FC-for-IAS-Prelims-2018-CA-Day-44
70 Days WAR Plan

Day#44 Current Affairs Flash Cards [70 Days WAR Plan]

Nyishi tribe; National Mineral Policy 2019; WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC); Adilabad dokra; National e-Vidhan Application (NeVA) Project; ‘The Order of the Holy Apostle Andrew the First’; Earth BioGenome Project (EBP); NASA’s Voyager 2 probe; Future Policy Gold Award; Global Commission on the Future of Work; etc.
By IT's Core Team
May 04, 2019

 

 

 

Global Commission on the Future of Work is established by which organisation?

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Answer:

  • It was established by the International Labour Organization in 2017 as part of the ILO’s Future of Work Centenary Initiative.

Enrich Your Learning:

Global Commission on Future of Work

  • The formation of an International Labour Organisation (ILO) Global Commission on the Future of Work marks the second stage in the ILO Future of Work Initiative.
  • It was established by the International Labour Organization in 2017 as part of the ILO’s Future of Work Centenary Initiative.
  • The Organization marks its centenary in 2019.
  • Its job is to undertake an in-depth examination of the future of work that can provide the analytical basis for the delivery of social justice in the 21st century.
  • Over the past 18 months, the ILO’s tripartite constituents – governments, employer and worker organizations – have held national dialogues in over 110 countries in the run-up to the launch of the Global Commission.

Report on Future of Work

  • The Commission on the Future of Work has produced an independent report on how to achieve a future of work that provides decent and sustainable work opportunities for all.
  • This report has been launched in Geneva on January and will be submitted to the Centenary session of the International Labour Conference in June 2019.

Functions:

The work of the Commission has been organized around four “Centenary conversations”:

  • Work and society
  • Decent jobs for all
  • The organization of work and production
  • The governance of work

 

 

 

Which Indian state has received UN Food and Agriculture Organisation’s (FAO) Future Policy Gold Award for becoming the world’s first totally organic agriculture state?

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Answer:

  • Sikkim has won the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation’s (FAO) Future Policy Gold Award for its achievement in becoming the world’s first totally organic agriculture state.

Enrich Your Learning:

Future Policy Gold Award

  • Every year, the World Future Council chooses a topic for the Future Policy Award on which policy progress is particularly urgent.
  • The award is nicknamed as “Oscar for best policies”.
  • The award is co-organised by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), World Future Council (WFC) and IFOAM-Organics International.
  • It recognises “the world’s best laws and policies promoting agroecology”.
  • The 2018 Award highlighted policies that scale up agroecology to contribute to the protection of life of small-scale food producers, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement climate resilient agricultural practices.
  • The award was supported by Green Cross International; DO-IT – Dutch Organic International Trade, Sekem Group, Egypt; and EcorNaturaSi, Italy.
  • Sikkim beat out 51 other nominees from around the world for the award of 2018.
  • Sikkim is the first organic state in the world. All of its farmland is certified organic.
  • At the same time, Sikkim’s approach reaches beyond organic production and has proven truly transformational for the state and its citizens.
  • The state has totally banned the sale and use of chemical pesticides.
  • Brazil, Denmark, Quito and Ecuador shared the Silver award.

About Sikkim’s Organic farming policy:

  • Followed by a political commitment to support organic farming in 2003, Sikkim designed in 2010 the “Sikkim Organic Mission”.
  • The mission was “a road map that clearly detailed all the measures necessary to achieve the target of becoming a fully organic state by 2015”.

 

 

 

Nyishi tribe is associated with which festival of the state Arunachal Pradesh?

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Answer:

  • Pakke Page Hornbill Festival (PPHF) is a unique festival celebrating the sense of responsibility and commendable effort of the Nyishi tribe towards the conservation of hornbill.

Enrich Your Learning:

Pakke Page Hornbill Festival (PPHF)

  • The Pakke Page Hornbill Festival is recently declared as the ‘State festival’ of Arunachal Pradesh, a region in the Northeast of India.
  • The festival is held every year in support of wildlife and nature conservation, focused specifically towards hornbill conservation and takes place over three days.
  • Pakke-Paga Festival is the only wildlife conservation-based festival of the state.
  • The festival is a unique festival celebrating the sense of responsibility and commendable effort of the Nyishi tribe towards the conservation of hornbill.
  • During this time local tribes and communities set up stalls selling traditional food, dresses and hand carved ornaments.
  • In addition to this, activities are held throughout the day and traditional dances and performances take place on the main stage.
  • In 2018, the 4th Pakke Paga Hornbill Festival was celebrated.
  • The festival of 2018 was held at the banks of Pakke River in Seijosa, Arunachal Pradesh.
  • The theme of the festival year 2018 is ‘Celebrating Nature’.
  • The festival was organized jointly by the forest department, the Ghora Abhe Society, a Seijosa-based Village Forest Development Council and local communities.

Key Fact:

  • The first-ever PPHF was held on January 16–18, 2015.

 

 

 

Recently NASA’s Voyager 2 crossed the boundary of heliosphere and became the second spacecraft to enter the interstellar medium. Which one was the first?

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Answer:

  • Voyager 1 became the first spacecraft to cross the heliopause and enter the interstellar medium.

Enrich Your Learning:

NASA’s Voyager 2 probe

  • NASA’s Voyager 2 probe has recently exited the heliosphere – the protective bubble of particles and magnetic fields created by the Sun.
  • The probe crossed the outer edge of the heliosphere. The boundary, called the heliopause, is where the tenuous, hot solar wind meets the cold, dense interstellar medium.
  • Voyager 1, crossed this boundary in 2012, but Voyager 2 carries a working instrument that will provide first-of-its-kind observations of the nature of this gateway into interstellar space.
  • Mission operators still can communicate with Voyager 2 as it enters this new phase of its journey.
  • The information – moving at the speed of light – takes about 16.5 hours to travel from the spacecraft to Earth. By comparison, light traveling from the Sun takes about eight minutes to reach Earth.
  • Together, the two Voyagers provide a detailed glimpse of how our heliosphere interacts with the constant interstellar wind flowing from beyond.

Background:

  • Voyager 2 was launched in 1977, 16 days before Voyager 1, and both have travelled beyond their original destinations.
  • The spacecraft were built to last five years and conduct close-up studies of Jupiter and Saturn.
  • Their five-year lifespans have stretched to 41 years, making Voyager 2 NASA’s longest running mission.

The below illustration shows the position of NASA’s Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 probes, outside of the heliosphere.

NASA's Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 probes situation

NASA's Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 probes situation2

 

 

 

Recently the term “Moonshot for biology” was in news. What do you know about that?

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Answer:

  • The Earth BioGenome Project (EBP) is being described as the next “Moonshot for biology”.

Enrich Your Learning:

Earth BioGenome Project (EBP):

  • The project aims to sequence, catalogue and characterize the genomes of all of Earth’s eukaryotic biodiversity over a period of ten years.
  • It is a decade-long experiment to map the genomes of roughly 1.5 million species including animal, plant, fungus and protozoan on Earth except bacteria and archaea.

Background:

  • The last project of a similar scale and importance was the 13-year endeavour to map the human genetic code, the Human Genome Project, which was completed in 2003.

Benefits from this project:

  • The project means to open up new avenues for treating infections, drugs for anti-ageing, or even develop new approaches to addressing food shortage and for the development of innovative biomaterials.
  • If successful in its goal, the EBP would revolutionize how biology and evolution are studied.
  • Its completion would also give efforts towards the conservation of wildlife and biodiversity a massive boost.

 

 

 

‘The Order of the Holy Apostle Andrew the First’ is the highest civilian award by the government of?

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Answer:

‘The Order of the Holy Apostle Andrew the First’ is the highest civilian award by the government of Russia.

Enrich Your Learning:

The Order of the Holy Apostle Andrew the First:

Why in news?

  • Russia announced that President Vladimir Putin will confer its highest civilian award, the “Order of the Holy Apostle Andrew the First,” on Prime Minister Narendra Modi for his work on bilateral ties.
  • “The order was presented to the Prime Minister of India for his distinguished contribution to the development of a privileged strategic partnership between Russia and India and friendly ties between the Russian and Indian peoples.”

About “Order of the Holy Apostle Andrew the First” award:

  • The Order of the Holy Apostle Andrew the First is awarded to prominent government and public figures, prominent representatives of science, culture, art and various sectors of the economy for “exceptional services that contribute to the prosperity, greatness and glory of Russia.”
  • The order can also be awarded to foreign heads of state for outstanding services.
  • The Order of St Andrew the Apostle is the highest order of the Russian Federation.

 

 

 

National e-Vidhan Application (NeVA) Project is an initiative of Election Commission of India. Right or Wrong?

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Answer: Wrong

National e-Vidhan Application (NeVA) Project is an initiative of Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs.

Enrich Your Learning:

National e-Vidhan Application (NeVA) Project:

  • NeVA is an initiative of Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs.
  • It aims to make all the Legislatures of the country paperless by making the proceedings of the Houses digital.
  • It enables automation of entire law making process, tracking of decisions and documents, sharing of information.
  • NeVA aims to bring all the legislatures of the country together, in one platform thereby creating a massive data depository without having the complexity of multiple applications.
  • NeVA is a device neutral and member centric application created to equip them to handle diverse House Business smartly by putting entire information regarding member contact details, rules of procedure, list of business, notices, bulletins, bills, starred/unstarred questions and answers, papers laid, committee reports etc. in their hand held devices/ tablets and equip all Legislatures/ Departments to handle it efficiently.
  • NeVA to provide information on 40 Legislatures on fingertips of citizens across the country.
  • NeVA will completely eliminate the process of sending out a notice/request for collection of data.
  • The NeVA aims to live up-to its potential of being ‘One Nation, One Application’.
  • NeVA is an effort to integrate this information on one platform and giving anytime anywhere access to everyone at a click of a button.
  • The NeVA initiative promises to ensure ease of access of important information about functioning of Legislatures in a simplified format to everyone.
  • e-Vidhan is a Mission Mode Project (MMP) included in Digital India Programme and Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs (MoPA) is the ‘Nodal Ministry’ for its implementation in all the 31 States/ UTs with Legislatures.
  • The funding of NeVA is on the pattern of Central Sponsored Scheme i.e. 60:40; and 90:10 for North East & hilly States and 100% for UTs.
  • The funding for e-Vidhan is provided by the MoPA and technical support by Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY).
  • In order to promote the rolling out NeVA, the MoPA has consulted all State Governments.

 

 

 

Adilabad Dokra, craft forms from Telangana, has been accorded with the Geographical Indication (GI) tag. It belongs to which community?

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Answer:

  • Adilabad Dokra, craft forms from Telangana, has been accorded with the Geographical Indication (GI) tag. It belongs to Woj community (also called ‘Wojaris’ or ‘Otaris’).

Enrich Your Learning:

Adilabad dokra:

  • Craft forms from Telangana has now got international recognition.
  • The iconic Adilabad Dokra, an ancient bell metal craft, popular in the tribal regions of Adilabad has been accorded with the Geographical Indication (GI) tag by the Geographical Indications Registry of India.
  • The Dhokra craftsmen belong to the Woj community, called Wojaris, and also called Otaris, in Telangana State.
  • Native to the Woj community of Adilabad, the Dhokra craftsmen have mastered in creating metal crafts which do not have a replica in shape or size as all of the crafts are uniquely designed and made.
  • The 100-odd families, currently, involved in creation of a hereditary crafts make brass objects by an ancient casting technique called cire perdue, a technique wherein a duplicate metal sculpture is cast from an original sculpture.
  • The craftsmen mostly indulge in creation of metal casting products like idols of local deities, bells, dancing figures, jewellery, statues and many other decorative items.
  • Apart from these, the craftsman also makes figures of animals and birds, and jewels.
  • The uniqueness of Adilabad Dokra is that no two pieces are alike in shape as well as in size and hence replicas of the antiques are nearly impossible.
  • Apart from all this, the craftsmen also make figures of animals and birds, santhal jewels such as twinkly saltation bells, and measuring chitties.

 

 

 

What is the objective of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC)?

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Answer:

  • The objective of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) is to provide a framework for supply and demand reduction measures for tobacco control at the national, regional and global levels.

Enrich Your Learning:

WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC):

Why in news?

  • The Union Cabinet has given approval to accede to the Protocol under World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on tobacco control to eliminate illicit trade in tobacco products.
  • It will be applicable to both smoking and chewing or smokeless tobacco (SLT) forms as negotiated and adopted under Article 15 of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC).
  • India is a party to WHO FCTC.

Details:

  • The protocol lays down obligations of the parties.
  • It spells out supply chain control measures that must be adopted by the parties viz. licensing of manufacture of tobacco products and machinery for manufacturing of tobacco products, due diligence to be kept by those engaged in production, tracking and tracing regime, record keeping, security; and measures to be taken by those engaged in e-commerce, manufacturing in free-trade zones and duty free sales.
  • The protocol lists out offences, enforcement measures such as seizures and disposal of seized products.
  • It calls for international cooperation in information sharing, maintaining confidentiality, training, technical assistance and cooperation in scientific and technical and technological matters.

Impact:

  • Elimination of illicit trade in tobacco products through strengthened regulation will help in strengthening comprehensive tobacco control, leading to reduction in tobacco use which in turn, will result in reduction in disease burden and mortality associated with tobacco use.
  • Accession to such treaty will provide actionable alternatives against such prevailing practices that are affecting public health at large.
  • India, being at the forefront of tobacco control, would be able to influence the international organizations including World Custom Organization in controlling such illicit trade.
  • The protocol to eliminate illicit trade in tobacco products is a path breaking initiative in strengthening global action against tobacco and is also a new legal instrument in public health.
  • It is a comprehensive tool to counter and eventually eliminate illicit trade in tobacco products and to strengthen legal dimensions for international health cooperation.

Background:

  • The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) is the first international public health treaty negotiated under the auspices of the WHO.
  • One of the key tobacco supply reduction strategies contained in Article 15 of WHO FCTC envisages elimination of all forms of illicit trade and tobacco products, including smuggling, illicit manufacturing and counterfeiting.
  • Accordingly, the said Protocol was developed and adopted by the Conference of Parties (COP) which is the governing body of FCTC.
  • The protocol is divided into 10 parts and contains 47 Articles.
  • It was adopted by the World Health Assembly on 21 May 2003 and entered into force on 27 February 2005.
  • It has since become one of the most rapidly and widely embraced treaties in United Nations history.
  • The WHO FCTC was developed in response to the globalization of the tobacco epidemic and is an evidence-based treaty that reaffirms the right of all people to the highest standard of health.
  • The Convention represents a milestone for the promotion of public health and provides new legal dimensions for international health cooperation.

 

 

What is the aim of National Mineral Policy 2019?

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Answer:

  • The aim of National Mineral Policy 2019 is to have a more effective, meaningful and implementable policy that brings in further transparency, better regulation and enforcement, balanced social and economic growth as well as sustainable mining practices.

Enrich Your Learning:

National Mineral Policy 2019:

The Union Cabinet chaired by the Prime Minister Narendra Modi has approved National Mineral Policy 2019.

Benefits:

  • The New National Mineral Policy will ensure more effective regulation. It will lead to sustainable mining sector development in future while addressing the issues of project affected persons especially those residing in tribal areas.

Details:

The National Mineral Policy 2019 includes provisions which will give boost to mining sector such as

  • Introduction of Right of First Refusal for RP/PL holders,
  • Encouraging the private sector to take up exploration,
  • Auctioning in virgin areas for composite RP cum PL cum ML on revenue share basis,
  • Encouragement of merger and acquisition of mining entities,
  • Transfer of mining leases and creation of dedicated mineral corridors to boost private sector mining areas.
  • The 2019 Policy proposes to grant status of industry to mining activity to boost financing of mining for private sector and for acquisitions of mineral assets in other countries by private sector.
  • It also mentions that Long term import export policy for mineral will help private sector in better planning and stability in business.
  • The Policy also mentions rationalize reserved areas given to PSUs which have not been used and to put these areas to auction, which will give more opportunity to private sector for participation.
  • The Policy also mentions to make efforts to harmonize taxes, levies & royalty with world benchmarks to help private sector.

Other Key features:

  • Among the changes introduced in the National Mineral Policy, 2019 include the focus on make in India initiative and Gender sensitivity in terms of the vision.
  • In so far as the regulation in Minerals is concerned, E-Governance, IT enabled systems, awareness and Information campaigns have been incorporated.
  • Regarding the role of state in mineral development online public portal with provision for generating triggers at higher level in the event of delay of clearances has been put in place.
  • NMP 2019 aims to attract private investment through incentives while the efforts would be made to maintain a database of mineral resources and tenements under mining tenement systems.
  • The new policy focusses on use coastal waterways and inland shipping for evacuation and transportation of minerals and encourages dedicated mineral corridors to facilitate the transportation of minerals.
  • The utilization of the district mineral fund for equitable development of project affected persons and areas.
  • NMP 2019 proposes a long term export import policy for the mineral sector to provide stability and as an incentive for investing in large scale commercial mining activity.
  • The 2019 Policy also introduces the concept of Inter-Generational Equity that deals with the well-being not only of the present generation but also of the generations to come and also proposes to constitute an inter-ministerial body to institutionalize the mechanism for ensuring sustainable development in mining.
  • It also proposes to constitute an inter-ministerial body to institutionalise the mechanism for ensuring sustainable development in mining.
  • National Mineral Policy 2019 replaces the extant National Mineral Policy 2008 (NMP 2008) which was announced in year 2008.
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