Flash Cards

Day#48 Current Affairs Flash Cards [PRELIMS 2020]

‘Tulbul navigation project’; Lake Urmia; Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Bill, 2019; Bal Gangadhar Tilak; ‘Berne and Paris-plus agreement’;
By IASToppers
September 18, 2019



‘Tulbul navigation project’ is associated with which water body in India?

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‘Tulbul navigation project’ is a proposed barrage building project on River Jhelum at the mouth of Wullar Lake.

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‘Tulbul navigation project’

  • India proposed to build the barrage in 1984 on the River Jhelum, at the mouth of Wullar Lake, India’s largest fresh water lake, near Sopore town in Kashmir Valley.
  • India calls the project Tulbul Navigation Project while for Pakistan, it is Wullar Barrage.
  • India sees the project as the barrage would make the river navigable in summer, but Pakistan believes it could be used by India to control the flow of the river and can be used as a geo-strategic weapon.
  • According to the original Indian plan, the barrage was expected to be of 439-feet long and 40-feet wide, and would have a maximum storage capacity of 0.30 million acres feet of water.
  • The only objective of the project is to increase the level of water in the river during lean season.
  • Pakistan claimed that the project is a violation of 1960 Indus Waters Treaty.

Significance of the project:

  • The project would stabilise the water level between Khanabal in south Kashmir and Khadanyar in north Kashmir.
  • The energy sector will be benefited because of a better discharge during lean season will add to the unutilised capacities of the downstream project.
  • The project envisages making of 10-parallel waterways — a lock way, two overflow ways, six non-overflow ways and a fish ladder.
  • A constant flow during lean season would also help Pakistan in running its Mangla-dam-fed Hydel Power Project in Muzaffarabad.



Which agreement is known for adding the remaining provisions to the ‘Berne and Paris-plus agreement’?

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TRIPS Agreement introduced additional obligations in areas which were not addressed in Paris Convention on industrial property and the Berne Convention on copyright.

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‘Berne and Paris-plus agreement’

  • WTO member countries must comply with the substantive obligations of the main conventions of WIPO — the Paris Convention on industrial property and the Berne Convention on copyright as stated by the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement.
  • All the substantive provisions of these conventions are incorporated by reference. They therefore become obligations for WTO member countries under the TRIPS Agreement.
  • The TRIPS Agreement also introduces additional obligations in areas which were not addressed in these conventions. The TRIPS Agreement is therefore sometimes described as a “Berne and Paris-plus” Agreement.
  • The TRIPS Agreement is a minimum standards agreement, which allows Members to provide more extensive protection of intellectual property.
  • Members are left free to determine the appropriate method of implementing the provisions of the Agreement within their own legal system and practice.
  • It came into effect on 1 January 1995.
  • TRIPS Agreement also makes use of the provisions of some other international agreements on intellectual property rights:
    • Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits (IPIC Treaty)
    • International Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organizations (Rome Convention)
  • The Agreement lays down certain general principles applicable to all IPR enforcement The TRIPS Agreement gives all WTO Members transitional periods so that they can meet their obligations under it.



Who concluded the Lucknow Pact with Mohammed Ali Jinnah for Hindu-Muslim unity in the nationalist struggle?

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Lucknow Pact was concluded by Bal Gangadhar Tilak with Mohammed Ali Jinnah which provided for Hindu-Muslim unity in the nationalist struggle in 1916.

Enrich Your Learning:

Bal Gangadhar Tilak

  • Bal Gangadhar Tilak was an Indian social reformer and freedom activist. He was one of the prime architects of modern India and probably the strongest advocates of Swaraj or Self Rule for India.
  • Keshav Gangadhar Tilak was born on July 22, 1856 in a middle class Chitpavan Brahmin family in Ratnagiri, Maharashtra.
  • Bal Gangadhar Tilak, was popularly known as Lokmanya Tilak. He was called ‘The Father of the Indian Unrest’ by the British people who ruled India till 1947.
  • He is known for his famous quote “Self Rule is our birthright, and We shall have it!”.
  • Bal Gangadhar Tilak joined the Indian National Congress Party in the year 1890.
  • Before independence, Bal Gangadhar Tilak started Kesari- a Marathi language weekly and Mahratta- an English weekly.
  • Bal Gangadhar Tilak had popular leaders such as Bipin Chandra Pal and Lala Lajpat Rai as his political companions. The three were popularly known as ‘Lal-Bal-Pal triumvirate.’
  • When he was imprisoned during the freedom struggle, he wrote a book titled ‘Gita-Rahasya’.
  • Tilak proposed Grand celebrations on ‘Ganesh Chaturthi’ and ‘Shivaji Jayanti’. He envisioned these celebrations inciting a sense of unity and inspiring nationalist sentiment among Indians. He also advocated the cause of women education and women empowerment.
  • Tilak founded the Indian Home Rule League and served as its president.



The recent Arbitration (Amendment) Bill, 2019 seeks to establish which of the independent body for dispute redressal mechanism?

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Answer: Arbitration Council of India

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Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Act

  • The Act contains provisions to deal with domestic and international arbitration and defines the law for conducting conciliation proceedings.
  • The Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Bill, 2019 was introduced in Rajya Sabha by the Minister for Law and Justice which seeks to amend the above act.

Key Features of the Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Bill, 2019

  • It seeks to establish an independent body called the Arbitration Council of India (ACI) for the promotion of arbitration, mediation, conciliation and other alternative dispute redressal mechanisms.
  • The Arbitration Council of India will consist of a Chairperson who is either:

(i) a Judge of the Supreme Court; or

(ii) a Judge of a High Court; or

(iii) Chief Justice of a High Court; or

(iv) an eminent person with expert knowledge in the conduct of the arbitration.

  • Under the Bill, the Supreme Court and High Courts may now designate arbitral institutions.
  • For international commercial arbitration, the appointments will be made by the institution designated by the Supreme Court and for domestic arbitration, appointments will be made by the institution designated by the concerned High Court.
  • In case there are no arbitral institutions available, the Chief Justice of the concerned High Court may maintain a panel of arbitrators to perform the functions of the arbitral institutions. 
  • The Bill seeks to remove the time restriction of 12 months for arbitration proceedings for international commercial arbitrations.
  • The Bill requires that the written claim and the defence to the claim in an arbitration proceeding should be completed within six months of the appointment of the arbitrators.
  • The Bill provides that all details of arbitration proceedings will be kept confidential except for the details of the arbitral award in certain circumstances.



The lake ‘Urmia’ is located in which country which has been facing the continuous threat of drying in recent years?

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Answer: It is located in IRAN.

Enrich Your Learning:

Lake Urmia

  • This endorheic lake is located in Azerbaijan region of Iran and west of the southern portion of the Caspian Sea.
  • It is the largest lake in the Middle East and sixth – largest saltwater lake on Earth.
  • It is known for the extreme salinity like the Dead Sea.
  • It is surrounded by mountains in the north and west, by plateaus in the south and by volcanic cones in the east.
  • There is a cluster of 50 tiny islands in its southern portion.
  • The lake’s water has no outlet so the water is highly saline. The river Talkheh, Zarineh and Simineh end into this lake.
  • It is one-fourth as salty as the Dead Sea.
  • The main salts found in its water are chlorine, sodium and sulphates.
  • The organic life in lake is limited like Copious algae provide food for brine shrimp and is the reason for bad smell along the shores of the lake.
  • The lake is the breeding ground for birds like flamingo, Sheldrake and pelican.
  • It is protected as a national parkby the Iranian Department of Environment.
  • The lake has shrunk to 10% of its former size due to damming of the rivers that flow into it, and the pumping of groundwater from the surroundingLake Urmia
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