Flash Cards

Day#43 Current Affairs Flash Cards [PRELIMS 2020]

Behramji Malabari; Bhagoria Haat Festival; Automatic Exchange of Information (AEOI); Sudeten Crisis; Munich Agreement; 'Notes on Infant Marriage and Enforced Widowhood'; Corruption Perception Index (CPI);
By IASToppers
September 12, 2019



Corruption Perception Index (CPI) is released by which international organization?

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Transparency International

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Corruption Perception Index (CPI)

  • Corruption Perception Index (CPI) is published by Transparency International.
  • The CPI defines corruption as “the misuse of public power for private benefit.”
  • The index ranks 180 countries and territories by their perceived levels of public sector corruption according to experts and businesspeople.
  • Corruption Perceptions Index was originally launched in 1995, uses expert assessments and opinion surveys to determine how corrupt a country is.
  • It uses a scale of 0 to 100, where 0 is highly corrupt and 100 is very clean.
  • More than two-thirds of countries score below 50 on 2018’s CPI, with an average score of just 43.
  • The latest report released was on February 21, 2018.
  • India rose by three points to 78 in the list of 180 countries in the world, while China ranked 87 and Pakistan 117 in 2018.

Least corrupt countries as per the latest report:

1.Denmark (Corruption Perception Index Score: 88)

2.New Zealand (Corruption Perception Index Score: 87)

3.Finland (Corruption Perception Index Score: 85)

3.Singapore (Corruption Perception Index Score: 85)

3.Sweden (Corruption Perception Index Score: 85)

3.Switzerland (Corruption Perception Index Score: 85)

Most corrupt countries according to latest report:

180.Somalia (Corruption Perception Index Score: 9)

178.South Sudan (Corruption Perception Index Score: 12)

178.Syria (Corruption Perception Index Score: 14)

176.Afghanistan (Corruption Perception Index Score: 15)

176.Yemen (Corruption Perception Index Score: 16)



Sudeten crisis was a major event in World war II. Before annexure of Germany, Sudeten was a part of which province or state?

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Before annexure of Germany, Sudeten was a part of Czechoslovakia– a sovereign state in central Europe.

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Sudeten Crisis

  • The Sudeten Crisis was a major development in Hitler’s foreign policy aims.
  • The Sudeten Crisis focussed on the Sudetenland which was an area of Czechoslovakia which bordered Germany.
  • Hitler had threatened to bring war to Europe unless the German-majority areas in the north, south, and west of Czechoslovakia were surrendered to Germany.
  • In order to help stop a war, Neville Chamberlain met with Hitler who said that Germany only wanted those parts of the Sudetenland which spoke German, and that they should be able to vote on it.
  • Chamberlain, alongside the French submitted the plan to the Czechs. However just days later Hitler then demanded all of the Sudetenland, not just the German speaking parts.
  • The annexation of Sudetenland, home to over three million Sudeten Germans, was part of Hitler’s plan to create a “Greater Germany”.
  • Following the Munich Agreement, German troops occupied these areas between October 1 and October 10, 1938.

The Munich Agreement

  • The Agreement was signed among Germany, France, Italy, and Great Britain on September 29-30, 1938.
  • Hitler’s appeasement in an attempt to keep the peace in Europe was strongly supported by Great Britain’s Prime Minister.
  • After coming back from Munich, Chamberlain waved the piece of paper signed by Hitler and called it a declaration of “peace with honour”.
  • In return for European peace, the Sudetenland region was permitted to be annexed by the Germans.
  • Czechoslovakia, the country whose region was about to be annexed, was not officially party to the Agreement.
  • Six months after the Munich Agreement was signed, Hitler went back on his commitments and invaded the whole of Czechoslovakia. War was on its way.



What kind of information would be given under the agreement of Automatic Exchange of Information (AEOI) recently signed by India? The agreement was signed with which country?

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The information related to systematic and periodic transmission of “bulk” taxpayer is likely to be given under the agreement recently signed between India and Switzerland.

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Automatic Exchange of Information (AEOI)

  • Automatic Exchange of Information (AEOI) is the exchange of information between countries without having to send a specific request.
  • AEOI exists to reduce global tax evasion. Information can be found in this section in relation to:
    • Different agreements between countries
    • Links to the relevant legislation
    • Practitioner guides
  • Automatic Exchange of Information (AEOI) is understood to involve the systematic and periodic transmission of “bulk” taxpayer information by the source country to the residence country concerning various categories of income (e.g. dividends, interest, royalties, salaries, pensions, etc.).
  • AEOI will enable governments to recover tax revenue lost to non-compliant taxpayers, and will further strengthen international efforts to increase transparency, cooperation, and accountability among financial institutions and tax administrations.
  • Additionally, AEOI will generate secondary benefits by increasing voluntary disclosures of concealed assets and by encouraging taxpayers to report all relevant information.

Why in news?

  • India will start receiving information on all financial accounts held by Indian residents in Switzerland, for the year 2018.
  • In 2016, Switzerland and India signed a joint declaration on the introduction of the automatic exchange of information (AEOI) in tax matters on a reciprocal basis.
  • AEOI is to be carried out under the Common Reporting Standard (CRS) which has been developed by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).
  • Under the agreement, India will not receive information on bank accounts prior to 2018.



‘Bhagoria’ Haat Festival- a tribal festival is found to be celebrated in which state of India?

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‘Bhagoria’ Haat Festival which is a tribal festival of Bhil tribe is found to be celebrated in Madhya Pradesh in India.

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Bhagoria Haat Festival

  • ‘Bhagoria’ is a vibrant carnival which is celebrated by various tribes like Bhil and Bhilalas.
  • This is one of the oldest festivals greatly admired in the regions like Jhabua, Dhar, Alirajpur and Khargone of Madhya Pradesh.
  • The fair is celebrated just before Holi wherein people apply ‘gulal’ to each other and tap their feet dancing and singing to their traditional tribal tunes.
  • In the popular parlance, the name Bhagoria refers to Bhag. This literally means to run away or elope, basically a time when boys run away with the girls they like.
  • Another legend is that the first hero and heroine of this festival were Bhav and Gauri. That is another name for Shiva and Parvati, this is how the festival gets its name.
  • In this festival, young Bhil Tribal boys express their love to the girl of their choice. If she accepts it, they elope away.
  • They stay in hiding until their families negotiate and agree to get them married once they come back.
  • Bhagoria has an agricultural significance attached to it. It commences with the end of harvesting season. The local people, therefore celebrate the festival to mark the completion of the same.
  • In the festival, young tribal people dressed up in colourful attires, playing the traditional instruments, singing and performing the regional dance at the haats.



‘Notes on Infant Marriage and Enforced Widowhood’ was a publication of which Indian social reformer?

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‘Notes on Infant Marriage and Enforced Widowhood’ was a publication of Behramji Merwanji Malabari who was an author and social reformer.

Enrich Your Learning:

Behramji Malabari

  • Behramji Merwanji Malabari (1853–1912) was an Indian poet, publicist, author, and social reformer best known for his ardent advocacy for the protection of the rights of women and for his activities against child marriage.
  • He is a Parsi reformer and a journalist from Bombay.
  • In August 1884, Malabari published a set of ‘Notes on Infant Marriage and Enforced Widowhood’ that he sent to 4,000 leading Englishmen and Hindus.
  • In it, Malabari deplored the ‘social evil’ of ‘baby marriage’ and demanded legislature to prevent it.
  • Malabari’s editorials of the Rukhmabai case gave the issue a popular focus, and it “was largely by his efforts” and the agitation of William Thomas Stead in the Pall Mall Gazette that brought about the Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1885.
  • Although he stayed away from the Indian National Congress as an organisation, Malabari attended the Indian National Congress in Bombay in 1885.

As Author:

  • Malabari published a volume of poems in Gujarati in 1875 which attracted attention in England, notably from Alfred Tennyson, Max Müller, and Florence Nightingale.
  • In 1882 he published his Gujarat and the Gujaratis: pictures of men and manners taken from life, a book “of a somewhat satirical nature” that went through five editions.
  • In 1883, he joined Voice of India, where he did editing together with Dadabhai Naoroji and William Wedderburn.
  • In 1901 he became editor of the monthly East and West, and he hold that position until shortly before his death on 12 July 1912 at Shimla.
  • Malabari’s account of his three visits to England, entitled The Indian Eye on English, or, Rambles of a Pilgrim Reformer.
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