be removed by the president on the basis of a resolution passed to that effect by both the Houses of Parliament with special majority, either on the ground of proved misbehavior or incapacity.
  • However, Article 324(5) does not provide similar protection to the Election Commissioners.
  • It merely says that they cannot be removed from office except on the recommendation of the CEC.
  • Substantive Motion in the constitution of India is a self-contained independent proposal dealing with a very important matter like impeachment of the President or removal of Chief Election Commissioner.

 

 

 

When was League of Nations formed? And what do you know about it?

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Answer:

About League of Nations (LoN):

  • League of Nations was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War-1.
  • It was the first international organisation whose principal mission was to maintain world peace.
  • Its primary goals included preventing wars through collective security and disarmament and settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration.
  • Other issues in this and related treaties included labour conditions, just treatment of native inhabitants, human and drug trafficking, the arms trade, global health, prisoners of war, and protection of minorities in Europe.
  • At its greatest extent from 28 September 1934 to 23 February 1935, it had 58 members.
  • Many developing nations like Ecuador, Paraguay joined the league. But, USA did not join the league due to which the effective of the LoN was significantly curtailed.
  • It was dissolved in 1946 to form United Nations which had a pan-nation membership and it was far more effective than LoN.
  • UN replaced it after the end of the Second World War and inherited several agencies and organisations founded by the League.
  • At the 1943 Tehran Conference, the Allied powers agreed to create a new body to replace the League: The United Nations.
  • Many League bodies, such as the International Labour Organisation, continued to function and eventually became affiliated with the UN.
  • The designers of the structures of the United Nations intended to make it more effective than the League.
  • The final meeting of the League of Nations took place on 18 April 1946 in Geneva.

Criticism:

  • The League ultimately proved incapable of preventing aggression by the Axis powers in the 1930s.
  • The credibility of the organization was weakened by the fact that the United States never officially joined the League and the Soviet Union joined late and only briefly.
  • Germany withdrew from the League, as did Japan, Italy, Spain and others.
  • The onset of the Second World War showed that the League had failed its primary purpose, which was to prevent any future world war.
  • The League lacked its own armed force and depended on the victorious Great Powers of World War I (France, the UK, Italy and Japan were the permanent members of the executive Council) to enforce its resolutions, keep to its economic sanctions, or provide an army when needed.

 

 

 

What are the recommendations of the 8th Round of Wage Negotiations for workmen in CPSEs?

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Answer:

Background:

  • There are nearly 12.34 lakh employees of 320 CPSEs in India, out of it some 2.99 lakh employees are board level and below-board level executives and non-unionised supervisors.
  • The remaining 9.35 lakh belong to the unionised workmen category.
  • Wage revision in respect of unionised workmen is decided by trade unions and managements of CPSEs in terms of guidelines issued by the Department of Public Enterprises (DPE) for wage negotiations.
  • Major central trade unions took part in the workshop, including Centre of Indian Trade Unions (CITU), Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC), All India Trade Union Congres (AITUC), Hind Mazdoor Sabha (HMS) and Labour Progressive Federation (LPF).
  • The Joint Action Front, Bengaluru and the Coordination Committee of Public Sector Trade Unions, Hyderabad also participated.

Background:

  • The Union Cabinet recently in November 2017 approved the Wage Policy for the 8th Round of Wage Negotiations for workmen in Central Public-Sector Enterprises (CPSEs).
  • But the policy is criticized for not addressing the long-standing demands that the trade unions have been raising regarding the wage revision policies.

Some of the Highlights are:

  • No budgetary support for any wage increase shall be provided by the Government.
  • The entire financial implication would be borne by the respective CPSEs from their internal resources.
  • In those CPSEs for which the Government has approved restructuring/ revival plan, the wage revision will be done as per the provisions of the approved restructuring / revival plan only.
  • The Management of CPSEs where the five year periodicity is followed have to ensure that negotiated scales of pay for two successive wages negotiations do not exceed the existing scales of pay of executives/officers and non-unionized supervisors of respective CPSEs for whom ten years periodicity is being followed.
  • To avoid conflict of pay scales of executives/non-unionised supervisors with that of their workmen, CPSEs may consider adoption of graded DA neutralization and/or graded fitment during the wage negotiations.
  • The wage revision shall be subject to the condition that there shall be no increase in labour cost per physical unit of output.
  • CPSEs must ensure that any increase in wages after negotiations does not result in increase in administered prices of their goods and services.
  • The wage revision shall be subject to the condition that there shall be no increase in labour cost per physical unit of output.
  • The management of the concerned CPSEs have to ensure that negotiated scales of pay do not exceed the existing scales of pay of executives/officers and non-unionized supervisors of respective CPSEs.
  • The management of the CPSEs would be “free” to negotiate wage revision for workmen where the periodicity of wage settlement of 5 years or 10 years “expired generally”.
  • Thus, keeping in view, the affordability and financial sustainability of such wage revision for the CPSEs concerned.
  • The CPSEs would implement negotiated wages after confirming with their Administrative Ministry/Department that the wage settlement is in conformity with approved parameters.

 

 

 

During the Britush rule in India, which Act replaced the Governor-General and Council of Fort William with the Governor-General and Council of India?

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Answer:

  • The Charter Act 1833 replaced the Governor-General and Council of Fort William with the Governor-General and Council of India.

Enrich your learning:

About Various British Offices:

  • In 1773, motivated by corruption in the Company, the British government assumed partial control over the governance of India with the passage of the Regulating Act of 1773.
  • A Governor-General and Supreme Council of Bengal were appointed to rule over the Presidency of Fort William in Bengal. The first Governor-General and Council were named in the Act.
  • The Charter Act 1833 replaced the Governor-General and Council of Fort William with the Governor-General and Council of India.
  • After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the East India Company’s territories in India were put under the direct control of the Sovereign.
  • The Government of India Act 1858 vested the power to appoint the Governor-General in the Sovereign.
  • Following the adoption of the Government of India Act of 1858, the Governor-General as representing the Crown became known as the Viceroy.
  • India and Pakistan acquired independence in 1947, but Governors-General continued to be appointed over each nation until republican constitutions were written.
  • Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma remained Governor-General of India for some time after independence, but the two nations were otherwise headed by native Governors-General.

 

 

 

Which war was fought between Britishers and French in India: Battle of Kharda OR Battle of Chillianwala OR Battle of Buxar OR Battle of Wandiwash?

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Answer:

  • Battle of Wandiwash was part of Seven Year’s War in which Britishers fought against French in India.

Enrich Your Learning:

About the battle of Kharda:

  • The Battle of Kharda took place in 1795 between Nizam and Maratha Empire’s Madhavrao II, in which Nizam was badly defeated.
  • Governor General John Shore followed the policy of non-intervention despite that Nizam was under his protection.
  • So this led to the loss of trust with British. This was the last battle fought together by all the Maratha chiefs.

About the Battle of Chillianwala:

  • The Battle of Chillianwala was fought in January 1849 during the Second Anglo-Sikh War in the Chillianwala region of Punjab (Mandi Bahauddin), now part of modern-day Pakistan.
  • Both armies held their positions at the end of the battle and both sides claimed victory.
  • The battle was a strategic check to immediate British ambitions in India and a shock to British military prestige.

About the Battle of Buxar:

  • The Battle of Buxar was fought on 22 October 1764 between the forces under the command of the British East India Company led by Hector Munro and the combined armies of Mir Qasim, the Nawab of Bengal; the Nawab of Awadh; and the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II.
  • It was a decisive victory for the British East India Company. Shuja-ud-Daulah and Shah Alam surrendered and the war came to an end by the “Treaty of Allahabad” in 1765.

About the Battle of Wandiwash:

  • The Battle of Wandiwash was a decisive battle in India during the Seven Years’ War.
  • It was fought between British East India Company and French East India Company.
  • The Count de Lally’s army, burdened by a lack of naval support and funds, attempted to regain the fort at Vandavasi, now in Tamil Nadu.
  • He was attacked by Sir Eyre Coote’s forces and decisively defeated. The French general Marquis de Bussy-Castelnau and the French were then restricted to Pondichéry, where they surrendered on 16 January 1761.

 

 

 

What do you know about the ‘Sulvasutras’, ‘Srautasutras’ and ‘Grihyasutras’?

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Answer:

  • Sulvasutras – Geometry related to fire-altar construction
  • Srautasutras – Large expensive public ceremonies
  • Grihyasutras – Domestic rites and rituals meant for the householders.

Enrich Your Learning:

 

About Sulvasutras

  • The Shulba Sutras or Sulvasutras are sutra texts belonging to the Śrauta ritual and containing geometry related to fire-altar construction.
  • The Shulba Sutras are part of the larger corpus of texts called the Shrauta Sutras, considered to be appendices to the Vedas.
  • They are the only sources of knowledge of Indian mathematics from the Vedic period.
  • The four major Shulba Sutras, which are mathematically the most significant, are those attributed to Baudhayana, Manava, Apastamba and Katyayana.
  • Their language is late Vedic Sanskrit, pointing to a composition roughly during the 1st millennium BCE.
  • The oldest is the sutra attributed to Baudhayana, possibly compiled around 800 BCE to 600 BCE while the youngest content may date to about 200 CE.

List of Shulba Sutras

  1. Apastamba
  2. Baudhayana
  3. Manava
  4. Katyayana
  5. Maitrayaniya (somewhat similar to Manava text)
  6. Varaha (in manuscript)
  7. Vadhula (in manuscript)
  8. Hiranyakeshin (similar to Apastamba Shulba Sutras)

Srautasutras:

  • It is quite difficult to understand the Vedas because of the archaic language and the esoteric rites described there, most of which are completely unfamiliar and unknown to us today. However, the six Vedāṅgas help us to a great extent in unraveling their mystery and even guide us to perform these Vedic rites. Out of the six Vedāṅgas, the last one is called Kalpasutras. This has branched off into four fields, the first of which is the Śrautasutras.
  • The Śrautasūtras form a part of the corpus of Sanskrit sutra literature. Their topics include instructions relating to the use of the śruti corpus in great rituals and the correct performance of these major Vedic ceremonies, are same as those found in the Brahmana layers of the Vedas, but presented in more systematic and detailed manner.
  • The śrautasūtra ceremonies are usually elaborate and require the services of multiple priests.
  • The śrautasūtras generally focus on large expensive public ceremonies.

Grihya Sutras:

  • The Grihya Sutras are sacred Hindu texts containing information regarding Vedic domestic rites and rituals meant for the householders.
  • They were rendered into compositions probably during the same period when the Dharmashastras or the Hindu law books were composed.
  • The Grihya Sutras as their name suggests deal with domestic rituals such as conception, birth, initiation (upanayanam), marriage, death etc.
  • The following translations by Hermann Oldenberg (1886) cover four Grihya Sutras, namely Sankhyayana-Grihya-sutra, Asvalayana-Grihya-sutra, Paraskara Grihya-sutra and Khadia Grihya sutra.
  • Gṛhyasūtra rituals can be performed without or with the assistance of a priest in the Hindu traditions.

 

 

 

Dashavatar theatre form belongs to which part of India?

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Answer:

  • Dashavatar is the most developed theatre form of the Konkan and Goa regions.

Enrich Your Learning:

About Dashavatar theatre form:

  • The Dashavatar performers personify the ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu-the god of preservation and creativity.
  • The ten incarnations are Matsya (fish), Kurma (tortoise), Varaha (boar), Narsimha (lion-man), Vaman (dwarf), Parashuram, Rama, Krishna (or Balram), Buddha and Kalki.
  • The Dashavatar performance comprises two sessions, the ‘poorva-ranga’ (the initial session) and the ‘uttar-ranga’ (the latter session).
  • Apart from stylized make-up, the Dashavatar performers wear masks of wood and papier mache.
  • The ‘poorva-ranga’ is the preliminary presentation that precedes the performance proper. The ‘poorva-ranga’ is the story about the killing of the demon Shankhasur. This act also includes the characters of Lord Ganesha, Riddhi, Siddhi, a Brahmin, Sharada (the goddess of learning), Brahmadev and Lord Vishnu.
  • The ‘uttar-ranga’, known as ‘akhyan’ is considered to be the main performance based on Hindu mythological tales, highlighting one of the ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu. The performance uses bright make-up and costumes.
  • The performance is accompanied by three musical instruments: a paddle harmonium, tabla and zanj (cymbals).
  • Dashavatar is also practiced in the Sindhudurg district of Maharashtra.
  • It is traditionally performed after midnight during the annual festival of the village deity.
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