FC-for-IAS-Prelims-2018-revision-Day-41
70 Days WAR Plan

Day#41 Static Flash Cards Revision [70 Days WAR Plan]

Nitrogen cycle; Ultrasound; Poona Sarvajanik Sabha; Anushilan Samiti; Macronutrients and micronutrients; Treaty of Madras 1769; Abiotic stress; Election Commission of India; Eye donors;
By IT's Core Team
May 01, 2019

 

 

 

Who cannot denote eyes to others?

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Answer:

  • Persons who were infected with or died from AIDS, Hepatitis B or C, rabies, septicemia, acute leukemia, tetanus, cholera, meningitis or encephalitis cannot donate eyes.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • Eye donors can belong to any age group or sex.
  • People who use spectacles, short sightedness, long sightedness or astigmatism or even those operated for cataract can still donate, as these conditions may not affect the cornea.
  • Patients who are diabetics, those suffering from hypertension, asthma patients and those without communicable diseases can also donate eyes.
  • Persons who were infected with or died from AIDS, Hepatitis B or C, rabies, septicemia, acute leukemia, tetanus, cholera, meningitis or encephalitis cannot donate eyes.
  • Eyes donated to The Eye-Bank that are not medically suitable for transplant may be used for medical research and education

 

 

 

The Chief Election Commissioner can be removed from office only through impeachment by Parliament. Right OR Wrong?

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Answer:

Right

Enrich Your Learning:

  • The Election Commission of India is an autonomous constitutional authority responsible for administering election processes in India. The body administers elections to the Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, state Legislative Assemblies in India, and the offices of the President and Vice President in the country.
  • The Election Commission operates under the authority of Constitution per Article 324, and subsequently enacted Representation of the People Act.
  • The Commission has the powers under the Constitution, to act in an appropriate manner when the enacted laws make insufficient provisions to deal with a given situation in the conduct of an election.
  • Being a constitutional authority, Election Commission is amongst the few institutions which function with both autonomy and freedom, along with the country’s higher judiciary and lately the UPSC.
  • They have tenure of six years, or up to the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier. They enjoy the same status and receive salary and perks as available to Judges of the Supreme Court of India. The Chief Election Commissioner can be removed from office only through impeachment by Parliament.
  • The Commission is served by its Secretariat located in New Delhi. The Election Commissioners are assisted by Deputy Election Commissioners, who are generally IAS officers. They are further assisted by Directors General, Principal Secretaries, and Secretaries and Under Secretaries.
  • At the state level, Election Commission is assisted by the Chief Electoral Officer of the State, who is an IAS officer of Principal Secretary rank. At the district and constituency levels, the District Magistrates in their capacity as District Election Officers, Electoral Registration Officers and Returning Officers perform election work.

 

 

 

Under abiotic stress, you can see what kind of impact of non-living factors on the living organisms in a specific environment?

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Answer:

  • Abiotic stress is defined as the negative impact of non-living factors on the living organisms in a specific environment. The non-living variable must influence the environment beyond its normal range of variation to adversely affect the population performance or individual physiology of the organism in a significant way.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • Crops production can go down due to biotic (diseases, insects and nematodes) and abiotic (drought, salinity, water logging, heat, cold and frost) stresses under different situations. Varieties resistant to these stresses can improve crop production.

More about abiotic factors:

  • Abiotic stress factors, or stressors, are naturally occurring, often intangible, factors such as intense sunlight or wind that may cause harm to the plants and animals in the area affected. Abiotic stress is essentially unavoidable.
  • Abiotic stress affects animals, but plants are especially dependent on environmental factors, so it is particularly constraining. Abiotic stress is the most harmful factor concerning the growth and productivity of crops worldwide.
  • Research has also shown that abiotic stressors are at their most harmful when they occur together, in combinations of abiotic stress factors.
  • The most common of the stressors are the easiest for people to identify, but there are many other, less recognizable abiotic stress factors which affect environments constantly.

The most basic stressors include:

  1. High winds
  2. Extreme temperatures
  3. Drought
  4. Flood
  5. Other natural disasters, such as tornadoes and wildfires.

 

 

 

Plants absorbs Nitrogen in the form of nitrites and nitrates only. Right OR Wrong?

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Answer:

Right Statement:

  • Nitrogen is present in the environment in a wide variety of chemical forms including organic nitrogen, Ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, nitrous oxide, Nitric oxide or inorganic nitrogen gas. Plants take nitrogen from the soil by absorption through their roots as amino acid, nitrite ions, or ammonium ions.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • The majority of Earth’s atmosphere (78%) is nitrogen, making it the largest source of nitrogen. However, atmospheric nitrogen has limited availability for biological use, leading to a scarcity of usable nitrogen in many types of ecosystems.
  • Majority of nitrogen fixation occurs by biological nitrogen fixing organisms.
  • In nature, lightning and ultraviolet radiation also provide enough energy to convert nitrogen to nitrogen oxides. Atmospheric nitrogen fixation by lightning probably contributes some 5– 8% of the total nitrogen fixed.

Nitrogen fixation on earth is accomplished in three different ways:

  • By microorganisms (bacteria and blue-green algae),
  • By man using industrial processes (fertilizer factories) and
  • To a limited extent by atmospheric phenomenon such as thunder and lighting.

fs 7

 

 

 

The Treaty of Madras 1769 was a peace agreement between which two parties?

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Answer:

  • The Treaty of Madras 1769 was a peace agreement between Mysore and the British East India Company.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • The Treaty of Madras was a peace agreement which brought an end to the First Anglo-Mysore War.
  • First Anglo-Mysore War had broken out in 1767 and the forces of Hyder Ali had come close to capturing Madras at one point.
  • The Treaty contained a clause requiring the British to assist Hyder Ali if he was attacked by his neighbours.
  • Hyder felt this agreement was broken when he didn’t receive any help when Mysore went to war with the Marathas in 1771.
  • Bad faith arising from the broken clause may have been a reason behind the outbreak of the Second Anglo-Mysore War a decade later.

 

 

 

Our weight on earth depends on which factors?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

  • Our weight on earth depends on two things: (i) gravitation force of earth; and (ii) the centrifugal force caused due to earth’s rotation, which pushes you away from earth’s surface. The balance of both forces determines our weight.
  • Moreover, the speed of rotation and not revolution affects our weight on earth. Our weight will change only if the speed of rotation changes.

 

 

 

Name some of the macronutrients and micronutrients

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

Researchers have identified some nutrients that are essential for plant life.

These nutrients are broadly divided into two groups: macronutrients and micronutrients. Macronutrients are needed in much greater quantities than micronutrients, which are often needed in minuscule amounts (although they are still necessary).

The macronutrients include:

  • Carbon (C)
  • Hydrogen (H)
  • Oxygen (O)
  • Nitrogen (N)
  • Phosphorus (P)
  • Potassium (K)
  • Calcium (Ca)
  • Magnesium (Mg)
  • Sulfur (S)

The first three—carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen—are known as structural elements and are present in the atmosphere and growing environment.

The next three are sometimes called the “fertilizer elements” since they are the familiar N-P-K identified on fertilizer labels.

The next two macronutrients, calcium, and magnesium are crucial for many cellular functions in plants, as well as fruit and flower formation.

The micronutrients include:

  • The microminerals or trace elements include at least Iron, Chlorine, Cobalt, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Manganese, Selenium, Zinc, Boron, Nickel and Molybdenum. Micronutrients also include vitamins, which are organic compounds required as nutrients in trace amounts.

 

 

 

What was the primary aim of the Anushilan Samiti formed in 1906?

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Answer:

  • Revolutionary violence as means for ending British rule in India 

Enrich Your Learning:

  • Anushilan Samiti was a Bengali Indian organization and arose from conglomerations of local youth groups and gyms in Bengal.
  • It had two prominent groups. i.e. Dhaka Anushilan Samiti and the Jugantar group respectively.
  • Between its foundations to its gradual dissolution through 1930s, the Samiti collaborated with other revolutionary organizations in India and abroad.
  • Led by notable revolutionaries of the likes of Aurobindo Ghosh, Rash Behari Bose and Jatindranath Mukherjee, the Samiti was involved in a number of noted incidences of revolutionary terrorism against British interests and administration in India.
  • These included the early attempts to assassinate Raj officials, the 1912 attempt on the life of Viceroy of India, as well as the Sedetious conspiracy during World War I.

 

 

 

Poona Sarvajanik Sabha was established by whom?

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Answer:

  • Poona Sarvajanik Sabha was established by MG Ranade in 1870. Ganesh Vasudeo was a prominent leader of the Sabha.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • The literal meaning of “sarvajanik” is “of or for all the people” (sarva = all + janik = of the people).
  • Though many of these associations functioned in specific parts of the country, their goals were stated as the goals of all the people of India, not those of any one region, community or class.
  • They worked with the idea that the people should be sovereign – a modern consciousness and a key feature of nationalism. In other words, they believed that the Indian people should be empowered to take decisions regarding their affairs.
  • Main aim of Poona Sarvajanik Sabha was to mediate between the government and people.
  • It was a sociopolitical organization in British India which started with the aim of working as a mediating body between the government and people of India.
  • It started as an elected body of 95 members elected by 6000 persons in 1870. The organization was a precursor to the Indian National Congress which started with its first session from Maharashtra itself.
  • The Pune Sarvajanik Sabha provided many of the prominent leaders of national stature to the Indian freedom struggle including Bal Gangadhar Tilak. It was formed in 1870 by S. H. Chiplunkar, Ganesh Vasudeo Joshi, Mahadev Govind Ranade, etc.

 

 

 

What is the range of frequency for ultrasound?

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Answer:

Above 20,000 Hz

Enrich Your Learning:

About Ultrasound

  • Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.
  • The range of human hearing is about 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz.
  • Ultrasound waves have frequencies above about 20,000 Hz (which is 20 kHz). As this is above the normal hearing range for humans, we cannot hear ultrasound.
  • Ultrasound can be produced by some animals (such as bats and dolphins), as well as by some electronic devices.
  • Ultrasound is no different from ‘normal’ (audible) sound in its physical properties, except in that humans cannot hear it. This limit varies from person to person and is approximately 20 kilohertz (20,000 hertz) in healthy, young adults. Ultrasound devices operate with frequencies from 20 kHz up to several gigahertz.
  • Ultrasound is used in many different fields. Ultrasonic devices are used to detect objects and measure distances.
  • Ultrasound imaging or sonography is often used in medicine. In the nondestructive testing of products and structures, ultrasound is used to detect invisible flaws. Industrially, ultrasound is used for cleaning, mixing, and to accelerate chemical processes.
  • Animals such as bats and porpoises use ultrasound for locating prey and obstacles. Scientist are also studying ultrasound using graphene diaphragms as a method of communication.
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