FC-for-IAS-Prelims-2018-CA-Day-41
70 Days WAR Plan

Day#41 Current Affairs Flash Cards [70 Days WAR Plan]

NavIC; Quality Council of India (QCI); Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs); NASA’s Messenger; Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation Assistance Programme (ITEC); X-Ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL); Cramming; Click Farm; Catfishing; ‘Institut De Droit International’; Responsibility to Protect (R2P) doctrine; Engineering Exports Promotion Council (EEPC) India;
By IT's Core Team
May 01, 2019

 

 

 

What is EEPC India? Mention its objectives and activities.

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Engineering Exports Promotion Council (EEPC) India is the premier trade and investment promotion organization in India.

  • It was set up in 1955 to cater to the Indian engineering sector.
  • It is sponsored by the Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Government of India.
  • As an advisory body, it actively contributes to the policies of Government of India and acts as an interface between the engineering industry and the Government.
  • It now has a membership base of over 13,000 out of whom 60% are SMEs.
  • ‘Engineering the Future’ is the motto of EEPC India and it aims to establish India as a major engineering hub in the future.

Key Objectives of EEPC India

  • To support, protect, maintain, increase and promote the exports of engineering goods;
  • To keep in constant communication with Chambers of Commerce and other mercantile and public bodies throughout the world with a view to taking appropriate and necessary measures for maintaining or increasing the exports of engineering goods;
  • To advise or represent to government, Local Authorities and public bodies on the policies and other measures;
  • Upgradation of technology in order to boost India’s engineering exports and establishing synergy between industry and academia;
  • To prepare, edit, print, publish, issue, acquire and circulate books, papers, periodicals, gazettes, circulars and other literatures treating or bearing upon industry, trade or commerce, pertaining to engineering goods.

Activities conducted by EEPC India:

EEPC India organizes a large number of promotional activities such as

  1. Buyer-seller meets (BSM) – both in India and abroad,
  2. Overseas trade fairs/exhibitions,
  3. India pavilion/information booths in selected overseas exhibitions to demonstrate the capabilities of Indian engineering industry, and
  4. To provide the overseas buyers with true value as propagated by Brand India.
  • India Engineering Exhibition (INDEE) is EEPC India’s own brand and is one of the largest expositions of engineering in the world.
  • It facilitates sourcing from India and boosts the SMEs to raise their standard at par with the international best practices and integrate their business to global value chain and partnership.
  • It organizes International Engineering Sourcing Show (IESS), the largest display of engineering products and services every year, for building global partnerships.

 

 

 

What is Responsibility to Protect (R2P) doctrine?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

  • It is the enabling principle that first obligates individual states and then the international community to protect such victimized populations.
  • These principles are based on the idea that sovereignty is not a privilege, but a responsibility.
  • The principle is based on a respect for the norms and principles of international law and principles of, sovereignty, peace and security, human rights, and armed conflict.
  • The Responsibility to Protect provides a framework for employing the measures that exist (i.e., mediation, early warning mechanisms, economic sanctions, and chapter VII powers) to prevent atrocity crimes and to protect civilians from their occurrence.
  • The authority to employ the use of force under the framework of the Responsibility to protect rests solely with United Nations Security Council and is considered a measure of last resort.
  • The Security Council has invoked R2P in 67 resolutions since 2006. The Human Rights Council has also invoked R2P in 30 resolutions.

Background:

  • R2P was first presented in the report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS), set up by the Canadian Government in December 2001.
  • The Commission had been formed in response to Kofi Annan’s question of when the international community must intervene for humanitarian purposes.
  • Its report found that sovereignty not only gave a State the right to “control” its affairs, it also conferred on the State primary “responsibility” for protecting the people within its borders.
  • It proposed that when a State fails to protect its people — either through lack of ability or a lack of willingness — the responsibility shifts to the broader international community.

Three pillars of R2P:

R2P stipulates three pillars of responsibility:

  • Pillar One: Every state has the Responsibility to Protect its populations from four mass atrocity crimes: genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and ethnic cleansing.
  • Pillar Two: The wider international community has the responsibility to encourage and assist individual states in meeting that responsibility.
  • Pillar Three: If a state is manifestly failing to protect its populations, the international community must be prepared to take appropriate collective action, in a timely and decisive manner and in accordance with the UN Charter.

 

 

 

What is ‘Institut De Droit International’?

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Answer:

  • The Institute of International Law (French: Institut de Droit International) is an organization devoted to the study and development of international law and is considered the most authoritative world academy of international law.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • The Institute of International Law was founded on 8 September 1873 at the Ghent Town Hall in Belgium by 11 international lawyers of renown to create an institution independent of any governmental influence.
  • A proposal of the Institute to this effect was accepted by the first Hague Peace Conference of 1899.
  • The Institute was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1904 for promoting the idea of peaceful settlement of disputes between States as a better alternative to the recourse to war.
  • Since then the Institute has become the premier global Institute for codification and development of international law.
  • Its membership comprises the world’s leading public international lawyers. More than three members from the same country would be regarded as a national group.
  • The institute selects 132 lawyers from different countries to act independently towards international legal measures.

Objective:

  • The main objective of the Institute is to promote the progress of International Law and one of the activities undertaken to promote this progress is peaceful settlement of disputes among the states.

India and ‘Institut De Droit International’:

  • Currently India has three members in the institute.
  • It’s the first time that India is hosting this global legal meeting.
  • Nico Schrijver is the current President of the Institute. He has been elected at the close of the Hyderbad Session (2017) and shall preside over The Hague Session (2019).
  • It is a mark of appreciation for India’s major role in International Relations and its significant contribution to codification and development of International Law.

 

 

 

Define the terms: (i) Cramming; (ii) Click Farm and (iii) Catfishing

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All the three terms are the forms of fraud.

Cramming:

  • Here small charges are added to a bill by a third party without the subscriber’s consent or disclosure, which can be disguised as a tax, some other common fee or a bogus service which can be several rupees and even in dollars.
  • The crammer’s intent is that the subscriber will overlook and ultimately pay these small charges.

Click Farm:

  • It is a form of click fraud, where a large group of low-paid workers are hired to click on paid advertising links for the click fraudster (click farm master or click farmer).
  • The workers click the links, surf the target website for a period of time, and possibly sign up for newsletters prior to clicking another link.
  • It is an alternative source to other types of work and can also increase the revenue (by clicking more ads per day) for these workers.
  • It is extremely difficult for an automated filter to detect this simulated traffic as fake because the visitor behavior appears exactly the same as that of an actual legitimate visitor.

Catfishing:

  • It is a type of deceptive or fraudulent activity involving a person creating a sock puppet social networking presence for wicked purposes.
  • It creates fake profiles to trick people into thinking they are somebody else and is most common on social media sites and dating apps.

 

 

 

Is India a part of X-Ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL)?

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Answer:

  • India is not part of XFEL.

Enrich Your Learning:

About XFEL:

  • The European X-ray free-electron laser (European XFEL) is an X-ray research laser facility commissioned during 2017.
  • The first laser pulses were produced in May 2017 and the facility started user operation in September 2017.
  • It is located in the German federal states of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein.
  • Germany not only hosts the XFEL, it has provided most of the funding and the technology.
  • The other members are Russia, Denmark, France, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland (and soon, UK as well).India is not a member of XFEL.
  • The facility, which has cost more than a billion euros to build, will be used to study the detailed structure of matter, atom by atom. It is one of the most powerful X-ray machines ever built.
  • A free-electron laser generates high-intensity electromagnetic radiation by accelerating electrons to relativistic speeds and directing them through special magnetic structures.
  • The European XFEL is constructed such that the electrons produce X-ray light in synchronization, resulting in high-intensity X-ray pulses with the properties of laser light and at intensities much brighter than those produced by conventional synchrotron light sources.

 

 

 

What is NavIC? and mention some of the important applications of NavIC.

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS), with an operational name of NAVIC, is an autonomous regional satellite navigation system, that provides accurate real-time positioning and timing services.

  • It covers India and a region extending 1,500 km (930 mi) around it, with plans for further extension. The system at-present consist of a constellation of 7 satellites.
  • IRNSS will provide two types of services, namely, Standard Positioning Service (SPS) which is provided to all the users and Restricted Service (RS), which is an encrypted service provided only to the authorised users.

Important applications of NavIC (the IRNSS constellation) include:

  • Fisheries (Using the messaging capabilities, fishermen can receive alerts related to bad weather and high waves)
  • Shipping
  • Transport (NavIC helps monitor the movement of school vans and facilitates better traffic management in cities, towns and highways)
  • Railways
  • Resource Management (The position information derived from NavIC helps Government agencies to manage resources efficiently using Geo-tagging and Geo-fencing techniques. The position of an object is linked with the virtual maps and alert messages are generated when there is a movement of object beyond permissible limits)
  • Location-based Services
  • Survey and Alignment
  • Time-synchronised Services Refer to pages 5 and 6 of the brochure for details regarding applications:

 

 

 

What do you know about the Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation Assistance Programme (ITEC)?

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Answer:

  • The ITEC Programme is essentially bilateral in nature. However, in recent years, ITEC resources have also been used for cooperation programmes conceived in regional and inter-regional context such as Economic Commission for Africa, Commonwealth Secretariat, UNIDO, Group of 77 and G-15.
  • In more recent years, its activities have also been associated with regional and multilateral organizations and cooperation groupings like Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC), Mekong-Ganga Cooperation (MGC), African Union (AU), Afro-Asian Rural Development Organization (AARDO), Pan African Parliament, Caribbean Community (CARICOM), World Trade Organization (WTO) and Indian Ocean Rim – Association for Regional Cooperation (IOR-ARC) and India-Africa Forum Summit.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • The ITEC Programme, fully funded by the Government of India, has evolved and grown over the years.
  • Under ITEC and its sister programme SCAAP (Special Commonwealth African Assistance Programme), 161 countries in Asia, Africa, East Europe, Latin America, the Caribbean as well as Pacific and Small Island countries are invited to share in the Indian developmental experience acquired over six decades of India’s existence as a free nation.

ITEC/SCAAP has following components:

  • Training (civilian and defence) in India of nominees from ITEC partner countries;
  • Projects and project related activities such as feasibility studies and consultancy services;
  • Deputation of Indian experts abroad;
  • Study Tours;
  • Gifts/Donations of equipment at the request of ITEC partner countries; and
  • Aid for Disaster Relief.

 

 

 

Is NASA’s Messenger associated with Mars exploration? 

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Answer:

Enrich Your Learning:

  • Messenger was a NASA robotic spacecraft that orbited the planet Mercury between 2011 and 2015.
  • Messenger made three flybys before entering orbit around Mercury. A third mission to Mercury, BepiColombo, a joint mission between the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the European Space Agency, is to include two probes.

Missions associated with Mars exploration:

  • Curiosity is a car-sized rover designed to explore Gale Crater on Mars as part of NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory mission (MSL).
  • Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN) is a space probe developed by NASA designed to study the Martian atmosphere while orbiting Mars. Mission goals include determining how the planet’s atmosphere and water, presumed to have once been substantial, were lost over time.
  • Schiaparelli EDM lander was the Entry, Descent and Landing Demonstrator Module (EDM) of the ExoMars programme—a joint mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Russian space agency Roscosmos.

 

 

 

Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) is regulated by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs. Right OR Wrong?

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Answer:

Right Statement:

  • REIT is regulated by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) 

Enrich Your Learning:

What are REITs?

  • REITs are similar to mutual funds. While mutual funds provide for an opportunity to invest in equity stocks, REITs allow one to invest in income-generating real estate assets.

How does an REIT work?

  • REITs raise funds from a large number of investors and directly invest that sum in income-generating real estate properties (which could be offices, residential apartments, shopping centres, hotels and warehouses).
  • The trusts are listed in stock exchanges so that investors can buy units in the trust. REITs are structured as trusts. Thus, the assets of an REIT are held by an independent trustee on behalf of unit holders.

An REIT’s investment objective:

  • The investment objective of REITs is to provide unit holders with dividends, usually generated from rental income and capital gains from the profitable sale of real estate assets.
  • Typically, the trust distributes 90 per cent of its income among its investors by issuing dividends.

 

 

 

Quality Council of India (QCI) is an autonomous body that assures quality standards across all spheres of education in India. Right OR Wrong?

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Answer:

Right Statement:

  • Quality Council of India (QCI) is an autonomous body that assures quality standards across all spheres of economic and social activities.

Enrich Your Learning:

About Quality Council of India (QCI):

Quality Council of India (QCI) was set up in 1997 as an autonomous body.

  • It was set up jointly by the Government of India and the Indian Industry represented by the three premier industry associations i.e.
  1. Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM),
  2. Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) and
  3. Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI).
  • It aims to establish and operate national accreditation structure and promote quality through National Quality Campaign.
  • The Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion, Ministry of Commerce & Industry, is the nodal ministry for QCI.
  • QCI is registered as a non-profit society with its own Memorandum of Association.
  • QCI is governed by a Council of 38 members with equal representations of government, industry and consumers.
  • Chairman of QCI is appointed by the Prime Minister on recommendation of the industry to the government.
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