70 Days WAR Plan

Day#42 Static Flash Cards Revision [70 Days WAR Plan]

Sun’s Halo; Highland Climates; Ocean currents; Pherozeshah Mehta; Cutch Rebellion of 1819; Density of liquids; Factors determine the colour of flame in a candle; Properties of Liquid; Enforcement of Indian constitution; Unsaturated Hydrocarbon and Saturated Hydrocarbon;
By IT's Core Team
May 02, 2019




What are Unsaturated Hydrocarbon and Saturated Hydrocarbon?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

  • Hydrocarbon fuels are basically the same as fossil fuels. Hydrocarbons are chemical compounds made up of hydrogen and carbon. The simplest of these is methane and natural gas. Oil is a hydrocarbon fuel because it’s made up of various different compounds rather like methane, but it is liquid rather than gas.
  • Hydrocarbon fuels are one of the most common global environmental pollutants which cannot be easily degraded owing to their hydrophobic nature.
  • Hydrocarbons are the hydrophobic organic chemicals having toxicity, persistence and negative influence on living organisms and account for 90-95% or more of the total contaminant mass, exhibit limited solubility in groundwater and tend to partition to the soil matrix.

Unsaturated Hydrocarbon:

  • Unsaturated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons that have double or triple covalent bonds between adjacent carbon atoms. Those with at least one carbon-to-carbon double bond are called alkenes and those with at least one carbon-to-carbon triple bond are called alkynes.

Saturated Hydrocarbon:

  • Saturated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds between carbon atoms. They are the simplest class of hydrocarbons. They are called saturated because each carbon atom is bonded to as many hydrogen atoms as possible. In other words, the carbon atoms are saturated with hydrogen.




At the time of enforcement, Constitution contained how many Articles and Schedules?

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  • The Constitution at the time of enforcement contained a Preamble, 395 Articles and 8 Schedules.

Enrich Your Learning:

About Enforcement of Indian constitution:

  • January 26 was explicitly chosen as the ‘date of commencement’ of the Constitution because of its historical significance.
  • It was on this day in 1930 that Purna Swaraj day was celebrated, following the resolution of the Lahore Session (December 1929) of the INC.
  • With the beginning of the Constitution, the Indian Independence Act of 1947 and the Government of India Act of 1935, with all enactments amending or supplementing the latter Act, were repealed.
  • The Abolition of Privy Council Jurisdiction Act (1949) was continued.
  • The Constitution as adopted on November 26, 1949.
  • It contained a Preamble, 395 Articles and 8 Schedules.
  • The Preamble was enacted after the entire Constitution was already enacted.
  • The Constituent Assembly also executed the following functions:
  • It ratified India’s membership of the Commonwealth in May 1949.
  • It adopted the national flag on 22nd July 1947.
  • It adopted the national anthem on 24th January 1950.
  • It adopted the national song on 24th January 1950.
  • Dr Rajendra Prasad as elected the first President of India on 24th January 1950.




A fountain of water is created at the leaking joint of pipes of the main water supply line. What is the reason behind this?

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  • Liquid has its own weight, this causes pressure on the wall of the container in which liquid is held, it also causes pressure on any object immersed in the liquid”.

Enrich Your Learning:

Properties of Liquid:

  • One of the most important properties of liquids is that they exert pressure in all directions.
  • Other important properties of liquids are

(i) Pressure increases with depth.

(ii) Pressure is the same at all points at the same depth.

(iii) Liquid seeks its own level.

  • When filled in a container, the water rushes out with the great force from the hole at the bottom, with less force from the hole at the centre and with least force from the hole at the top.
  • This shows that pressure increases with depth. The concept of pressure increasing with depth is used while constructing the dams.
  • The dams are constructed by making the walls usually larger at the bottom than at the top in order to help withstand the pressure.
  • While fountains work due to the pressure exerted by water on the walls of the pipe.

Liquid Pressure:

  • Liquid pressure is the increase in pressure at increasing depths in a liquid. This pressure increases because the liquid at lower depths has to support all of the water above it. We calculate liquid pressure using the equation liquid pressure = mass x acceleration due to g density x depth in fluid.




Which factors determine the colour of flame in a candle?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

  • The most important factor determining colour of the flame is oxygen supply and the extent of fuel-oxygen pre-mixing, which determines the rate of combustion and thus the temperature and reaction paths, thereby producing different colour hues.
  • Now in case of a candle, it is an incomplete combustion and the flame temperature is not very high. This gives a yellow flame.
  • However if we take a highly-oxygenated gas, for example ethyne, the flame will be blue because of a complete combustion raising a very high temperature.
  • All the light a candle makes comes from a chemical reaction known as combustion in which the wax (made from carbon-based chemicals typically derived from petroleum) reacts with oxygen in the air to make a colourless gas called carbon dioxide.
  • Water is also produced in the form of steam. Since the wax never burns perfectly cleanly, there’s also a little smoke produced.
  • The smoke is an aerosol (tiny particles of solid, unburned carbon from the wax mixed in with the steam) and it often leaves a black, carbon deposit on nearby walls or the ceiling above where the candle’s burning. This black smoke and the carbon deposit is your proof of incomplete combustion.
  • The substances which vapourise during burning, give flames. For example, kerosene oil and molten wax rise through the wick and are vapourised during burning and form flames. Charcoal, on the other hand, does not vapourise and so does not produce a flame.




Arrange the listed things in descending order according to their density: (i) Freshwater lake (ii) Ethanol (iii) Sea water and (iv) Lubricating Oil

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  • The density of freshwater is 1000 kg/m3 and the density of seawater is 1029 kg/m3.
  • Saltwater is denser than freshwater.
  • The density of ethnol is 789 kg/m³
  • The density of most oils will range between 700 and 950 kilograms/m3

Enrich Your Learning:

Density of liquids:

  • Just like solids, liquids also have their own characteristic density.
  • The volume of a liquid can be measured directly with a graduated cylinder.
  • The molecules of different liquids have different size and mass.
  • The mass and size of the molecules in a liquid and how closely they are packed together determine the density of the liquid.
  • Just like a solid, the density of a liquid equals the mass of the liquid divided by its volume; D = m/v.
  • The density of water is 1 gram per cubic centimeter.
  • The density of a substance is the same regardless of the size of the sample.
  • Density is a characteristic property of a substance, each liquid has its own characteristic density.
  • The density of a liquid determines whether it will float on or sink in another liquid.
  • A liquid will float if it is less dense than the liquid it is placed in.
  • A liquid will sink if it is more dense than the liquid it is placed in.
  • The density of a liquid can also be measured using a simple device known as a hydrometer.




What do you know about the Cutch Rebellion of 1819?

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  • The people in Kutch rose against the British when in 1819, they deposed Rao Bharmal and placed his infant son on the throne. The masses got violent and the British had to opt for conciliation.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • The Kutch Rebellion, led by its chiefs, lasted in one form or another from 1816 to 1832.
  • The power struggle between the king and 12 chieftains led into a mutiny.
  • Following a treaty between Maharao Bharmal II, the king of Kutch, and the British in 1816, power was vested with the throne.
  • However, in 1819, the king was dethroned by the British due to his cavalier attitude, including his act of raising a troop of Arabs and Africans — something discouraged by the British government.




He was chosen the president of the Indian National Congress in 1890. He was founding members of Bombay Presidency Association. He started Bombay Chronicle, an English-language weekly newspaper. Identify the person.

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  • Pherozeshah Mehta

Enrich Your Learning:

About Pherozeshah Mehta:

  • He became the Municipal commissioner of Bombay Municipality in 1873 and its President four times – 1884, 1885, 1905 and 1911.
  • He was chosen the president of the Indian National Congress in 1890.
  • When the Bombay Presidency Association was established in 1885, Mehta became its president, and remained so for the rest of his years.
  • He encouraged Indians to obtain western education and embrace its culture to uplift India.
  • He contributed to many social causes for education, sanitation and health care in the city and around India.
  • Mehta was one of the founders of the Indian National Congress. He was the chairman of the Reception Committee in its fifth session in Bombay in 1889. He presided over the next session in Calcutta.
  • Mehta was nominated to the Bombay Legislative Council in 1887 and in 1893 a member of the Imperial Legislative Council.
  • In 1894, he was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE) and was appointed a Knight Commander (KCIE) in 1904.
  • In 1910, he started Bombay Chronicle, an English-language weekly newspaper, which became an important nationalist voice of its time, and an important chronicler of the political upheavals of a volatile pre-independent India.
  • He served as a member of Bombay’s Municipal Corporation for six years.
  • A portrait of Pherozeshah Mehta at the Indian Parliament House, shows his importance in the making of the nation. He was known as ‘The Lion of Bombay’ and ‘Uncrowned King of Bombay’.




What is Sun’s Halo all about?

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  • Halos are rings of light that can encircle the sun or the moon, and they usually occur when a thin layer of cirrus clouds are present in the upper atmosphere in the sky.

Enrich Your Learning:

About Sun’s Halo:

  • A Sun halo is caused by the refraction, reflection, and dispersion of light through ice particles suspended within thin, wispy, high altitude cirrus or cirrostratus clouds.
  • As light passes through these hexagon-shaped ice crystals, it is bent at a 22° angle, creating a circular halo around the Sun.
  • The prism effect of light passing through these six-sided ice crystals also separates the light into its various color frequencies, making the halo look like a very pale rainbow, with red on the inside and blue on the outside.
  • The atmosphere is a mix of gases, including oxygen, nitrogen and water vapor. At high enough altitudes in the sky, the water vapor condenses and then freezes into ice crystals.
  • As sunlight passes through the ice crystals, the geometry of the crystals cause the light to refract, similar to what happens when light passes through a prism.
  • Randomly-oriented hexagonal ice crystals with diameters less than 20.5 micrometers are responsible for the halo observed in the sky. This geometric size and shape causes light to undergo two refractions, or bends, as the light passes through the ice crystal. Once the second bend is made, the light appears as a halo in the sky.
  • The process works for any celestial light source, which means moon halos form under the same physical and geometrical properties.
  • In addition, the process is similar to how rainbows are formed, which is why colors can sometimes be seen in the rainbow.




Ocean currents are influenced by two types of forces. Which are they?

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Ocean currents are influenced by two types of forces namely:

  1. Primary forces that initiate the movement of water
  2. Secondary forces that influence the currents to flow

Enrich Your Learning:

The primary forces that influence the currents are:

Heating by solar energy:

  • Heating by solar energy causes the water to expand. That is why, near the equator the ocean water is about 8 cm higher in level than in the middle latitudes. This causes a very slight gradient and water tends to flow down the slope.


  • Wind blowing on the surface of the ocean pushes the water to move. Friction between the wind and the water surface affects the movement of the water body in its course.


  • Gravity tends to pull the water down the pile and create gradient variation.

Coriolis force:

  • The Coriolis force intervenes and causes the water to move to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere. These large accumulations of water and the flow around them are called Gyres. These produce large circular currents in all the ocean basins.

Other forces:

  • Differences in water density affect vertical mobility of ocean currents.
  • Water with high salinity is denser than water with low salinity and in the same way cold water is denser than warm water.
  • Denser water tends to sink, while relatively lighter water tends to rise.
  • Cold-water ocean currents occur when the cold water at the poles sinks and slowly moves towards the equator. Warm-water currents travel out from the equator along the surface, flowing towards the poles to replace the sinking cold water.




What are the features of Highland Climates?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning: 

About Highland Climates:

  • Highland climates are cool to cold, found in mountains and high plateaus. Climates change rapidly on mountains, becoming colder the higher the altitude gets.
  • Highland climates are governed by topography. In high mountains, large changes in mean temperature occur over short distances.
  • Precipitation types and intensity also vary spatially across high lands. There is vertical zonation of layering of climatic types with elevation in the mountain environment.
  • The climate of a highland area is closely related to the climate of the surrounding biome. The highlands have the same seasons and wet and dry periods as the biome they are in.
  • They’re not too cold and not too hot.
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