70 Days WAR Plan

Day#44 Static Flash Cards Revision [70 Days WAR Plan]

Sedimentary Rocks; National Waterway-4; “Inheritance tax” system; Private Financing Advisory Network (PFAN); Climate Technology Centre & Network (CTCN); Epilepsy; Functions of blood; Primary forces and secondary forces of ocean currents; ‘Yavanapriya’; ‘Anuvrata’;
By IT's Core Team
May 04, 2019




With respect to philosophy of Jainism what does ‘anuvrata’ mean?

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  • Householders were expected to observe milder form of the practice of these virtues called anuvrata (small vows) in comparison to the monks.

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About Jainism:

  • Vardhaman Mahavira, is regarded as the founder of Jainism. He was born in 599 BC near Vaishali in Bihar.
  • He was twenty-fourth and the last tirthankara of Jainism. Jainism believed that the main goal of human life is the purification of soul and attainment of nirvana, which means freedom from birth and death.
  • This can be achieved not through rituals and sacrifices but by pursuance of triratna and panchamahavrata.
  • Triratna or three jewels are right faith, right knowledge, and right conduct, which can lead to liberation.
  • Right conduct means observance of five great vows: ahimsa (do not commit violence) satya vachana (do not speak a lie), asteya (do not steal), brahmacharya (do not indulge in sexual act) and aprigraha (do not acquire property).
  • Householders were expected to observe milder form of the practice of these virtues called anuvrata (small vows) in comparison to the monks.
  • So, one can notice that while the Brahmanism was a ritual oriented religion this new faith was conduct-oriented.




Spices exported from India to the Roman empire included pepper. By what other name the pepper was known in the ancient texts?

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  • Pepper was also called yavanapriya.

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About Indo-Roman trade and Yavanapriya:

  • The best account of Indo-Roman trade is given in the book called Periplus of the Erythrean Sea which was written in the first century AD by an anonymous author.
  • Main requirements of the Romans were the Indian products such as spices, perfumes, jewels, ivory and fine textiles, i.e. muslin.
  • Spices exported from India to the Roman empire included pepper, also called yavanapriya (perhaps because of its popularity among Romans).
  • The spice trade with the Roman empire was largely based in south India.
  • Romans also imported several precious and semiprecious stones like diamond, carnelian, turquoise, agate, sapphire etc, besides pearls, indigo, sandalwood and steel etc.




Why sedimentary rocks are also known as stratified rocks?

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  • Sedimentary rocks have layered or stratified structure. The thickness of strata varies from few millimeters to several metres. So these rocks are also called stratified rocks.

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About Sedimentary Rocks:

  • These rocks are formed by successive deposition of sediments. These sediments may be the debris eroded from any previously existing rock which may be igneous rock, metamorphic or old sedimentary rock. Sedimentary rocks have layered or stratified structure. The thickness of strata varies from few millimeters to several metres. So these rocks are also called stratified rocks.
  • Generally, these rocks have some type of fossil between their strata. Fossil is the solid part or an impression of a prehistoric animal or plant embedded in strata of sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary rocks are widely spread on the earth surface but to a shallow depth by hydrological system.
  • The individual rock particles are first broken from rocks and then transported by running water, ocean currents, glaciers or even by wind from one place to another. The process by which rock forming material is laid down is called sedimentation or deposition.
  • It may settle in calmer waters of lakes or oceans or at places where the transporting agent has no longer enough energy to carry them farther. These are identified as riverine, lacustrine (formed by lake), glacial or aeolian (formed by wind) sedimentary rocks with reference to their deposition near rivers, lakes, glacier or deserts respectively.
  • The sediments are often loose, unconsolidated, soft rock material, in the beginning like sand and clay, but in course of time they get hardened to a compact material by excessive pressure and cementation to form sedimentary rocks.
  • The deposition of sediments in the beginning is generally horizontal but it may get tilted afterwards due to movements in the earth’s crust. Sandstone, shale, limestone and dolomite are examples of sedimentary rocks.
  • Sediments get sorted by the transporting agents. Sediments of different sizes may get bound by cementing material under suitable conditions. Conglomerate is an example of such a sedimentary rock. This type of formation of consolidated material is termed as mechanically formed sedimentary rock.
  • The consolidation of organic matter derived from plants and animals forms sedimentary rocks of organic origin. It involves pre-existing rocks. Coal and limestone are organic sedimentary rocks. The sediments may also result from chemical reaction. Direct precipitation of minerals from their solution in water may give rise to sedimentary rocks of chemical origin. Gypsum, rock salt and nitre are examples of such sedimentary rocks.
  • Huge folded mountains of the world like Himalayas, Andes etc. are made up of sedimentary rocks. All the alluvial deposits of the world are also due to sedimentary accumulations. All river basins, particularly their plains and deltas, e.g. Indo-Gangetic plain and Ganga-Brahmaputra delta are good examples of sedimentary accumulations.




What do primary forces and secondary forces of ocean currents initiate and influence?

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  • The primary forces of the ocean currents initiate the movement of water, while the secondary forces influence the currents to flow.

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About Ocean Currents:

  • Ocean currents are like river flow in oceans. They represent a regular volume of water in a definite path and direction. Ocean currents are influenced by two types of forces namely:

(i) primary forces that initiate the movement of water;

(ii) secondary forces that influence the currents to flow.

  • The primary forces that influence the currents are:

(i) heating by solar energy;

(ii) wind;

(iii) gravity;

(iv) coriolis force.

  • Heating by solar energy causes the water to expand. That is why, near the equator the ocean water is about 8 cm higher in level than in the middle latitudes. This causes a very slight gradient and water tends to flow down the slope. Wind blowing on the surface of the ocean pushes the water to move.
  • Friction between the wind and the water surface affects the movement of the water body in its course. Gravity tends to pull the water down the pile and create gradient variation.
  • The Coriolis force intervenes and causes the water to move to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere. These large accumulations of water and the flow around them are called Gyres. These produce large circular currents in all the ocean basins.
  • Currents are referred to by their “drift”. Usually, the currents are strongest near the surface and may attain speeds over five knots. At depths, currents are generally slow with speeds less than 0.5 knots. We refer to the speed of a current as its “drift.”
  • Drift is measured in terms of knots. The strength of a current refers to the speed of the current. A fast current is considered strong. A current is usually strongest at the surface and decreases in strength (speed) with depth. Most currents have speeds less than or equal to 5 knots.
  • Differences in water density affect vertical mobility of ocean currents. Water with high salinity is denser than water with low salinity and in the same way cold water is denser than warm water.
  • Denser water tends to sink, while relatively lighter water tends to rise. Cold-water ocean currents occur when the cold water at the poles sinks and slowly moves towards the equator.
  • Warm-water currents travel out from the equator along the surface, flowing towards the poles to replace the sinking cold water.




What is Blood? And what are the functions of blood?

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About blood:

  • Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals.
  • It delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
  • Blood is circulated around the body through blood vessels by the pumping action of the heart.
  • In terms of anatomy and histology, blood is considered a specialized form of connective tissue, given its origin in the bones and the presence of potential molecular fibers in the form of fibrinogen.
  • It has four main components: plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
  • The blood that runs through the veins, arteries, and capillaries is known as whole blood, a mixture of about 55 percent plasma and 45 percent blood cells.
  • The ABO blood group systemwas discovered in the year 1900 by Karl Landsteiner.
  • Jan Jansky is credited with the first classification of blood into the four types (A, B, AB, and O) in 1907, which remains in use today.
  • Blood pH is regulated to stay within the narrow range of 7.35 to 7.45, making it slightly basic.
  • Blood that has a pH below 7.35 is too acidic, whereas blood pH above 7.45 is too basic.
  • About 7 to 8 percent of your total body weight is blood.
  • An average-sized man has about 12 pints of blood in his body, and an average-sized woman has about nine pints.
  • Plasma, which constitutes 55% of blood fluid, is mostly water(92% by volume), and contains dissipated proteins, glucose, mineral ions, hormones, carbon dioxide (plasma being the main medium for excretory product transportation), and blood cells
  • Albuminis the main protein in plasma, and it functions to regulate the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood.
  • The blood cells are mainly red blood cells(also called RBCs or erythrocytes), white blood cells (also called WBCs or leukocytes) and platelets (also called thrombocytes).
  • The most abundant cells in vertebrate blood are red blood cells.
  • These contain Haemoglobin, an iron-containing protein, which facilitates oxygen transport by reversibly binding to this respiratory gas and greatly increasing its solubility in blood.
  • In contrast, carbon dioxide is mostly transported extracellularly as bicarbonate ion transported in plasma.
  • Vertebrate blood is bright red when its haemoglobin is oxygenated and dark red when it is deoxygenated.


  • Supply of oxygen to tissues (bound to haemoglobin, which is carried in red cells)
  • Supply of nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids (dissolved in the blood or bound to plasma proteins (e.g., blood lipids))
  • Removal of waste such as carbon dioxide, nitrogenous waste substances like urea, and lactic acid.
  • Immunological functions, including circulation of white blood cells, and detection of foreign material by antibodies
  • Coagulation, the response to a broken blood vessel, the conversion of blood from a liquid to a semisolid gel to stop bleeding
  • Messenger functions, including the transport of hormones and the signalling of tissue damage
  • Regulation of core body temperature
  • Hydraulic functions
  • Supply of essence of food and water: Plasma supplies the digested food materials and water to various parts of the body.
  • Destruction of germs: The white blood corpuscles help the body to keep fit by destroying the germs if they enter the body.
  • Clotting of blood: If any part of the body is injured or if the blood vessel is ruptured, platelets stop the bleeding by clotting the blood.




What is Epilepsy? And give its cause, effects and treatment?

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About Epilepsy:

  • Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder that causes unprovoked, recurrent epileptic seizures.
  • A seizure is a sudden rush of electrical activity in the brain.
  • Seizures are the only symptom of epilepsy.
  • Epileptic seizures are episodes that can vary from brief and nearly undetectable periods to long periods of vigorous shaking.
  • Epileptic seizures are the result of excessive and abnormal neuronal activity in the cortex of the brain.
  • Epilepsy results when this system is disrupted due to faulty electrical activity.
  • These episodes can result in physical injuries, including occasionally broken bones.
  • Isolated seizures that are provoked by a specific cause such as poisoning are not deemed to represent epilepsy.
  • People with epilepsy in some areas of the world experience varying degrees of social stigma due to their condition.
  • Seizures are controllable with medication in about 70% of cases.
  • If the seizures do not respond to medication, surgery, neurostimulation or dietary changes may then be considered.
  • Not all cases of epilepsy are lifelong, and many people improve to the point that treatment is no longer needed.


  • The diagnosis of epilepsy is typically made based on observation of the seizure onset and the underlying cause.
  • Epilepsy can often be confirmed with an electroencephalogram (EEG), but a normal test does not rule out the condition.
  • EEG looks for abnormal patterns of brain waves and neuroimaging (CT scan or MRI) to look at the structure of the brain are also usually part of the workup.


  • The cause of most cases of epilepsy is unknown.
  • But as per the known facts till now, Epilepsy can have both genetic and acquired
  • Established acquired causes include serious brain trauma, stroke, tumours and problems in the brain as a result of a previous infection.
  • Epilepsies caused by genetic, congenital, or developmental conditions are more common among younger people, while brain tumours and strokes are more likely in older people.
  • Some cases occur as the result of brain injury, stroke, brain tumours, infections of the brain and birth defects, through a process known as epileptogenesis.
  • Epilepsy that occurs as a result of other issues may be preventable.


Epilepsy treatments

  • There is currently no cure for most types of epilepsy, but in many cases, the condition can be managed.
  • Surgery can stop some kinds of seizure from occurring.
  • If epilepsy is diagnosed, the doctor will prescribe seizure-preventing drugs or anti-epileptic drugs.
  • If drugs do not work, the next option could be surgery, a special diet or VNS (vagus nerve stimulation).
  • Patients do not all react in the same way to drugs, but AEDs appear to help control seizures in 70 percent of cases.
  • The doctor’s aim is to prevent further seizures from occurring, while at the same time avoiding side effects so that the patient can lead a normal, active, and productive life.

Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs)

  • The type of seizure the patient is having will decide which drug the doctor may prescribe.

Drugs commonly used to treat epilepsy include:

    • sodium valproate
    • carbamazepine
    • lamotrigine
    • levetiracetam
  • Some drugs may stop seizures in one patient, but not in another.
  • Even when the right drug is found, it can take some time to find the ideal dose.




What is Climate Technology Centre & Network (CTCN)? Also mention its objectives.

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About Climate Technology Centre & Network (CTCN):

  • The CTCN is the operational arm of the UNFCCC Technology Mechanism, hosted by the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and the UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO).
  • CTCN promotes the accelerated transfer of environmentally sound technologies for low carbon and climate resilient development at the request of developing countries.
  • It provides technology solutions, capacity building and advice on policy, legal and regulatory frameworks tailored to the needs of individual countries by harnessing the expertise of a global network of technology companies and institutions.
  • It has expertise in climate adaptation and mitigation.
  • It does not finance carbon credit per se.
  • The CTCN consists of two parts:
    • a centre—a coordinating entity located in UN City Copenhagen and
    • a worldwide network of organizations that delivers CTCN services—both virtually and actually.
  • The technical assistance on climate technologies is provided to:
    • to developing country academic, public, NGO, or private sector entities at the request of their NDEs
    • free of charge (up to a value of 250,000 USD)
    • at local, national or regional levels
    • for a broad range of adaptation and mitigation technologies
    • at all stages of the technology cycle: from identification of climate technology needs; policy assessment; selection and piloting of technological solutions; to assistance that supports technology customization and widespread deployment.


  • Address barriers that hinder the development and transfer of climate technologies
  • Reduced greenhouse gas emissions and climate vulnerability
  • Improved local innovation capacities
  • Increased investments in climate technology projects.
  • Providing technical assistance at the request of developing countries to accelerate the transfer of climate technologies;
  • Creating access to information and knowledge on climate technologies;
  • Fostering collaboration among climate technology stakeholders via the Centre’s network of regional and sectoral experts from academia, the private sector, and public and research institutions.




What is Private Financing Advisory Network (PFAN)?

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About Private Financing Advisory Network (PFAN):

  • The Private Financing Advisory Network (PFAN) is a multilateral public private partnership initiated by the Climate Technology Initiative and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
  • It is being hosted by UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP).
  • It is assisting with the development and deployment of low carbon generation capacity in developing countries.
  • PFAN there by contributes;
    • to achieve the goals of the 2016 UNFCCC Paris Agreement,
    • to achieve the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals, in particular Goal 7 (energy), Goal 9 (industry), Goal 13 (climate action), and Goal 17 (partnership).
  • The main hurdle to the large-scale deployment of low carbon, climate resilient technologies in developing countries and emerging economies is the access to finance.
  • PFAN mobilizes private sector’s expertise in financing climate-friendly projects and technologies to screen business plans and select projects that are economically viable, as well as environmentally and socially beneficial.
  • PFAN provides guidance to selected entrepreneurs and businesses, in areas such as;
    • economic feasibility,
    • project structure,
    • investment and financing,
    • preparation of the business plan, and
    • introductions to investors.
  • PFAN analyses promising clean energy projects at an early stage and provides mentoring for development of a business plan, investment pitch, and growth strategy, significantly enhancing the prospect of financial closure.
  • Around 360 clean energy projects have been inducted into the PFAN Project Development Pipeline.
  • These projects employ technologies including biogas, biomass, waste to energy, clean transport, wind, solar, small hydro and energy efficiency solutions.
  • In May 2017, PFAN was relaunched under a new hosting arrangement with UNIDO and REEEP.
  • This will scale up its operations by a factor of two to five by 2020.


  • To identify and nurture promising, innovative clean and renewable energy projects,
  • Bridging the gap between investors, clean energy entrepreneurs and project developers.

PFAN provides services to:

  • Unlock frontier markets for climate technologies
  • Create financial service ecosystems
  • Capacitate businesses to develop bankable projects
  • Mitigate investor risk with increased project quality and knowledge
  • Facilitate project-to-finance match-making
  • Aggregate pipeline of projects for large-scale investment
  • Collect and promote best practices; replicate promising business models




What is “Inheritance tax” system?

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About Inheritance tax:

  • An inheritance or estate tax is a tax paid by a person who inherits money or property or a levy on the estate (money and property) of a person who has died.

Enrich Your Learning:

  • International tax law distinguishes between an estate tax and an inheritance tax.
    • An estate tax is assessed on the assets of the deceased, while an inheritance tax is assessed on the legacies received by the estate’s beneficiaries.
  • Inheritance tax is known in some countries as a “death duty” and is occasionally called “the last twist of the taxman’s knife.”
  • It was levied against a particular asset during the time of its inheritance. For example, the inheritance of ancestral land.
  • The tax rate on inheritances depends on the value of the property received by the heir or beneficiary and his relationship to the decedent.
  • Inheritance tax is no longer levied in India and was abolished during the time of the Rajiv Gandhi Government in 1985.
  • Though its intentions were noble, the then finance minister, V.P. Singh was of the opinion that it had failed to bring about an equilibrium in society and reduce the wealth gap.
  • Countries like USA, UK, Netherlands, Spain and Belgium all follow inheritance tax system.
  • China had gone to the extent of introducing rules for inheritance tax back in 2002 but was met with heavy opposition to the idea and were not able to implement it.



Which states does National Waterway-4 cover? And give some details on NW-4.

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Answer & Enrich Your Learning:

States involved in NW-4 project:

  • It connects the Indian states of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and the union territory of Puducherry.
  • The NW-4 runs along the Coromandal Coast through Kakinada, Eluru, CommanurBuckingham Canals and also through part of Krishna and Godavari rivers in South India.

About National Waterway-4:

  • National Waterway 4 (NW-4) is 1,095 kilometres (680 mi) long waterway in India currently under development.
  • Kakinada-Puducherry canal stretch along with Godavari River stretch between (Bhadrachalam and Rajhamundry) and Krishna River stretch between (Wazirabad and Vijaywada) is termed as NW-4.
  • It was declared a National Waterway on 24 November 2008 under the Provisions of National Waterways Bill, 2006.
  • It is developed by the Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI).
  • The National Waterways Act, 2016 has extended the length of NW-4 from 1078 Km to 2890 Km by connecting Krishna and Godavari River.
  • The Project would be undertaken in 3 phases with first phase beginning in October 2017 and to be completed by June, 2019.
  • A network of irrigation cum navigation canal linking Chennai and Ennore Ports in Tamil Nadu with the Kakinada Port, and Machlipatnam Ports in Andhra Pradesh runs through a long distance.
  • Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI) is the owner and Central Inland Water Transport Corporation (CIWTC) is the operator of NW-4.
  • Marina beach, Adyar, Muthukadu, Kalpakkam (Ediyuru), Palar, Paramankani Kuppam and Markanam are the sea opening in this NW-4 project.


  • It will be used mainly for transportation of cement and construction material for new capital city Amaravati.
  • The project will provide efficient logistics solution to boost economic growth of region.
  • ‎It will also help in controlling traffic congestion and pollution.
  • It will help in saving cost of transportation.
  • Moreover, Ro-Ro services on the route will provide intra-city transportation of passengers and vehicles. It will improve connectivity to tourist and pilgrimage places in and around Vijayawada and Amaravati.
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