70 Days WAR Plan

Day#43 Static Flash Cards Revision [70 Days WAR Plan]

Economic Advisory Council to the Prime Minister (EAC-PM); Constitutional provisions for the change in name of states; Liquidity shortage; Law of inertia; Gross Value Added (GVA); Hormones; Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD); Conditions necessary for the generation of hydroelectricity; European powers’ entry in India; Wood’s Despatch;
By IT's Core Team
May 03, 2019




Which recommendations are popularly known as the Magna Carta of English education in India?

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  • Wood’s Despatch is known as the Magna Carta of English education in India.

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About Woods’ Despatch:

  • In 1854, the Court of Directors of the East India Company in London sent an educational despatch to the Governor-General in India.
  • Issued by Charles Wood, the President of the Board of Control of the Company, it has come to be known as Wood’s Despatch.
  • Outlining the educational policy that was to be followed in India, it emphasised once again the practical benefits of a system of European learning, as opposed to Oriental knowledge.
  • One of the practical uses the Despatch pointed to was economic. European learning, it said, would enable Indians to recognise the advantages that flow from the expansion of trade and commerce, and make them see the importance of developing the resources of the country.
  • Introducing them to European ways of life, would change their tastes and desires, and create a demand for British goods, for Indians would begin to appreciate and buy things that were produced in Europe.
  • Wood’s Despatch also argued that European learning would improve the moral character of Indians.
  • It would make them truthful and honest, and thus supply the Company with civil servants who could be trusted and depended upon.
  • The literature of the East was not only full of grave errors, it could also not instill in people a sense of duty and a commitment to work, nor could it develop the skills required for administration.
  • Following the 1854 Despatch, several measures were introduced by the British.
  • Education departments of the government were set up to extend control over all matters regarding education.
  • Steps were taken to establish a system of university education. In 1857, while the sepoys rose in revolt in Meerut and Delhi, universities were being established in Calcutta, Madras and Bombay.
  • Attempts were also made to bring about changes within the system of school education.
  • Wood’s Despatch of 1854 are considered as the Magna Carta of English education in India.




Where was the first factory established by the Dutch located?

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  • Dutch established their first factory at Masulipatam in 1605

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About European powers’ entry in India:

  • The Portuguese captured Goa from rulers of Bijapur in 1510.
  • Dutch established their first factory at Masulipatam in 1605 while second factory was established at Pulicat in 1610.
  • In 1600, the East India Company acquired a charter from the ruler of England, Queen Elizabeth I, granting it the sole right to trade with the East.
  • This meant that no other trading group in England could compete with the East India Company.
  • With this charter the Company could venture across the oceans, looking for new lands from which it could buy goods at a cheap price, and carry them back to Europe to sell at higher prices.
  • The Company did not have to fear competition from other English trading companies.
  • Mercantile trading companies in those days made profit primarily by excluding competition, so that they could buy cheap and sell dear.
  • The royal charter, however, could not prevent other European powers from entering the Eastern markets.
  • By the time the first English ships sailed down the west coast of Africa, round the Cape of Good Hope, and crossed the Indian Ocean, the Portuguese had already established their presence in the western coast of India, and had their base in Goa.
  • In fact, it was Vasco da Gama, a Portuguese explorer, who had discovered this sea route to India in 1498. By the early seventeenth century, the Dutch too were exploring the possibilities of trade in the Indian Ocean.
  • Soon the French traders arrived on the scene.




To generate hydroelectricity, a constant and uniform flow of water is needed. Along with this feature there are other very important conditions necessary for the generation of hydroelectricity. Which are they?

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Along with a constant and uniform flow of water, the following are the necessary conditions needed:


  • The amount, character and distribution of precipitation in the form of rain, snow etc. determines power potentialities of any region.
  • The volume of water in the river determines the amount of energy.
  • The amount and character must be evenly distributed throughout the year.

Uniform Supply of Water, either from streams, rivers or Lakes:

  • A constant and uniform flow of water is necessary to enable a hydro-electric plant to work at full capacity.
  • There are, in fact, very small numbers of rivers which have sufficient flow of water throughout the year.
  • The presence of lakes, which act as natural regulators, is of great help in maintaining regular and constant flow of water.
  • The water of a river or lake must be clean and free from silt otherwise power plants will be damaged.
  • Snowfields and glaciers act as natural reservoirs.
  • They maintain flow of water during the summer season.


  • Mountainous relief of good ‘head’ or fall of water, are suitable for producing hydro-electricity.
  • Many mountain streams though with small volume of water but tremendous drop have been harnessed for hydro-electricity.
  • Rapids and falls in mountain regions usually offer very good sites for hydel-power generation.

Absence of or Inadequate Coal or Oil Resources:

  • The absence of coal or oil encourages the development of hydel power to a large extent.
  • For instance, Switzerland and Japan have near-absence of supplies of coal or oil and thus hydel-power stations are constructed in order to meet growing demand of power.


  • The hydel-power sites must be near to the centres of consumption because there is a limit to the transmission of electric power.

Cheap Raw Materials:

  • Availability of cheap raw material and cheap labour for the construction of hydel-power stations and lying down of power lines are necessary.
  • Cost of iron, labour and cement have large influence on the construction cost of hydel power plants and dams.

Capital Requirements:

  • The harnessing of water-power is an expensive task.
  • The initial capital requirement in building dams, reservoirs, power plants and laying down the transmission lines arc a costly affair.




What indicates polluted water: (a) A low Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) OR (b) a high Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)?

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  • A low Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) level indicated good quality of water, while a high BOD indicates polluted water.

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Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD):

  • Biochemical oxygen demand is the amount of dissolved oxygen needed (i.e. demanded) by aerobic biological organisms to break down organic material present in a given water sample at certain temperature over a specific time period.
  • BOD directly affects the amount of dissolved oxygen in rivers and streams.
  • BOD indicates the amount of putrescible organic matter present in water.
  • Therefore, a low BOD is an indicator of good quality water, while a high BOD indicates polluted water.
  • Dissolved oxygen (DO) is consumed by bacteria when large amounts of organic matter from sewage or other discharges are present in the water.
  • DO is the actual amount of oxygen available in dissolved form in the water.
  • When the DO drops below a certain level, the life forms in that water are unable to continue at a normal rate.
  • The decrease in the oxygen supply in the water has a negative effect on the fish and other aquatic life.
  • Fish kills and an invasion and growth of certain types of weeds can cause dramatic changes in a stream or other body of water.
  • The rate of oxygen consumption is affected by a number of variables: temperature, pH, the presence of certain kinds of microorganisms, and the type of organic and inorganic material in the water.
  • The greater the BOD, the more rapidly oxygen is depleted in the stream.
  • This means less oxygen is available to higher forms of aquatic life.
  • The consequences of high BOD are the same as those for low dissolved oxygen: aquatic organisms become stressed, suffocate, and die.
  • Sources of BOD include topsoil, leaves and woody debris; animal manure; effluents from pulp and paper mills, wastewater treatment plants, feedlots, and food-processing plants; failing septic systems; and urban stormwater runoff.
  • BOD is affected by the same factors that affect dissolved oxygen.
  • BOD measurement requires taking two measurements.
  • One is measured immediately for dissolved oxygen (initial), and the second is incubated in the lab for 5 days and then tested for the amount of dissolved oxygen remaining (final).
  • This represents the amount of oxygen consumed by microorganisms to break down the organic matter present in the sample during the incubation period.




What are hormones? what are the features of hormones?

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What are hormones?

  • Hormones are organic chemical substances released by a cell, or organ or a gland or any body part of plants and animals that functions in the regulation of physiological activities and to maintain homeostasis.
  • The chemical discharged from one part affects the cells in other part of the organism. Hormones are released in very minute quantities.
  • Hormones are molecules, usually a peptide (eg: insulin) or steroid (eg: estrogen) that is produced in one part of an organisms and triggers a specific cellular reactions in target tissues and organs some distance away.

Some features of hormones are:

  • Hormones perform activity at some distance away from the site of origin, hormones are not catalyst they simply initiate biochemical reactions.
  • They participate in biological reaction and their chemical composition is changed and cannot be reutilized as such.
  • The hormones may be polypeptides, terpenoids, steroids, phenolics compounds or amines.
  • They are diffusible through cell membrane. They may be either excitatory or inhibitory in their action.
  • Hormone controlled reactions are not reversible. Deficiency or overproduction of hormone causes metabolic disorders or diseases.




What is Gross Value Added (GVA)?

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  • Gross value added (GVA) is defined as the value of output less the value of intermediate consumption. It represents the contribution of labour and capital to the production process.
  • When the value of taxes on products is added, the sum of value added for all resident units gives the value of gross domestic product (GDP).

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  • The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of any nation represents the sum total of gross value added (GVA) in all the sectors of the economy during the said year after adjusting for taxes and subsidies.
  • GVA at basic prices will include production taxes and exclude production subsidies available on the commodity.
  • The concept of GVA at factor cost by subtracting the value of any taxes on production and adding subsidies on production from GVA at basic price, and so includes production subsidies and excludes taxes.
  • The relationship between GVA at Factor Cost and GVA at Basic Prices is shown below:
  • GVA at factor cost + (Production taxes less Production subsidies) = GVA at basic prices.




What is Inertia?

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Answer & Enrich your learning:

  • ‘A property of matter by which it continues in its existing state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line, unless that state is changed by an external force’. This property is known ‘Inertia’.
  • Inertia is also defined as the tendency of objects to keep moving in a straight line at a constant velocity.
  • If the net external force is zero, a body at rest continues to remain at rest and a body in motion continues to move with a uniform velocity. This property of the body is called inertia. Inertia means resistance to change‘.
  • A body does not change its state of rest or uniform motion, unless an external force compels it to change that state.
  • The inertia of an object is measured by its mass. Heavier the object, larger the inertia.
  • The law of inertia is also known as the Newton‘s first law of motion, Everybody continues to be in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line unless compelled by some external force to act otherwise.
  • Objects in motion generally experience forces such as friction, viscous drag, etc.
  • The principle of inertia is one of the fundamental principles in classical physics that are still used to describe the motion of objects and how they are affected by the applied forces on them.




What are the functions of Economic Advisory Council to the Prime Minister (EAC-PM)?

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  • Economic Advisory Council to the Prime Minister (EAC-PM) is a non-constitutional, non-permanent and independent body constituted to give economic advice to the Government of India, specifically the Prime Minister.
  • It aims to highlight key economic issues facing the country to the government of India from a neutral viewpoint.
  • It advises the Prime Minister on a whole host of economic issues like inflation, microfinance, industrial output, etc.

Functions of EAC-PM:

  • Analysing any issue, economic or otherwise, referred to it by the Prime Minister and advising him thereon;
  • Addressing issues of macroeconomic importance and presenting views thereon to the Prime Minister. This could be either be suo-moto or on a reference from the Prime Minister or anyone else;
  • Submitting periodic reports to the Prime Minister on macroeconomic developments and issues with implications for economic policy;
  • Attending to any other task as may be desired by the Prime Minister from time to time.




In an economy, Liquidity shortage refers to?

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Answer & Enrich your learning:

  • Excess liquidity refers to the situation where net fund borrowed from the RBI is negative. I.e. Banks and PDs have more than enough liquidity with them so they turn to the RBI to park their excess fund to earn interest.
  • Liquidity refers to the net fund (fund borrowed minus fund deposited with RBI) borrowed by banks and Primary Dealers (PDs) under LAF.
  • It refers to a situation where net fund borrowed from RBI is positive, where banks and PDs have to resort to RBI for overnight borrowings as there is liquidity crunch in the market.




What are the constitutional provisions for the change in name of states?

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  • Union legislature can alter the name of the state and there is no need for the direction of governor of concerned state.
  • Union legislature can alter the name of the state without the advice of the concerned state. Although views of the concerned state can be considered but it is not binding on the Union legislature.

Enrich your learning:

About the power of changing the name of State:

Article 3 empowers the Parliament to:

  • form a new state by separation of territory from any state or by uniting two or more states or parts of states or by uniting any territory to a part of any state,
  • Increase the area of any state,
  • Diminish the area of any state,
  • Alter the boundaries of any state, and
  • Alter the name of any state.

But, Article 3 lays down two conditions in this regard:

  • A bill contemplating the above changes can be introduced in the Parliament only with the prior recommendation of the President;
  • Before recommending the bill, the President has to refer the same to the state legislature concerned for expressing its views within a specified period.
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