Flash-Cards-for-IAS-Prelims-2018-Geo-Day-4
70 Days WAR Plan

Day#4 Static Flash Cards Physical & World Geography [70 Days WAR Plan]

Coriolis force; Rotation of Earth; Tripura; Absolute humidity; Convergent boundaries; Divergent boundaries; Factors Affecting Temperature Distribution; Submarine canyons; Formation of dew; Soil Formation; Ocean currents
By IT's Core Team
March 25, 2019

 

 

 

Labrador Current and West Australian Current are warm currents, while West Wind Drift and North Atlantic Drift are cold currents. Right OR Wrong?

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Answer:

  • Wrong.

Right Statement:

West Wind Drift and North Atlantic Drift are warm currents, while Labrador Current and West Australian Current are cold currents.

Corrientes-oceanicas

Ocean currents can be broadly divided into two:

Those currents which flow from equatorial regions towards poles have a higher surface temperature and are called warm current.

  1. North Pacific Drift
  2. North Equatorial Current
  3. Equatorial Countercurrent
  4. South Equatorial Current
  5. West Wind Drift
  6. Gulf Stream
  7. North Atlantic Drift
  8. North Equatorial Current
  9. Equatorial Counter-current
  10. South Equatorial Current
  11. Brazil Current

Those currents which flow from Polar Regions towards equator have a lower surface temperature and are called cold currents.

  1. California Current
  2. Humboldt Current
  3. Labrador Current
  4. Canaries Current
  5. Benguela Current
  6. Falkland Current
  7. West Australian Current
  8. Okhotsk Current

 

 

 

What are the natural contributors of formation of soil?

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Answer:

  • Decomposers, Temperature, Wind and Flowing water all are the natural contributors of formation of soil.

About Soil Formation:

  • Soil is the most important renewable natural resource.
  • It is the medium of plant growth and supports different types of living organisms on the earth.
  • The soil is a living system. It takes millions of years to form soil up to a few cm in depth.
  • Relief, parent rock or bed rock, climate, vegetation and other forms of life and time are important factors in the formation of soil.
  • In fact all the factors in the soil formation act in union and affect one another.
  • Various forces of nature such as change in temperature, actions of running water, wind and glaciers, activities of decomposers etc. contribute to the formation of soil.
  • Apart from formation, there are few climatic elements that develop the soil such as: frequency and period of precipitation, moisture of soil intensity, evaporation, humidity and temperature in terms of seasonal and regular variations.
  • Chemical and organic changes which take place in the soil are equally important.
  • Soil also consists of organic (humus) and inorganic materials.

 

 

 

What are the ideal conditions for the formation of dew?

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Answer:

  • For the formation of the dew, it is necessary that the dew point should be above the freezing point.

About Dew:

  • Dew is a type of precipitation where water droplets form on the ground, or on objects near the ground in a process called condensation of moisture.
  • Dew is deposit of waterdrops formed at night by the condensation of water vapour from the air onto the surfaces of objects freely exposed to the sky.
  • The ideal conditions for its formation are clear sky, calm air, high relative humidity, and cold and long nights.
  • It forms on clear nights, preferably, when the wind is light.
  • Dew forms on clear nights because on such nights freely exposed surfaces lose heat to the sky by radiation.
  • For the formation of dew, it is necessary that the dew point is above the freezing point.
  • The dew point is the temperature at which the water vapour in the air becomes saturated (the maximum amount of water vapour that the air can hold) and condenses on an available surface to form tiny droplets of dew.
  • Dew is most common in places where there is a continuous vegetation cover.
  • When temperatures are low enough, dew takes the form of ice; this form is called frost.
  • In most climates of the world, the annual average is too small to compete with rain.
  • In regions with considerable dry seasons, adapted plants like lichen or pine seedlings benefit from dew.
  • A classical device for dew measurement is the drosometer.

 

 

 

In ocean, where do you find submarine canyons?

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Answer:

  • One of the most important features of the continental shelf is the presence of submarine canyons which extend to the continental slope.

submarine canyons

Submarine canyons:

  • These canyons are ‘steepsided valleys’ cut into the floor of the seas.
  • They are very similar to the gorges found on the continents.
  • Godavari Canyon in front of the Godavari river mouth is 502 metres deep.

 

 

 

Longitude and Ocean currents are among the factors responsible for unequal distribution of oceanic temperature. True OR False?

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Answer:

Right Statement:

  • Latitude (not Longitude) is among one of the factors responsible for unequal distribution of oceanic temperature. Apart from latitude, unequal distribution of land and water, prevailing wind and ocean currents are also responsible factors.

Factors Affecting Temperature Distribution:

Latitude:

  • The temperature of surface water decreases from the equator towards the poles because the amount of insolation decreases poleward.

Unequal distribution of land and water:

  • The oceans in the northern hemisphere receive more heat due to their contact with larger extent of land than the oceans in the southern hemisphere.

Prevailing wind:

  • The winds blowing from the land towards the oceans drive warm surface water away from the coast resulting in the upwelling of cold water from below. It results into the longitudinal variation in the temperature.
  • Contrary to this, the onshore winds pile up warm water near the coast and this raises the temperature.

Ocean currents:

  • Warm ocean currents raise the temperature in cold areas while the cold currents decrease the temperature in warm ocean areas.
  • Gulf Stream (warm current) raises the temperature near the eastern coast of North America and the West Coast of Europe while the Labrador Current (cold current) lowers the temperature near the north-east coast of North America.
  • All these factors influence the temperature of the ocean currents locally.
  • The enclosed seas in the low latitudes record relatively higher temperature than the open seas; whereas the enclosed seas in the high latitudes have lower temperature than the open seas.

 

 

 

Mid-Atlantic Ridge is caused by (a) convergent boundaries OR (b) divergent boundaries?

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Answer:

  • Mid-Atlantic Ridge is caused by divergent boundaries.

Types of plate boundaries

There are three types of plate boundaries:

Divergent Boundaries:

  • Divergent boundaries is where new crust is generated as the plates pull away from each other.
  • The sites where the plates move away from each other are called spreading sites.
  • The best-known example of divergent boundaries is the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
  • The American Plate(s) is/are separated from the Eurasian and African Plates.

Convergent Boundaries:

  • Convergent Boundaries is where the crust is destroyed as one plate dived under another.
  • The location where sinking of a plate occurs is called a subduction zone.

There are three ways in which convergence can occur. These are:

  1. Between an oceanic and continental plate.
  2. Between two oceanic plates.
  3. Between two continental plates.

Transform Boundaries:

  • Transform Boundaries is where the crust is neither produced nor destroyed.
  • The plates slide horizontally past each other.
  • Transform faults are the planes of separation generally perpendicular to the mid-oceanic ridges.
  • As the eruptions do not take all along the entire crest at the same time, there is a differential movement of a portion of the plate away from the axis of the earth.
  • The rotation of the earth has its effect on the separated blocks of the plate portions.

 

 

 

The ability of an air to hold water vapour depends entirely on which component?

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Answer:

  • The ability of an air to hold water vapour depends entirely on its temperature.

About absolute humidity:

  • Water vapour present in the air is known as humidity.
  • It is expressed quantitatively in different ways.
  • The actual amount of the water vapour present in the atmosphere is known as the absolute humidity.
  • It is the weight of water vapour per unit volume of air and is expressed in terms of grams per cubic metre.
  • The capacity of holding water vapour of an air increases with the increase in its temperature.
  • The absolute humidity differs from place to place on the surface of the earth.
  • The percentage of moisture present in the atmosphere as compared to its full capacity at a given temperature is known as the relative humidity.
  • With the change of air temperature, the capacity to retain moisture increases or decreases and the relative humidity is also affected.
  • It is greater over the oceans and least over the continents.

 

 

 

Which Indian states are sharing borders with Tripura?

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Answer:

Tripura is bordered by:

  • Bangladesh to the west, north and south;
  • The Indian states of Assam to the north east; and Mizoram to the east.

Tripura mapo

Enrich Your Learning:

About Tripura:

  • Tripura is a landlocked state in North East India.
  • Agartala is the capital city of Tripura.
  • It is one of the Seven Sister States, others being Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, and Nagaland.
  • It is accessible by national highways passing through the Karimganj district of Assam and Mamit district of Mizoram.
  • The physiography is characterised by hill ranges, valleys and plains.
  • Five mountain ranges—Boromura, Atharamura, Longtharai, Shakhan and Jampui Hills—run north to south, with intervening valleys.
  • The state has a tropical savanna climate, and receives seasonal heavy rains from the south west monsoon.
  • Tripura has the highest number of primate species found in any Indian state.
  • According to 2011 census, Tripura is one of the most literate states in India with a literacy rate of 87.75%.
  • The sculptures at the archaeological sites Unakoti, Pilak and Devtamura provide historical evidence of artistic fusion between organised and tribal religions.

 

 

 

Rotation of earth creates (a) centripetal force OR (b) centrifugal force?

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Answer:

  • The earth’s rotation generates centrifugal force.

Enrich Your Learning:

About Rotation of Earth:

  • Rotation is the movement of the earth on its axis.
  • The axis is an imaginary line through the center of the planet between the north and south poles.
  • The earth takes about 24 hours to complete one rotation around its axis.
  • The period of rotation is known as the earthday. This is the daily motion of the earth.
  • The earth’s rotation generates centrifugal force. This results in the deflection of air from its original place, causing decrease of pressure.
  • Centrifugal force of earth’s rotation leads to creation of bulge at the middle of earth and flattened the poles at top.
  • Earth’s rotational speed increases as towards equator as earth has maximum radius at equator.
  • It is believed that the low pressure belts of the sub-polar regions and the high pressure belts of the sub-tropical regions are created as a result of the earth’s rotation.
  • The earth’s rotation also causes convergence and divergence of moving air.
  • Areas of convergence experience low pressure while those of divergence have high pressure.

 

 

Coriolis force acts parallel to the pressure gradient force. Right OR Wrong?

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Answer:

Right Statement:

  • Coriolis force acts perpendicular to the pressure gradient force.

About the Coriolis force:

coriolisis force

  • The rotation of the earth about its axis affects the direction of the wind. This force is called the Coriolis force after the French physicist who described it in 1844.
  • It deflects the wind to the right direction in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere.
  • The deflection is more when the wind velocity is high.
  • The Coriolis force is directly proportional to the angle of latitude.
  • It is maximum at the poles and is absent at the equator.
  • The Coriolis force acts perpendicular to the pressure gradient force.
  • The pressure gradient force is perpendicular to an isobar.
  • The higher the pressure gradient force, the more is the velocity of the wind and the larger is the deflection in the direction of wind.
  • As a result of these two forces operating perpendicular to each other, in the low-pressure areas the wind blows around it.
  • At the equator, the Coriolis force is zero and the wind blows perpendicular to the isobars. The low pressure gets filled instead of getting intensified. That is the reason why tropical cyclones are not formed near the equator.
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  • Jayansh Singh

    Isn’t West Wind Drift a cold current? Please clarify.

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