FC-for-IAS-Prelims-2018-CA-Day-43
70 Days WAR Plan

Day#43 Current Affairs Flash Cards [70 Days WAR Plan]

Crested Black Macaque; Graded Response Action Plan; National Career Service (NCS) project; Section 498A of IPC; Hemoglobinopathies; AIDA mission; Uniting for Consensus (UfC) movement; Bajaj Committee, 1986; Catalonia; Abyei;
By IT's Core Team
May 03, 2019

 

 

 

Where is Abyei located?

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Answer:

  • Abyei is situated within the Muglad Basin, a large rift basin which contains a number of hydrocarbon accumulations in Sudan.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • The Abyei Area covers 4,000 square miles of desert, farmland, and oil fields located along the ill-defined border between Sudan and South Sudan.
  • Abyei is claimed by both countries and has been a source of conflict in the Sudans for over 50 years.
  • Abyei Area in Sudan accorded “special administrative status” by the 2004 Protocol on the Resolution of the Abyei Conflict (Abyei Protocol) in the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) that ended the Second Sudanese Civil War.
  • The capital of Abyei Area is Abyei Town.
  • Under the terms of the Abyei Protocol, the Abyei Area was declared, on an interim basis, to be simultaneously part of the states of South Kurdufan and Northern Bahr el Ghazal.

Abyei located

 

 

 

Give information on Crested Black Macaque.

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Answer:

About Crested Black Macaque:

  • The Celebes crested macaque (Macaca nigra) is also known as the crested black macaque, Sulawesi crested macaque, or the black ape.
  • It is an Old World monkey that lives in the Tangkoko reserve in the northeastern tip of the Indonesian island of Sulawesi (Celebes), as well as on smaller neighboring islands.
  • Locally it is known as yaki or wolai, its skin and hairless face is, with the exception of some white hair in the shoulder range, entirely jet black.
  • Unusual for a primate, it has striking reddish-brown eyes.
  • The long muzzle with high cheeks and the long hair tuft, or crest, at the top of the head are remarkable features.
  • It has an “apelike” appearance due to its almost non-existent, non-visible, vestigial tail stub of only.
  • Its life expectancy is estimated at approximately 20 years in the wild.
  • The Celebes crested macaque is a diurnal rain forest dweller.
  • This macaque is primarily terrestrial, spending more than 60% of its day on the ground foraging for food and socializing, while sleeping and searching for food in the trees.

Crested Black Macaque

Other facts:

  • The crested black macaque is extremely rare and critically endangered.
  • It is the most endangered of the seven macaque species found on the island of Sulawesi (formerly Celebes) in Indonesia.
  • This species is entirely black apart from its rump, which is a distinctive pink colour.
  • In males the posterior is small and heart-shaped, and in females it is large, rounded and a darker pink.
  • The Celebes crested macaque is frugivorous, with 70% of its diet consisting of fruits. It also consumes leaves, buds, seeds, fungus, birds and bird eggs, insects (such as caterpillars), and the occasional small lizard or frog.
  • They are known for their intelligence and dexterity.
  • In 2014, considerable discussion of copyright issues was generated by a “selfie” photograph taken by a Celebes crested macaque.

Its location:

  • This species occurs on northeastern Sulawesi, Indonesia and the adjacent islands of Pulau Manadotua and Pulau Talise.
  • It was historically found on Pulau Lembeh as well but has probably been extirpated from there.
  • On Sulawesi it is found on the northern arm east of the Onggak Dumoga River and Mount Padang to the tip of the peninsula (Groves 2001).
  • There is a sizeable introduced population on Pulau Bacan in the Maluku Islands (Indonesia).

Threats to them making them endangered:

  • There is extensive habitat loss within its range.
  • Hunting for bush meat is a major threat, so although the habitat appears to be intact in many places much of it is currently unoccupied.
  • Extensive illegal “small scale” open area mining for gold, using mercury, within the parks is a regional threat.
  • Shifting cultivation by local communities is an increasing threat.
  • This is probably the most threatened primate species on Sulawesi.

 

 

 

Where is Catalonia located?

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Answer:

  • Catalonia is an autonomous community of Spain located on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • Catalonia consists of four provinces: Barcelona, Girona, Lleida, and Tarragona.
  • The capital and largest city is Barcelona, the second-most populated municipality in Spain and the core of the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union.
  • It is bordered by France and Andorra to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, and the Spanish autonomous communities of Aragon to the west and Valencia to the south.

Catalonia located

 

 

 

What was Bajaj Committee, 1986 constituted for and what were its recommendations?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

About Bajaj Committee, 1986:

  • It was an “Expert Committee for Health Manpower Planning, Production and Management“.
  • It was constituted in 1985 under Dr. J.S. Bajaj, the then professor at AIIMS.

Major recommendations are:

  • Formulation of National Medical & Health Education Policy.
  • Formulation of National Health Manpower Policy.
  • Establishment of an Educational Commission for Health Sciences (ECHS) on the lines of UGC.
  • Establishment of Health Science Universities in various states and union territories.
  • Establishment of health manpower cells at centre and in the states.
  • Vocationalisation of education at 10+2 levels as regards health related fields with appropriate incentives, so that good quality paramedical personnel may be available in adequate numbers.
  • Carrying out a realistic health manpower survey.

 

 

 

What is Uniting for Consensus (UfC) movement?

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Answer:

About the movement:

  • Uniting for Consensus (UfC) is a movement, nicknamed the Coffee Club.
  • It was developed in the 1990s in opposition to the possible expansion of permanent seats in the United Nations Security Council.

Objectives:

  • Under the leadership of Italy, it aims to counter the bids for permanent seats proposed by G4 nations (Brazil, Germany, India, and Japan) and is calling for a consensus before any decision is reached on the form and size of the Security Council.
  • The thesis of the Uniting for Consensus group is that the increase of permanent seats would have further accentuated the disparity between the member countries and resulted in the extension of a series of privileges with a cascade effect.
  • The new permanent members would have in fact benefited from the method of electing particularly advantageous in a number of specific organs of the United Nations System.

 

 

 

What do you know about the AIDA mission?

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Answer:

  • The Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission is a proposed space probe which would study and demonstrate the kinetic effects of crashing an impactor spacecraft into an asteroid moon.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • The AIDA mission is intended to test whether a spacecraft could successfully deflect an asteroid on a collision course with Earth.
  • It would be composed of two spacecraft: Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM), which would orbit the asteroid, and Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART), which would impact its moon.
  • The AIDA mission is a joint international collaboration of the European Space Agency (ESA), the German Aerospace Center (DLR), Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur (OCA), NASA, and Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL).
  • The project was formed by joining two separate studies, DART, an asteroid impactor developed by NASA, and a monitoring spacecraft – ESA’s AIM.

Mission:

  • AIDA would target 65803 Didymos, a binary asteroid system in which one asteroid is orbited by a smaller one.
  • The primary asteroid is about 800 m (2,600 ft) in diameter; its small satellite is about 150 m (490 ft) in diameter in an orbit about 1.1 km from the primary.
  • Didymos is not an Earth-crossing asteroid, and there is no possibility that the deflection experiment could create an impact hazard.
  • Under the current proposal, AIM would launch in October 2020, and DART in July 2021. AIM would orbit the larger asteroid and study the composition of it and its moon. DART would then impact the moon on October 2022, during a close approach to Earth.

 

 

 

Is Hemoglobinopathies a genetic defect? Mention about a policy on ‘Prevention and Control of haemoglobinopathies’?

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Answer:

  • Yes, Hemoglobinopathies is a genetic defect.

Enrich Your Learning:

About Hemoglobinopathies:

  • Hemoglobinopathy is a kind of genetic defect that results in abnormal structure of one of the globin chains of the hemoglobin molecule.
  • The hemoglobinopathies encompass all genetic diseases of hemoglobin.
  • It is estimated that 7% of world’s population (420 million) are carriers, with 60% of total and 70% pathological being in Africa.
  • Hemoglobinopathies are the most common monogenic diseases and one of the world’s major health problems.
  • They were originally found mainly in the Mediterranean area and large parts of Asia and Africa. International migration has spread them from those areas all over the world.
  • Hemoglobinopathies are inherited single-gene disorders; in most cases, they are inherited as autosomal co-dominant traits.
  • Common hemoglobinopathies include sickle-cell disease.
  • Hemoglobinopathies imply structural abnormalities in the globin proteins themselves.
  • Thalassemias, in contrast, usually result in underproduction of normal globin proteins, often through mutations in regulatory genes.
  • The two conditions may overlap, however, since some conditions which cause abnormalities in globin proteins (hemoglobinopathy) also affect their production (thalassemia).
  • Thus, some hemoglobinopathies are also thalassemias, but most are not.
  • Either hemoglobinopathy or thalassemia, or both, may cause anemia.

A policy on ‘Prevention and Control of haemoglobinopathies’:

  • The aim of the policy is to create treatment protocol benchmarks and to improve the quality of life of patients.
  • Policy is supported by the National Health Mission, Blood Cell and the Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram.
  • Policy provides for the creation of a national registry to collect useful data for better future services.
  • The policy guidelines provide for screening for variant anaemia in children, pre-marital counselling at college level and pregnant women during antenatal check-up to reduce the incidence of live haemoglobin disorder births (currently pegged at 10,00015,000 live births a year).

 

 

 

Section 498A of IPC is often misused. What does it deal it with?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

About Section 498A:

  • Section 498A was inserted on the Indian Penal Code with the praiseworthy object of punishing cruelty at the hands of husband or his relatives against a wife particularly when such cruelty had potential to result in suicide or murder of a woman.
  • Under this law a husband and his family are summarily arrested without any investigation when a complaint is lodged by the wife or any of her relative claiming that the husband or his relatives treated her cruelly.
  • Once the complaint is lodged the husband and his family are presumed guilty and it is up to them to prove that they are innocent in a court of law.
  • This law has been under much controversy due to its increasing misuse leading to breakdown of families.
  • It does not cost anything to file a 498A, and there is no penalty (or even a fine) for filing a false dowry complaint which has contributed to a fast rise in the number of such cases in courts today.
  • Section 498A IPC was specifically included in 1983 to protect women from cruelty and harassment. The constitutionality of Section 498A was challenged before the Supreme Court of India on grounds of abuse, on grounds that it gave arbitrary power to the police and the court.

 

 

 

National Career Services is established for quick and efficient career related services. What is it all about?

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

About National Career Services:

  • National Career Service (NCS) project is an initiative launched by the Ministry of Labour and Employment (India) Government of India as a Mission Mode Project for establishing quick and efficient career related services.
  • It was launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2015 as part of government’s focus on providing right skills and generating employment.
  • A National ICT based portal (www.ncs.gov.in) is developed primarily to connect the opportunities with the aspirations of youth. This portal facilitates registration of job seekers, job providers, skill providers, career counsellors, etc.
  • National Career Service is one of the mission mode projects under the umbrella of E-Governance Plan.
  • It works towards bridging the gap between job-seekers and employers, candidates seeking training and career guidance and agencies providing training and career counselling by transforming the National Employment Service.
  • It brings together all stakeholders like job seekers, employers, counsellors, trainers and private placement agencies to facilitate convergence of information and create synergies through these associations.
  • NCS provides a host of career-related services such as dynamic job matching, career counselling, job notifications, vocational guidance, information on skill development courses, internships and alike.

The focus areas for the National Career Service platform are listed below:

  1. Enhancing career and employment opportunities
  2. Counselling and guidance for career development
  3. Focusing on decent employment
  4. Enhancing female labour force participation
  5. Encouraging entrepreneurial endeavours

The main stakeholders for the NCS would include:

  • Unemployed candidates seeking jobs
  • Students seeking career counselling
  • Candidates seeking vocational / occupational guidance
  • Illiterate, under-privileged sections of society, blue-collar workers seeking placements and guidance
  • Person with different abilities (PWDs), ex-servicemen, veterans / senior citizens, etc.
  • Employers seeking suitable candidates

 

 

 

What is Graded Response Action Plan? and how does it work?

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Answer & Enrich your learning:

  • The Graded Response Action Plan, Delhi-NCR’s answer to combat air pollution that assumes apocalyptic proportions during this time of the year, will come into force for the first time from 17th October 2017.
  • Graded Response Action Plan defines the measures to taken based on air quality on the basis of PM 2.5 and PM 10 in the atmosphere.
  • Based on the air quality the grades have been classified as Emergency, Severe, Very Poor and Moderate poor.
  • It will be enforced by Environment Pollution Control Authority (EPCA).

How it works?

  • Under this plan emergency measures will be automatically enforced in NCR if level of PM2.5 breaches 300 micrograms per cubic metre (µgm/m3) and PM10 levels stay above 500 (µgm/m3) for two consecutive days.
  • The plan recommends measures like odd-even car rationing scheme and ban on construction activities to combat air pollution.
  • During ‘very poor’ air quality, it recommends banning diesel generators and parking fee increased by three to four times.
  • It also lists a number of other measures such as closing brick kilns, stone crushers, hot mix plants and intensifying public transport services and increasing the frequency of mechanised cleaning and sprinkling of water on roads.

Implementing agency:

  • For enforcement of the action plan, the Union Government has assigned the task of implementation of the Graded Response Action Plan to the EPCA (Environment Pollution Control Authority) in pursuance of sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 (29 of 1986).
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