CA-FC-Day-45-2020-iastoppers
Flash Cards

Day#45 Current Affairs Flash Cards [PRELIMS 2020]

‘Poverty and Un-British Rule in India’; Components of Foreign exchange reserves of India; UNESCO’s World Network of Biosphere Reserves; Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space (PAROS) Treaty; Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve (KBR) of Sikkim; ‘Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism’ (CCIT); ‘Drain Theory’;
By IASToppers
September 14, 2019

 

 

Which Indian nationalist explained the ‘Drain Theory’ in his ‘Poverty and Un-British Rule in India’?

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Answer:

The ‘Drain Theory’ was explained by ‘Dadabhai Naoroji’ in his book ‘Poverty and Un-British Rule in India’.

Enrich Your Learning:

‘Dadabhai Naoroji’

  • Dadabhai Naoroji was among the first leaders who stirred national consciousness in the country. He is well known as the “Grand Old Man of India”.
  • He was born in 1825 at Navsari, in present-day Gujarat, Naoroji was a prolific scholar with varied interests.
  • He was a professor of Gujarati, mathematics, and natural philosophy, and also worked as a businessman.
  • His intellectual contribution was to expound the ‘Drain Theory’ in his 1901 book ‘Poverty and Un-British Rule in India’.
  • He was closely involved with the Indian National Congress in its early phase, and served as the first Indian member of the British parliament.
  • Dadabhai helped found the London Indian Society and the East India Association in 1865 and 1866 respectively.
  • He became a vice-president of the Bombay Presidency Association in 1885. He was Congress president thrice, in 1886, 1893, and 1906.
  • A moderate himself, Naoroji acted as a liaison between nationalist Indians and British parliamentarians.

 

 

Which country proposed ‘Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism’ (CCIT)?

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Answer:

‘Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism’ (CCIT) was proposed by India in 1996.

Enrich Your Learning:

‘Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism’ (CCIT)

  • Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism is an intergovernmental convention to enhance prosecution and extradition of terrorists.
  • The CCIT provides a legal framework which makes it binding on all signatories to deny funds and safe havens to terrorist groups.
  • It was proposed first by India in 1996, the ratification of the Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism is in a limbo mainly due to opposition from three main blocs – the US, the Organization of Islamic Countries (OIC), and the Latin American countries.
  • Despite of India’s efforts to push a global intergovernmental convention to tackle terrorism, the conclusion and ratification of the CCIT remains deadlocked.

Proposals under ‘Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism’ (CCIT):

  • To have a universal definition of terrorism that all 193-members of the UNGA will adopt into their own criminal law.
  • To ban all terror groups and shut down terror camps.
  • To prosecute all terrorists under special laws.
  • To make cross-border terrorism an extraditable offence

 

 

PAROS Treaty stands for what?

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Answer:

PAROS stands for Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space.

Enrich Your Learning:

PAROS Treaty

  • Efforts in the United Nations to maintain outer space for peaceful purposes began in 1957.
  • It was proposed in the Conference on Disarmament to prevent an arms race in space in 1983.
  • The UN General Assembly established the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) in 1959.
  • This committee identified areas for:
    • International cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space,
    • Devised programs to be undertaken by the United Nations,
    • Encouraged research on matters relating to outer space, and
    • Studied legal problems arising from the exploration of outer space.
  • The treaty would prevent any nation from gaining a military advantage in outer space.
  • It is a critical issue on the UN disarmament and arms control agenda.
  • The arms race in space will destabilize regional and global strategic environment.
  • The treaty is currently being discussed in the Conference on Disarmament (CD).
  • USA, India, and Israel vetoed it in 2005 to keep its advantageous position in the missile defence systems.

Background:

  • The Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (“Outer Space Treaty”) entered into force in 1967.
  • Since the early 1980s, the Conference on Disarmament (CD) has considered further proposals under the agenda item “prevention of an arms race in outer space” which is aimed at inter alia, preventing the placement of weapons in outer space and prohibiting the use of anti-satellite weapons.
  • In 2008, draft text of such a treaty to the CD was introduced by Governments of China and the Russian Federation. They presented a revised draft treaty in 2014.
  • In 2017, the General Assembly decided to establish a Group of Governmental Experts to consider and make recommendations on substantial elements of an international legally binding instrument on the prevention of an arms race in outer space.
  • The discussions on the matter continues for more than a decade and unable to reach consensus on a substantive report.

 

 

Recently, the highest biosphere reserve in the India has been included in the UNESCO’s World Network of Biosphere Reserve (WHBR). Which biosphere reserve is that?

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Answer:

The Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve (KBR) of Sikkim, the highest biosphere reserve in the India has been included in the UNESCO’s World Network of Biosphere Reserve (WHBR) in July 2018.

Enrich Your Learning:

UNESCO’s World Network of Biosphere Reserves

  • The UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR) covers internationally designated protected areas, each known as biosphere reserves, that are meant to demonstrate a balanced relationship between people and nature.
  • It is composed of 686 biosphere reserves in 122 countries, including 20 transboundary sites.
  • It consists of a dynamic and interactive network of sites of excellence.
  • It fosters integration of people and nature for sustainable development through participatory dialogue; knowledge sharing; poverty reduction and human well-being improvements.

News:

  • The Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve (KBR) of Sikkim, the highest biosphere reserve in the country has been included in the UNESCO’s World Network of Biosphere Reserve (WHBR).
  • KBR includes the third highest mountain peak in the world, Kanchenjunga (8,586 m).
  • It has become the 11th Biosphere Reserve from India that has been included in the UNESCO designated World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR).
  • The decision was taken in 30th Session held at Palembang, Indonesia in July 2018.

 

 

 

Enlist the components of Foreign exchange reserves of India.

Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Answer:

The Foreign exchange reserves of India consists of below four categories:

  1. Foreign Currency Assets
  2. Gold
  3. Special Drawing Rights (SDRs)
  4. Reserve Tranche Position

Enrich Your Learning:

Components of Foreign exchange reserves of India

Foreign currency assets (FCAs):

  • This is the largest component of the Forex Reserves consisting of US dollar and other major non-US global currencies.
  • Additionally, it also comprises investments in US Treasury bonds, bonds of other selected governments, deposits with foreign central and commercial banks.

Gold:

  • Gold reserve is the gold held by the Reserve Bank of India with the intention to serve as a guarantee to redeem promises to pay depositors, note holders (e.g. paper money), or trading peers, or to secure a currency.

Special Drawing Rights (SDRs):

  • The SDR was created by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) as an international reserve asset in the year 1969 to supplement its member countries’ official reserves.
  • It is essentially an artificial currency used by the IMF and is basket of national currencies.

Reserve Tranche Position:

  • Each member of the IMF is assigned a quota, part of which is payable in SDRs or specified usable currencies (“reserve assets”), and part in the member’s own currency.
  • The difference between a member’s quota and the IMF’s holdings of its currency is a country’s Reserve Tranche Position (RTP).
  • A part of the quota can be withdrawn from IMF any time without any interest during critical situations of a country such a BOP crisis. This part of money which can be withdrawn without any interest is called RTP.
Topics
Daily Current Flash Cards 2020 Prelims 2020
Tags

Facebook

My Favourite Articles

  • Your favorites will be here.

Calendar Archive

October 2019
M T W T F S S
« Sep    
 123456
78910111213
14151617181920
21222324252627
28293031